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  • AS/NZS 3947.1:1998

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear General rules

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-04-1998

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 3947.1:1998 LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - GENERAL RULES
    4 - PREFACE
    8 - CONTENTS
    11 - 1 General
    11 - 1.1 Scope and object
    12 - 1.2 Normative references
    14 - 2 Definitions
    18 - 2.1 General terms
    18 - 2.1.1 switchgear and controlgear:
    18 - 2.1.2 switchgear:
    18 - 2.1.3 controlgear:
    19 - 2.1.4 over-current:
    19 - 2.1.5 short circuit:
    19 - 2.1.6 short-circuit current:
    19 - 2.1.7 overload:
    19 - 2.1.8 overload current:
    19 - 2.1.9 ambient air temperature:
    19 - 2.1.10 conductive part:
    19 - 2.1.11 exposed conductive part:
    19 - 2.1.12 extraneous conductive part:
    19 - 2.1.13 live part:
    19 - 2.1.14 protective conductor (symbol PE):
    19 - 2.1.15 neutral conductor (symbol N):
    20 - 2.1.16 enclosure:
    20 - 2.1.17 integral enclosure:
    20 - 2.1.18 utilization category
    20 - 2.1.19 isolation (isolating function):
    20 - 2.1.20 electric shock:
    20 - 2.2 Switching devices
    20 - 2.2.1 switching device:
    20 - 2.2.2 mechanical switching device:
    20 - 2.2.3 semiconductor switching device:
    20 - 2.2.4 fuse:
    20 - 2.2.5 fuse-link:
    20 - 2.2.6 fuse-element:
    20 - 2.2.7 fuse-combination unit:
    21 - 2.2.8 disconnector:
    21 - 2.2.9 switch
    21 - 2.2.10 switch-disconnector:
    21 - 2.2.11 circuit-breaker:
    21 - 2.2.12 contactor
    21 - 2.2.13 semiconductor contactor
    21 - 2.2.14 contactor relay:
    21 - 2.2.15 starter:
    21 - 2.2.16 control circuit device:
    21 - 2.2.17 control switch
    21 - 2.2.18 pilot switch:
    22 - 2.2.19 push-button:
    22 - 2.2.20 terminal block:
    22 - 2.2.21 short-circuit protective device (SCPD):
    22 - 2.2.22 surge arrester:
    22 - 2.3 Parts of switching devices
    22 - 2.3.1 pole of a switching device:
    22 - 2.3.2 main circuit
    22 - 2.3.3 control circuit
    22 - 2.3.4 auxiliary circuit
    22 - 2.3.5 contact
    22 - 2.3.6 contact piece:
    22 - 2.3.7 main contact:
    22 - 2.3.8 arcing contact:
    23 - 2.3.9 control contact:
    23 - 2.3.10 auxiliary contact:
    23 - 2.3.11 auxiliary switch
    23 - 2.3.12 “a” contact - make contact:
    23 - 2.3.13 “b” contact - break contact:
    23 - 2.3.14 relay (electrical):
    23 - 2.3.15 release
    23 - 2.3.16 actuating system
    23 - 2.3.17 actuator:
    23 - 2.3.18 position indicating device:
    23 - 2.3.19 indicator light:
    23 - 2.3.20 anti-pumping device:
    23 - 2.3.21 interlocking device:
    23 - 2.3.22 terminal:
    24 - 2.3.23 screw-type terminal:
    24 - 2.3.24 screwless-type terminal:
    24 - 2.3.25 clamping unit:
    24 - 2.3.26 unprepared conductor:
    24 - 2.3.27 prepared conductor:
    24 - 2.4 Operation of switching devices
    24 - 2.4.1 operation
    24 - 2.4.2 operating cycle
    24 - 2.4.3 operating sequence
    24 - 2.4.4 manual control:
    24 - 2.4.5 automatic control:
    24 - 2.4.6 local control:
    24 - 2.4.7 remote control:
    24 - 2.4.8 closing operation
    25 - 2.4.9 opening operation
    25 - 2.4.10 positive opening operation
    25 - 2.4.11 positively driven operation:
    25 - 2.4.12 dependent manual operation
    25 - 2.4.13 dependent power operation
    25 - 2.4.14 stored energy operation
    25 - 2.4.15 independent manual operation
    25 - 2.4.16 independent power operation
    25 - 2.4.17 actuating force (moment):
    25 - 2.4.18 restoring force (moment):
    25 - 2.4.19 travel
    26 - 2.4.20 closed position
    26 - 2.4.21 open position
    26 - 2.4.22 tripping
    26 - 2.4.23 trip-free mechanical switching device:
    26 - 2.4.24 instantaneous relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.25 over-current relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.26 definite time-delay over-current relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.27 inverse time-delay over-current relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.28 direct over-current relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.29 indirect over-current relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.30 overload relay or release:
