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  • AS 1375-1985

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Industrial fuel-fired appliances (known as the SAA Industrial Fuel-fired Appliances Code)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  24-06-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1985

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1375-1985 SAA INDUSTRIAL FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES CODE
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    9 - SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL
    9 - 1.1 SCOPE
    9 - 1.2 APPLICATION
    9 - 1.3 NEW DESIGNS AND INNOVATIONS
    9 - 1.4 INTERPRETATIONS
    9 - 1.5 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.6 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.6.1 Appliance
    9 - 1.6.2 Appliance management system
    9 - 1.6.3 Approval, approved
    9 - 1.6.4 Authority
    9 - 1.6.5 Burner management system
    9 - 1.6.6 Chimney
    9 - 1.6.7 Critical time
    9 - 1.6.8 Dilution
    9 - 1.6.9 Duct
    9 - 1.6.10 Flame simulation
    9 - 1.6.11 Flue
    9 - 1.6.12 Fresh air
    9 - 1.6.13 Installer
    9 - 1.6.14 Interlock
    9 - 1.6.15 Lockout
    9 - 1.6.16 May
    9 - 1.6.17 Power flue
    9 - 1.6.18 Proved
    10 - 1.6.19 Purging
    10 - 1.6.20 Shall and should
    10 - 1.6.21 Shutdown
    10 - 1.6.22 Start-fuel rate
    11 - SECTION 2. APPLIANCE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    11 - 2.1 GENERAL DESIGN
    11 - 2.1.1 Appliance structure
    11 - 2.1.2 Ladders or steps
    11 - 2.1.3 Protection of equipment
    11 - 2.1.4 Accumulation within cavity walls
    11 - 2.1.5 Insulation
    11 - 2.1.6 Ignition hazards
    11 - 2.1.7 Strength of doors
    11 - 2.1.8 Prevention of accidental fires
    11 - 2.1.9 Free circulation
    11 - 2.1.10 Adjusting devices
    11 - 2.1.11 Air inlet guards
    11 - 2.1.12 Systems for heating by hot fluids
    11 - 2.1.13 Electrical equipment
    11 - 2.1.14 Gas piping and components
    11 - 2.2 MATERIALS
    11 - 2.2.1 Suitability
    11 - 2.2.2 Combustibility
    12 - 2.3 SAFETY OF PERSONNEL
    12 - 2.3.1 Working inside appliances
    12 - 2.3.2 Door handles
    12 - 2.3.3 Injury or burns
    12 - 2.3.4 Projections
    12 - 2.3.5 Explosion reliefs
    12 - 2.4 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROVISIONS
    12 - 2.4.1 Control equipment
    12 - 2.4.2 Automatic appliance management systems
    12 - 2.4.3 Manual functions
    12 - 2.4.4 Visual flame checking provisions
    12 - 2.4.5 Removable components
    12 - 2.4.6 Special tools
    12 - 2.4.7 Cleaning
    12 - 2.4.8 Maintenance provisions
    12 - 2.5 EXPLOSION DAMAGE PROTECTION
    12 - 2.5.1 Provision of protection
    13 - 2.5.2 Explosion relief operation
    13 - 2.5.3 Explosion relief location
    13 - 2.6 TEMPERATURE HAZARDS
    13 - 2.6.1 Components, floors, walls
    13 - 2.6.2 Power failure
    13 - 2.7 INSTRUCTIONS
    13 - 2.7.1 Instructions
    14 - 2.7.2 Additional information
    14 - 2.8 MARKING
    14 - 2.8.1 Appliance data
    14 - 2.8.2 Indicators, gauges, and controls
    14 - 2.8.3 Emergency stops
    14 - 2.8.4 Colour code
    15 - SECTION 3. COMBUSTION SYSTEM
    15 - 3.1 GENERAL
    15 - 3.1.1 General suitability
    15 - 3.1.2 Movable burners
    15 - 3.1.3 Fuel remaining in burner
    15 - 3.2 IGNITION SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION.
