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  • AS 1085.14-1997

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Railway permanent way material - Part 14: Prestressed concrete sleepers

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1997

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1085.14-1997 RAILWAY PERMANENT WAY MATERIAL - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLEEPERS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    8 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 ALTERNATIVE DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS
    8 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4.1 Administrative definitions
    8 - 1.4.2 Technical definitions
    9 - 1.5 NOTATION
    11 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS
    11 - 2.1 CEMENT
    11 - 2.2 SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
    11 - 2.2.1 Fly ash
    11 - 2.2.2 Slag
    11 - 2.2.3 Silica fume
    11 - 2.3 AGGREGATES
    11 - 2.3.1 General
    11 - 2.3.2 Durability
    11 - 2.3.3 Alkali aggregate reactivity
    11 - 2.4 WATER
    11 - 2.5 ADMIXTURES
    11 - 2.5.1 Chemical admixtures
    11 - 2.5.2 Chlorides
    11 - 2.6 PRESTRESSING TENDONS
    11 - 2.6.1 Wire tendons
    11 - 2.6.2 Strand tendons
    12 - 2.7 CONCRETE
    12 - 2.7.1 General
    12 - 2.7.2 Use of potentially alkali reactive aggregates
    12 - 2.7.3 Characteristic compressive strength
    12 - 2.7.4 Minimum compressive strength
    12 - 2.7.5 Saturated surface-dry density of the concrete
    12 - 2.7.6 Total chloride content
    13 - SECTION 3 MANUFACTURE OF SLEEPERS
    13 - 3.1 GENERAL
    13 - 3.2 TOLERANCES
    13 - 3.3 MOULDS
    13 - 3.3.1 Specifications
    13 - 3.3.2 Mould surfaces
    13 - 3.4 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISHES
    14 - 3.5 BONDING OF TENDONS
    14 - 3.6 CONCRETING
    14 - 3.6.1 Concrete consistency
    14 - 3.6.2 Construction joints
    14 - 3.6.3 Curing
    15 - 3.7 TRANSFER OF PRESTRESS TO SLEEPERS
    15 - 3.7.1 Releasing the tendons
    15 - 3.7.2 Cutting of tendons where required
    15 - 3.8 MARKING OF SLEEPERS
    15 - 3.9 RECORDS OF MANUFACTURE
    15 - 3.9.1 Records
    15 - 3.9.2 Concrete test results
    15 - 3.9.3 Prestressing tendon certificates or test results
    15 - 3.9.4 Sleeper load tests
    16 - 3.10 STACKING OF SLEEPERS
    17 - SECTION 4 DESIGN OF SLEEPERS
    17 - 4.1 GENERAL CONDITIONS
    17 - 4.1.1 Type and spacing
    17 - 4.1.2 Shape and dimensions
    17 - 4.1.3 Clear tendon cover
    17 - 4.2 DESIGN FORCES
    17 - 4.2.1 Vertical wheel load
    18 - 4.2.2 Load distribution
    19 - 4.2.3 Rail seat load
    20 - 4.2.4 Ballast and ballast pressure
    20 - 4.2.5 Lateral loads
    20 - 4.2.6 Longitudinal loads
    20 - 4.3 DESIGN MOMENTS
    20 - 4.3.1 General
    20 - 4.3.2 Moments at rail seat
    21 - 4.3.3 Moments at centre
    22 - 4.4 DESIGN SHEARS
    22 - 4.5 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
    22 - 4.5.1 Concrete stresses
    22 - 4.5.2 Prestressing tendons
    23 - 4.6 LOSS OF PRESTRESS
    23 - 4.7 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND END ZONE
    25 - SECTION 5 RAIL FASTENING SYSTEMS
    25 - 5.1 SERVICE CONDITIONS
    25 - 5.2 FASTENING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
    25 - 5.2.1 Proprietary fastenings
    25 - 5.2.2 Type
    25 - 5.2.3 Fixing
    25 - 5.2.4 Expected life of components
    25 - 5.2.5 Materials
    26 - 5.2.6 Design
    26 - 5.3 FASTENING COMPONENTS
    26 - 5.3.1 General
    26 - 5.3.2 Marking
    26 - 5.3.3 Tolerance
    26 - 5.3.4 Rail fastening clips
    26 - 5.3.5 Cast-in components
    26 - 5.3.6 Insulators
    26 - 5.3.7 Rail pads
    28 - SECTION 6 TESTING
    28 - 6.1 GENERAL
    28 - 6.2 TYPE AND PROOF TESTING
    28 - 6.2.1 Type tests
    28 - 6.2.2 Proof tests
    28 - 6.2.3 Test loads
    29 - 6.3 CONCRETE TESTING
    29 - 6.3.1 General
    29 - 6.3.2 Concrete cylinder compressive tests
    29 - 6.4 FASTENING SYSTEM TESTING
    29 - 6.4.1 Type tests
    29 - 6.5 SLEEPER TESTING
    29 - 6.5.1 Type tests
    30 - 6.5.2 Proof tests
    30 - 6.5.3 Failure to pass testing
    30 - 6.5.4 Trial assembly of track panel
    31 - 6.6 CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE
    31 - 6.6.1 Fastening uplift test
    31 - 6.6.2 Fastening longitudinal restraint test
    31 - 6.6.3 Fastening repeated load test
    31 - 6.6.4 Lateral load restraint test
    31 - 6.6.5 Fastening insert pull-out test