    26 - 2.4.31 thermal overload relay or release:
    27 - 2.4.32 magnetic overload relay or release:
    27 - 2.4.33 shunt release:
    27 - 2.4.34 under-voltage relay or release:
    27 - 2.4.35 reverse current relay or release
    27 - 2.4.36 operating current
    27 - 2.4.37 current-setting
    27 - 2.4.38 current setting range
    27 - 2.5 Characteristic quantities
    27 - 2.5.1 nominal value:
    27 - 2.5.2 limiting value:
    27 - 2.5.3 rated value:
    27 - 2.5.4 rating:
    27 - 2.5.5 prospective current
    28 - 2.5.6 prospective peak current:
    28 - 2.5.7 prospective symmetrical current (of an a.c. circuit):
    28 - 2.5.8 maximum prospective peak current (of an a.c. circuit):
    28 - 2.5.9 prospective making current (for a pole of a switching device):
    28 - 2.5.10 prospective breaking current (for a pole of a switching device or a fuse):
    28 - 2.5.11 breaking current (of a switching device or a fuse):
    28 - 2.5.12 breaking capacity (of a switching device or a fuse):
    28 - 2.5.13 making capacity (of a switching device):
    29 - 2.5.14 short-circuit breaking capacity:
    29 - 2.5.15 short-circuit making capacity:
    29 - 2.5.16 critical load current:
    29 - 2.5.17 critical short-circuit current:
    29 - 2.5.18 Joule integral
    29 - 2.5.19 cut-off current - let-through current:
    29 - 2.5.20 time-current characteristic:
    29 - 2.5.21 cut-off (current) characteristic - let-through (current) characteristic:
    29 - 2.5.22 over-current protective co-ordination of over-current protective devices:
    29 - 2.5.23 over-current discrimination:
    30 - 2.5.24 back-up protection:
    30 - 2.5.25 take-over current:
    30 - 2.5.26 short-time delay:
    30 - 2.5.27 short-time withstand current:
    30 - 2.5.28 peak withstand current:
    30 - 2.5.29 conditional short-circuit current (of a circuit or a switching device):
    30 - 2.5.30 conventional non-tripping current (of an over-current relay or release):
    30 - 2.5.31 conventional tripping current (of an over-current relay or release):
    30 - 2.5.32 applied voltage (for a switching device):
    30 - 2.5.33 recovery voltage:
    31 - 2.5.34 transient recovery voltage (abbreviation TRV):
    31 - 2.5.35 power-frequency recovery voltage:
    31 - 2.5.36 d.c. steady-state recovery voltage:
    31 - 2.5.37 prospective transient recovery voltage (of a circuit):
    31 - 2.5.38 peak arc voltage (of a mechanical switching device):
    31 - 2.5.39 opening time (of a mechanical switching device):
    31 - 2.5.40 arcing time (of a pole or a fuse):
    31 - 2.5.41 arcing time (of a multipole switching device):
    31 - 2.5.42 break time:
    31 - 2.5.43 make time:
    31 - 2.5.44 closing time:
    31 - 2.5.45 make-break time:
    32 - 2.5.46 clearance:
    32 - 2.5.47 clearance between poles:
    32 - 2.5.48 clearance to earth:
    32 - 2.5.49 clearance between open contacts (gap):
    32 - 2.5.50 isolating distance (of a pole of a mechanical switching device):
    32 - 2.5.51 creepage distance:
    32 - 2.5.52 working voltage:
    32 - 2.5.53 temporary overvoltage:
    32 - 2.5.54 transient overvoltages:
    32 - 2.5.55 impulse withstand voltage:
    32 - 2.5.56 power-frequency withstand voltage:
    33 - 2.5.57 pollution:
    33 - 2.5.58 pollution degree (of environmental conditions):
    33 - 2.5.59 micro-environment (of a clearance or creepage distance):
    33 - 2.5.60 overvoltage category (of a circuit or within an electrical system):
    33 - 2.5.61 co-ordination of insulation:
    33 - 2.5.62 homogeneous (uniform) field:
    33 - 2.5.63 inhomogeneous (non-uniform) field:
    33 - 2.5.64 tracking:
    33 - 2.5.65 comparative tracking index (CTI):
    34 - 2.6 Tests
    34 - 2.6.1 type test:
    34 - 2.6.2 routine test:
    34 - 2.6.3 sampling test:
    34 - 2.6.4 special test:
    34 - 3 Classification
    35 - 4 Characteristics
    36 - 4.1 General
    36 - 4.2 Type of equipment
    36 - 4.3 Rated and limiting values for the main circuit
    36 - 4.3.1 Rated voltages
    37 - 4.3.2 Currents
    38 - 4.3.3 Rated frequency
    39 - 4.3.4 Rated duties
    40 - 4.3.5 Normal load and overload characteristics
    41 - 4.3.6 Short-circuit characteristics
    42 - 4.4 Utilization category
    42 - 4.5 Control circuits
    42 - 4.5.1 Electrical control circuits
