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  • HB 195-2002

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    The Australian Earth Building Handbook

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-2002

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - HB 195-2002 THE AUSTRALIAN EARTH BUILDING HANDBOOK
    4 - Preface
    6 - Contents
    10 - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
    10 - 1.1 SCOPE OF HANDBOOK
    11 - 1.2 HISTORY
    17 - 1.3 WHY EARTH CONSTRUCTION?
    17 - 1.3.1 Advantages
    20 - 1.3.2 Limitations
    21 - 1.4 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION
    21 - 1.4.1 Loadbearing wall construction
    22 - 1.1.1 Post and beam construction
    23 - 1.5 PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
    25 - 1.6 DEFINITIONS
    30 - CHAPTER 2 EARTH BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
    30 - 2.1 MATERIALS
    30 - 2.1.1 Soils
    33 - 2.1.2 Stabilisation
    35 - 2.1.3 Water
    35 - 2.1.4 Soil suitability
    39 - 2.2 MUD BRICK CONSTRUCTION
    40 - 2.2.1 Scope
    40 - 2.2.2 Materials
    41 - 2.2.3 Manufacture
    43 - 2.2.4 Construction
    44 - 2.2.5 Characteristics
    45 - 2.3 PRESSED EARTH BLOCK CONSTRUCTION
    45 - 2.3.1 Scope
    45 - 2.3.2 Materials
    46 - 2.3.3 Block manufacture
    48 - 2.3.4 Construction
    49 - 2.3.5 Characteristics
    49 - 2.4 RAMMED EARTH CONSTRUCTION
    50 - 2.4.1 Materials
    50 - 2.4.2 Formwork
    53 - 2.4.3 Construction
    54 - 2.4.4 Characteristics
    54 - 2.5 OTHER FORMS OF EARTH WALL CONSTRUCTION
    55 - 2.5.1 Poured earth construction
    57 - 2.5.2 Cob construction
    60 - CHAPTER 3 DETAILING, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
    60 - 3.1 WALL LAYOUT
    60 - 3.1.1 Openings
    61 - 3.1.2 Design for earthquakes
    62 - 3.1.3 Provision for wall movement
    64 - 3.2 PROTECTIVE COATINGS
    64 - 3.2.1 General
    65 - 3.2.2 Function and form
    66 - 3.2.3 Surface coatings
    67 - 3.2.4 Renders
    68 - 3.2.5 Cladding and facing
    69 - 3.3 DAMP PROOFING
    71 - 3.4 TERMITE PROTECTION
    73 - 3.5 EARTH FLOORS
    74 - 3.6 LINTELS
    74 - 3.6.1 General
    77 - 3.6.2 Earth lintels
    79 - 3.6.3 Reinforced concrete lintels
    79 - 3.6.4 Steel lintels
    81 - 3.6.5Timber lintels
    81 - 3.7 TOP PLATES AND BOND BEAMS
    81 - 3.7.1 Function
    82 - 3.7.2 Timber top plates
    82 - 3.7.3 Reinforced concrete bond beams
    83 - 3.8 SERVICES
    85 - 3.9 DOOR AND WINDOW FRAME FIXINGS
    85 - 3.10 NON-STRUCTURAL WALL FIXINGS
    87 - 3.11 FIREPLACES
    87 - 3.12 QUALITY OF WORK
    87 - 3.12.1 General considerations
    87 - 3.12.2 Materials
    88 - 3.12.3 Quality of construction
    93 - 3.12.4 Tolerances
    93 - 3.12.5 Compliance testing
    94 - 3.13 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR
    94 - 3.13.1 Maintenance
    96 - 3.13.2 Repairs
    100 - CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF EARTH BUILDINGS
    100 - 4.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
    100 - 4.2 DURABILITY
    101 - 4.2.1 Durability testing of materials
    103 - 4.2.2 General design considerations
    104 - 4.2.3 Eaves projection
    105 - 4.2.4 Footing detail
    106 - 4.3 DESIGN PROPERTIES AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    106 - 4.3.1 Design properties
    108 - 4.3.2 Other earth building components
    108 - 4.3.3 Dimensions and cross-section properties
    109 - 4.3.4 Structural adequacy
    110 - 4.3.5 Control joints
    110 - 4.3.6 Design for seismic loading
    110 - 4.4 UNREINFORCED EARTH WALLS
    110 - 4.4.1 Scope of Section
    111 - 4.4.2 Design for combined compression and bending
    112 - 4.4.3 Concentrated compression loads
    113 - 4.4.4 Out-of-plane flexural capacity of walls
    114 - 4.4.5 Design for shear
    114 - 4.4.6 Torsion
    115 - 4.5 REINFORCED EARTH WALLS
    115 - 4.5.1 Materials
    116 - 4.5.2 Form of construction
    117 - 4.5.3 Design and detailing of embedded reinforcement
    118 - 4.5.4 Design of holding-down bolts for top plates
    120 - 4.5.5 Anchorage bond strength in rammed earth
    121 - 4.6 FIRE RESISTANCE LEVEL
    122 - CHPATER 5 FOOTINGS FOR EARTH BUILDINGS
    122 - 5.1 AS 2870 STANDARD SOLUTIONS
    122 - 5.1.1 Scope
    122 - 5.1.2 Materials
    122 - 5.1.3 Site classification
    123 - 5.1.4 Deemed-to-comply standard solutions
    127 - 5.2 DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION
    127 - 5.2.1 Site preparation
    128 - 5.2.2 Drainage
    128 - 5.2.3 Damp proofing
    129 - 5.2.4 Reinforcement detailing
    130 - 5.2.5 Articulation joints
    130 - 5.2.6 Concreting