    31 - 6.6.6 Fastening insert torque test
    31 - 6.6.7 Fastening insert repeated lateral load test for screwed inserts
    31 - 6.6.8 Electrical impedance test
    32 - 6.6.9 Electrical short test
    32 - 6.6.10 Rail seat vertical load test
    32 - 6.6.11 Rail seat repeated load test
    32 - 6.6.12 Development length and ultimate load test
    32 - 6.6.13 Centre negative bending moment test
    32 - 6.6.14 Centre positive bending moment test
    33 - APPENDIX A - SPECIAL SLEEPERS AND FASTENINGS
    33 - A1 SCOPE
    33 - A2 SPECIAL SLEEPER TYPES
    33 - A2.1 Dual gauge sleepers
    33 - A2.2 Turnout bearers
    33 - A2.3 Sleepers with additional rails
    35 - A3 MANUFACTURING DETAILS
    35 - A4 LOADINGS AND DESIGN
    35 - A4.1 Dual gauge sleepers
    36 - A4.2 Turnouts and crossovers
    36 - A4.3 Sleepers with additional rails (other than dual gauge sleepers)
    37 - A5 FASTENINGS
    37 - A6 TESTING
    37 - A6.1 General
    37 - A6.2 Additional fastening tests
    39 - APPENDIX B - PURCHASING GUIDELINES
    39 - B1 SCOPE
    39 - B2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    40 - B3 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    41 - APPENDIX C - MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD
    41 - C1 SCOPE
    41 - C2 STATISTICAL SAMPLING
    41 - C3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
    41 - C4 SUPPLIER’S QUALITY SYSTEM
    42 - C5 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT
    43 - APPENDIX D - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    45 - APPENDIX E - BACKGROUND ON DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLEEPERS
    45 - E1 GENERAL CONDITIONS
    45 - E1.1 General track conditions
    45 - E1.2 Spacing
    46 - E1.3 Shape and dimensions
    46 - E2 DESIGN FORCES
    46 - E2.1 Vertical load determination
    47 - E2.2 Lateral loads
    47 - E2.3 Longitudinal loads
    47 - E3 DESIGN MOMENTS
    48 - E4 SHEAR STRESSES
    48 - E5 CONCRETE STRENGTHS
    48 - E6 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
    48 - E7 LOSS OF PRESTRESS
    48 - E8 BOND AND END ZONE
    49 - APPENDIX F - DYNAMIC EFFECTS
    49 - F1 INTRODUCTION
    49 - F2 TRACK LOADS
    49 - F3 TYPES OF LOAD
    50 - F4 LOAD LEVELS
    50 - F5 CRITERION FOR FAILURE
    50 - F6 RAILHEAD IRREGULARITY
    50 - F7 ALTERNATIVE SPECIFICATION
    51 - F8 TESTING APPARATUS
    51 - F9 TEST DATA
    51 - REFERENCES
    53 - APPENDIX G - TYPICAL FASTENING EVALUATION AND DATA SHEETS
    55 - APPENDIX H - FASTENING UPLIFT TEST
    55 - H1 SCOPE
    55 - H2 APPARATUS
    55 - H3 PROCEDURE
    55 - H4 REPORT
    57 - APPENDIX I - FASTENING LONGITUDINAL RESTRAINT TEST
    57 - I1 SCOPE
    57 - I2 APPARATUS
    57 - I3 PROCEDURE
    57 - I4 REPORT
    59 - APPENDIX J - FASTENING REPEATED LOAD TEST
    59 - J1 SCOPE
    59 - J2 APPARATUS
    59 - J3 PROCEDURE
    59 - J4 REPORT
    61 - APPENDIX K - LATERAL LOAD RESTRAINT TEST
    61 - K1 SCOPE
    61 - K2 APPARATUS
    61 - K3 PROCEDURE
    61 - K4 REPORT
    63 - APPENDIX L - FASTENING INSERT PULL-OUT TEST
    63 - L1 SCOPE
    63 - L2 APPARATUS
    63 - L3 PROCEDURE
    63 - L4 REPORT
    65 - APPENDIX M - TORQUE TEST
    65 - M1 SCOPE
    65 - M2 APPARATUS
    65 - M3 PROCEDURE
    65 - M4 REPORT
    66 - APPENDIX N - ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE AND SHORT TESTS
    66 - N1 SCOPE
    66 - N2 ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TEST
    66 - N2.1 Apparatus
    66 - N2.2 Procedure
    66 - N3 ELECTRICAL SHORT TEST
    66 - N3.1 Apparatus
    66 - N3.2 Procedure
    67 - N4 REPORT
    68 - APPENDIX O - FASTENING INSERT LATERAL REPEATED LOAD TEST
    68 - O1 SCOPE
    68 - O2 APPARATUS
    68 - O3 PROCEDURE
    68 - O4 REPORT
    69 - APPENDIX P - RAIL SEAT VERTICAL LOAD TEST
    69 - P1 SCOPE
    69 - P2 APPARATUS
    69 - P3 PROCEDURE
    69 - P4 REPORT
    71 - APPENDIX Q - RAIL SEAT REPEATED LOAD TEST
    71 - Q1 SCOPE
    71 - Q2 APPARATUS
    71 - Q3 PROCEDURE
    71 - Q4 REPORT
    72 - APPENDIX R - DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND ULTIMATE LOAD TEST
    72 - R1 SCOPE
    72 - R2 APPARATUS
    72 - R3 PROCEDURE
    72 - R4 ULTIMATE LOAD
    72 - R5 REPORT
    73 - APPENDIX S - CENTRE NEGATIVE BENDING MOMENT TEST
    73 - S1 SCOPE
    73 - S2 APPARATUS
    73 - S3 PROCEDURE
    73 - S4 REPORT
    74 - APPENDIX T - CENTRE POSITIVE BENDING MOMENT TEST
    74 - T1 SCOPE
    74 - T2 APPARATUS
    74 - T3 PROCEDURE
    74 - T4 REPORT