    43 - 4.5.2 Air-supply control circuits (pneumatic or electro-pneumatic)
    43 - 4.6 Auxiliary circuits
    43 - 4.7 Relays and releases
    44 - 4.8 Co-ordination with short-circuit protective devices (SCPD)
    44 - 4.9 Switching overvoltages
    44 - 5 Product information
    44 - 5.1 Nature of information
    45 - 5.2 Marking
    45 - 5.3 Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance
    46 - 6 Normal service, mounting and transport conditions
    46 - 6.1 Normal service conditions
    46 - 6.1.1 Ambient air temperature
    46 - 6.1.2 Altitude
    46 - 6.1.3 Atmospheric conditions
    47 - 6.1.4 Shock and vibration
    48 - 6.2 Conditions during transport and storage
    48 - 6.3 Mounting
    48 - 7 Constructional and performance requirements
    48 - 7.1 Constructional requirements
    48 - 7.1.1 Materials
    49 - 7.1.2 Current-carrying parts and their connections
    49 - 7.1.3 Clearances and creepage distances
    49 - 7.1.4 Actuator
    50 - 7.1.5 Indication of the contact position
    50 - 7.1.6 Additional constructional requirements for equipment suitable for isolation
    51 - 7.1.7 Terminals
    52 - 7.1.8 Additional requirements for equipment provided with a neutral pole
    52 - 7.1.9 Provisions for protective earthing
    53 - 7.1.10 Enclosures for equipment
    54 - 7.1.11 Degrees of protection of enclosed equipment
    54 - 7.1.12 Conduit pull-out, torque and bending with metallic conduits
    54 - 7.2 Performance requirements
    54 - 7.2.1 Operating conditions
    56 - 7.2.2 Temperature-rise
    57 - 7.2.3 Dielectric properties
    59 - 7.2.4 Ability to make, carry and break currents under no-load, normal load and overload conditions
    60 - 7.2.5 Ability to make, carry and break short-circuit currents
    61 - 7.2.6 Switching overvoltages
    61 - 7.2.7 Leakage currents of equipment suitable for isolation
    61 - 7.3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
    61 - 7.3.1 General
    62 - 7.3.2 Immunity
    62 - 7.3.3 Emission
    63 - 8 Tests
    63 - 8.1 Kinds of test
    63 - 8.1.1 General
    63 - 8.1.2 Type tests
    64 - 8.1.3 Routine tests
    64 - 8.1.4 Sampling tests
    64 - 8.2 Compliance with constructional requirements
    64 - 8.2.1 Materials
    65 - 8.2.2 Equipment
    65 - 8.2.3 Enclosures for equipment
    65 - 8.2.4 Mechanical properties of terminals
    68 - 8.2.5 Verification of the effectiveness of indication of the main contact position of equipment suitable for isolation
    69 - 8.2.6 Test for verification of clamping units transmitting contact pressure through insulating materials other than ceramics
    70 - 8.2.7 Conduit pull-out test, torque test and bending test with metallic conduits
    71 - 8.3 Performance
    71 - 8.3.1 Test sequences
    71 - 8.3.2 General test conditions
    74 - 8.3.3 Performance under no-load, normal load and overload conditions
    83 - 8.3.4 Performance under short-circuit conditions
    89 - 8.4 Tests for EMC
    89 - 8.4.1 Immunity
    89 - 8.4.2 Emission
    118 - Annex A - Examples of utilization categories for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear
    119 - Annex B - Suitability of the equipment when conditions for operation in service differ from the normal conditions
    119 - B.1 Examples of conditions differing from normal
    119 - B.2 Connections with other apparatus
    119 - B.3 Auxiliary contacts
    119 - B.4 Special applications
    120 - Annex C - Degrees of protection of enclosed equipment
    120 - Introduction
    120 - C.1 Scope
    120 - C.2 Object
    120 - C.3 Definitions
    120 - C.4 Designation
    120 - C.5 Degrees of protection against access to hazardous parts and against ingress of solid foreign objects indicated by the first
    121 - C.6 Degrees of protection against ingress of water indicated by the second characteristic numeral
    121 - C.7 Degrees of protection against access to hazardous parts indicated by the additional letter
    121 - C.8 Supplementary letters
    121 - C.9 Examples of designations with IP Code
    121 - C.10 Marking
    121 - C.11 General requirements for tests
    122 - C.12 Tests for protection against access to hazardous parts indicated by the first characteristic numeral
    122 - C.13 Tests for protection against ingress of solid foreign objects indicated by the first characteristic numeral