    130 - 5.2.7 Foundation maintenance
    131 - 5.3 STABILISED EARTH FOOTINGS
    131 - 5.3.1 Suitability
    132 - 5.3.2 Materials
    132 - 5.3.3 Footing design
    132 - 5.3.4 Construction
    134 - CHPATER 6 FUTURE OF EARTH BUILDING
    134 - Education and Training
    134 - Mechanisation
    135 - Promotion, representation and support
    135 - Quality control
    135 - Research
    135 - Standards and regulations
    140 - APPENDIX A - MATERIAL TESTING
    140 - A1 SOIL TESTING
    140 - A1.1 Sampling
    140 - A1.2 Sensory testing
    141 - A1.3 Ribbon test
    141 - A1.4 Dry strength test
    142 - A1.5 Sedimentation test
    142 - A1.6 Shrinkage test
    143 - A1.7 Drop test
    145 - A2 SAMPLES FOR COMPLIANCE TESTING
    145 - A2.1 Individual units
    145 - A2.2 In situ cast walls
    146 - A3 FIELD TESTS
    146 - A3.1 Dry density
    146 - A3.2 Water absorption
    147 - A3.3 Strength assessment
    149 - A3.4 Robustness assessment
    150 - A3.5 Durability assessment
    153 - A4 LABORATORY TESTING OF EARTH BUILDING MATERIALS
    153 - A4.1 Dry density
    153 - A4.2 Water absorption
    154 - A4.3 Compressive strength
    155 - A4.4 Bending strength
    156 - A4.5 Accelerated erosion test
    158 - A4.6 Earth wall compressive strength test
    158 - A4.7 Earth masonry bending strength by bond wrench test
    160 - A5 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
    161 - APPENDIX B - USEFUL CONTACTS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Handbook sets out principles of accepted good practice and recommended design guidelines for lightly loaded, primarily single- and two-storey, buildings constructed using unbaked earthen walls and floors. It provides guidance on material selection, preparation and use, different building techniques, recommendations for construction details, measures for maintenance and repairs, design for durability and strength, standard footings solutions and sets out standard test procedures.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Handbook sets out principles of accepted good practice and recommended design guidelines for lightly loaded buildings built using unbaked earthen walls and floors. Provisions set out in this Handbook are primarily, but not exclusively, intended for single- or two-storey earth wall construction. The Handbook is not a comprehensive treatise on earth wall construction technology.The guidance given is the culmination of a long and successful history of Australian earth wall construction. The Handbook seeks to promote continuity of this innovative tradition and encourage alternative solutions wherever possible. Therefore, in addition to the recommendations set out below, satisfactory construction may be demonstrated by precedence (with a verified service history), shown by experimental verification, or proven in accordance with rational design methods following accepted principles and undertaken by suitably qualified and experienced professionals.Guidance on material selection, preparation and use is outlined in Chapter 2 of the Handbook. Earth walling covers a wide range of techniques, including masonry and monolithic forms of construction, which are also described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 sets out recommendations for proven construction details for earth walls and floors. Measures for maintenance and repair are also provided. Design of earth walls covering durability and strength, together with deemed-to-comply provisions based on accepted best practice, are given in Chapter 4. Standard footing solutions for earth buildings are detailed in Chapter 5. These include solutions taken from AS 2870 [1], and proposals for earthen footings as well. Appendix A sets out standard test procedures for stabilised earthen materials and components. Deemed to comply solutions set out are restricted to design category A1 or H2 domestic structure for earthquake design and buildings in areas where the design wind speed does not exceed W41 [37].The Handbook has been written primarily for a professional readership, including architects, builders, engineers and building inspectors. Whilst some parts of the Handbook, Chapter 4 for example, require an understanding of basic engineering principles, the Handbook is also intended to be accessible to a more general readership, including the owner-builder.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee BD-083
    Document Type Handbook
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Current

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as HB 195-2002.

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