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for design, manufacture and installation of prestressed concrete sleepers, and their fastening components for use in railway permanent way. Several test methods are given in appendices, including sleeper bending, fastening tests, electrical impedance and repeated load tests. Information is also given for design of special sleepers.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out requirements for the design, manufacture, testing and installation of prestressed concrete sleepers and their fastening components for use in main line railway systems. It also sets out requirements for electrical performance of rail fastener and sleeper combinations.This Standard also gives requirements and information in Appendix A for special sleepers such as turnout bearers, sleepers with additional rails and dual gauge sleepers and their fastenings for use in special sleepered track.This Standard does not cover -(a) the design of post-tensioned concrete sleepers;(b) the design of duo block concrete sleepers; and(c) the techniques and equipment for the manufacture of concrete sleepers or fastenings.NOTE: Purchasing guidelines are given in Appendix B. Guidance on means for demonstrating compliance with this Standard is given in Appendix C.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee CE-002
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 1085.14-1990.Second edition 1997. First published as AS 1085.14-1990. Second edition 1997.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1399-1990 Guide to AS 1199 - Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    AS/NZS ISO 9004.1:1994 Quality management and quality system elements Guidelines
    AS 3582.3-1994 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland cement - Silica fume
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    AS 1683.24-1984 Methods of test for rubber Rubber - Vulcanized - Determination of resistance to ozone cracking - Static strain test
    AS 1683.23-1983 Methods of test for rubber Rubber - Vulcanized - Determination of resistance to liquids
    AS 3582.2-1991 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland cement Slag - Ground granulated iron blast-furnace
    AS 1311-1987 Steel tendons for prestressed concrete-7-wire stress-relieved steel strand for tendons in prestressed concrete
    AS 1310-1987 Steel wire for tendons in prestressed concrete
    AS 1447-1991 Hot-rolled spring steels
    AS 1478-1992 Chemical admixtures for concrete
    AS 1444-1996 Wrought alloy steels - Standard, hardenability (H) series and hardened and tempered to designated mechanical properties
    AS 1012.1-1993 Methods of testing concrete Sampling of fresh concrete
    AS 1199-1988 Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    AS 3600-1994 Concrete structures
    AS 2758.1-1998 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Concrete aggregates
    AS/NZS ISO 9000.1:1994 Quality management and quality assurance standards Guidelines for selection and use
    AS 1012.8-1986 Methods of testing concrete - Method for making and curing concrete compression, indirect tensile and flexure test specimens, in the laboratory or in the field
    AS 2758.7-1996 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Railway ballast
    AS 2271-1979 Plywood and blockboard for exterior use
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS 1012.11-1985 Methods of testing concrete Method for the determination of the flexural strength of concrete specimens
    AS 1012.3-1983 Methods of testing concrete Methods for the determination of properties related to the consistence of concrete
    AS 3582.1-1998 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Fly ash

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1085.19-2003 Railway track material Resilient fastening assemblies
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