    122 - C.14 Tests for protection against water indicated by second characteristic numeral
    123 - C.15 Tests for protection against access to hazardous parts indicated by additional letter
    123 - C.16 Summary of responsibilities of relevant technical committees
    127 - Annex D - Examples of terminals.
    133 - Annex E - Description of a method for adjusting the load circuit
    135 - Annex F - Determination of short-circuit power-factor or time-constant
    135 - F.1 Determination of short-circuit power-factor
    136 - F.2 Determination of short-circuit time-constant (oscillographic method)
    137 - Annex G - Measurement of creepage distances and clearances
    137 - G.1 Basic principles
    137 - G.2 Use of ribs
    142 - Annex H - Correlation between the nominal voltage of the supply system and the rated impulse withstand voltage of equipment
    145 - Annex J - Items subject to agreement between manufacturer and user
    146 - Annex K - Power-frequency dielectric tests
    146 - K.1 General
    146 - K.2 Power-frequency test as type test for verification of dielectric properties
    149 - K.3 Power-frequency tests for verification of dielectric withstand after switching test with current or short-circuit test
    150 - K.4 Verification of dielectric withstand after humidity treatment
    150 - K.5 Power-frequency tests for verification of dielectric withstand during routine tests
    151 - Annex L - Terminal marking and distinctive number
    151 - L.1 General
    151 - L.2 Terminal marking of impedances (alphanumerical)
    153 - L.3 Terminal marking of contact elements for switching devices with two positions (numerical)
    155 - L.4 Terminal marking of overload protection devices
    156 - L.5 Distinctive number
    157 - Annex M - Flammability test
    157 - M.1 Hot wire ignition test
    158 - M.2 Arc ignition test

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Applies to switchgear and controlgear intended to be connected to circuits, the rated voltage of which does not exceed 1000 volt a.c. or 1500 volt d.c. This Standard is identical with and has been reproduced from IEC 60947-1:1996.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This standard applies, when required by the relevant product standard, to switchgear and controlgear hereinafter referred to as "equipment" and intended to be connected to circuits, the rated voltage of which does not exceed 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c. It does not apply to low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies which are dealt with in IEC 439.NOTE - In certain clauses or subclauses of this standard, the equipment covered by this standard is also referred to as "device", to be consistent with the text of such clauses or subclauses. The object of this standard is to state those general rules and requirements which are common to low-voltage equipment as defined in 1.1, including for example:- definitions;- characteristics;- information supplied with the equipment;- normal service, mounting and transport conditions;- constructional and performance requirements;- verification of characteristics and performance.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee EL-006
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in Australia as AS 3650-1988.Revised and redesignated AS 3947.1-1993.Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 3947.1:1998. First published in Australia as AS 3650-1988. Revised and redesignated AS 3947.1-1993. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 3947.1:1998.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 4695.2.2:1996 Fire hazard testing of electrotechnical products Test methods - Needle-flame test
    AS 1852.826-1983 International electrotechnical vocabulary - Electrical installations of buildings
    AS/NZS 3548:1995 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information technology equipment
    AS 1824.1-1995 Insulation co-ordination Definitions, principles and rules
    AS 2005.10-1988 Low voltage fuses - Fuses with enclosed fuse-links - General requirements
    AS 1852.441-1985 International electrotechnical vocabulary - Switchgear, controlgear and fuses
    AS 1852.151-1988 International electrotechnical vocabulary - Electric and magnetic devices
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules)
    AS/NZS 1102.107:1997 Graphical symbols for electrotechnical documentation Switchgear, controlgear and protective devices
    AS/NZS 4695.2.13:1996 Fire hazard testing electrotechnical products Test methods - Glow-wire ignitability test on materials
    AS/NZS 4695.2.12:1996 Fire hazard testing of electrotechnical products Test methods - Glow-wire flammability test on materials
    AS 1931.1-1996 High-voltage test techniques - General definitions and test requirements
    AS 1099.2.3-1990 Basic environmental testing procedures for electrotechnology Tests - Test Ca - Damp heat, steady state
    AS/NZS 60998.1:1998 Connecting devices for low voltage circuits for household and similar purposes General requirements
    AS/NZS 4695.707:1996 Fire hazard testing of electrotechnical products Methods of test for the determination of the flammability of solid electrical insulating materials when exposed to an igniting source
    AS 2005.20-1990 Low voltage fuses - Fuses with enclosed fuse-links Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (Fuses mainly for industrial application) - Common requirements
    AS/NZS 4695.2.11:1996 Fire hazard testing of electrotechnical products Test methods - Glow-wire end-product test and guidance
    AS/NZS 2064:1997 Limits and methods of measurement of electromagnetic disturbance characteristics of industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radiofrequency equipment
    AS 1852.604-1988 International electrotechnical vocabulary Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity - Operation
    AS 1939-1990 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment (IP Code)
    AS/NZS 4695.112:1996 Fire hazard testing of electrotechnical products Method for determining the comparative and the proof tracking indices of solid insulating materials under moist conditions
    AS 1104-1978 Informative symbols for use on electrical and electronic equipment
    AS 2768-1985 Electrical insulating materials - Evaluation and classification based on thermal endurance
    AS 3439.1-1993 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 60079.7:2002 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres Increased safety 'e'
    AS/NZS 61459:2000 Low-voltage fuses - Coordination between fuses and contactors/motor-starters - Application guide
    AS/NZS 3947.5.2:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Control circuit devices and switching elements - Proximity switches
    AS/NZS 3947.5.6:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Control circuit devices and switching elements - D.C. interface for proximity sensors and switching amplifiers (NAMUR)
    AS/NZS 3947.6.1:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Multiple Function equipment - Automatic transfer switching equipment
    AS/NZS 3947.7.1:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Ancillary equipment - Terminal blocks for copper conductors
    AS/NZS 62026.5:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Controller-device interfaces (CDIs) Smart distributed system (SDS)
    AS/NZS 3947.4.2:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Contactors and motor-starters - A.C. semiconductor motor controllers and starters
    AS/NZS 3947.5.3:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Control circuit devices and switching elements - Requirements for proximity devices with define behaviour under fault conditions
    AS/NZS 3947.5.5:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Control circuit devices and switching elements - Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function
    AS/NZS 62026.1:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Controller-device interfaces (CDIs) General rules
    AS/NZS 62026.3:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Controller-device interfaces (CDIs) DeviceNet
    AS/NZS 3947.4.3:2000 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Contactors and motor-starters - A.C. semiconductor controllers and contactors for non-motor loads
    AS/NZS 3947.6.2:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Multiple function equipment - Control and protective switching devices (or equipment) (CPS)
    AS/NZS 62026.2:2001 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Controller-device interfaces (CDIs) Actuator sensor interface
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