    15 - 3.2.1 Location and fixing
    15 - 3.2.2 Spark-ignition system
    15 - 3.2.3 Manual ignition
    15 - 3.2.4 Manual ignition equipment
    15 - 3.3 SUPERVISION, CONTROL, AND SAFE PROCEDURES
    15 - 3.3.1 General principles
    16 - 3.3.2 Automatic systems
    16 - 3.3.3 Manual systems
    16 - 3.3.4 Interlocking controls
    16 - 3.4 STARTING AND IGNITION
    16 - 3.4.1 Ignition procedures
    16 - 3.4.2 Performance
    16 - 3.4.3 Attempted re-ignition
    16 - 3.4.4 Ignition during purging
    16 - 3.4.5 Multiple main burner appliances
    16 - 3.4.6 Sequential ignition of multiple main burners
    16 - 3.4.7 Simultaneous ignition of multiple main burners
    17 - 3.5 FLAME FAILURE DURING OPERATION
    17 - 3.5.1 Flame supervision and failure protection
    17 - 3.5.2 Flame failure response time
    17 - 3.5.3 Relighting after flame failure
    17 - 3.5.4 Extraneous ignition sources
    17 - 3.6 MULTIFUEL FIRING
    17 - 3.6.1 Application
    17 - 3.6.2 Alternative firing
    17 - 3.6.3 Simultaneous firing
    18 - 3.7 SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES
    18 - 3.7.1 Safety
    18 - 3.7.2 Normal shutdown
    18 - 3.7.3 Abnormal shutdown
    18 - 3.8 PURGING
    18 - 3.8.1 When to purge
    18 - 3.8.2 Method of purging
    18 - 3.8.3 Completeness of purging
    18 - 3.8.4 Manually controlled purging
    18 - 3.8.5 Proof of purge air
    18 - 3.8.6 Dampers
    19 - SECTION 4. CONTROL OF NON-FUEL COMBUSTIBLE ATMOSPHERES
    19 - 4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    19 - 4.2 PREVENTION OR RELIEF OF EXPLOSIONS
    19 - 4.2.1 Explosion prevention
    19 - 4.2.2 High concentration of volatiles
    19 - 4.2.3 Explosion relief
    19 - 4.3 AIR DILUTION AND PURGING
    19 - 4.3.1 Method of providing dilution air
    19 - 4.3.2 Dilution air quantities
    19 - 4.3.3 Air distribution
    19 - 4.3.4 Purging
    19 - 4.4 VAPOUR AND DUST REMOVAL
    19 - 4.4.1 Safe disposal
    19 - 4.4.2 Incineration
    19 - 4.4.3 Leakage of hazardous materials
    20 - SECTION 5. INSTALLATION, COMMISSIONING, AND OPERATION
    20 - 5.1 INSTALLER’S RESPONSIBILITY
    20 - 5.1.1 Instructions
    20 - 5.1.2 Defective equipment
    20 - 5.1.3 Suitability for fuel, electricity
    20 - 5.2 STANDARDS FOR WORKMANSHIP AND GOOD PRACTICE
    20 - 5.2.1 Materials
    20 - 5.2.2 Finish
    20 - 5.2.3 Connection of services
    20 - 5.3 LOCATION AND ACCESS
    20 - 5.3.1 Building safety
    20 - 5.3.2 Building structures
    20 - 5.3.3 Safety and convenience
    20 - 5.3.4 Combustible materials
    20 - 5.3.5 Clearance for explosion relief
    20 - 5.3.6 Explosion relief protection
    20 - 5.3.7 Appliance security
    21 - 5.3.8 Gas vent discharge
    21 - 5.3.9 Foundations, supports
    21 - 5.3.10 Lighting
    21 - 5.4 FRESH AIR SUPPLY
    21 - 5.4.1 Air supply
    21 - 5.4.2 Air entries
    21 - 5.4.3 Fan failure
    21 - 5.5 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
    21 - 5.5.1 Fuel shut-off
    21 - 5.5.2 Gas supply system
    21 - 5.5.3 Oil fuel supply system
    22 - 5.5.4 Solid fuel systems
    22 - 5.6 COMMISSIONING
    22 - 5.6.1 Commissioning agent
    22 - 5.6.2 Information
    22 - 5.6.3 Data and reports
    23 - SECTION 6. FLUES (CHIMNEYS), EXHAUST
    23 - 6.1 GENERAL
    23 - 6.1.1 Removal of products of combustion
    23 - 6.1.2 Provision of exhaust systems
    23 - 6.1.3 Flues separate from exhausts
    23 - 6.1.4 Common exhaust systems
    23 - 6.1.5 Temperature hazards and comfort
    23 - 6.1.6 Terminals for flues and exhaust ducts
    23 - 6.2 FLUE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    23 - 6.2.1 Construction
    23 - 6.2.2 Performance
    23 - 6.2.3 Common flues
    24 - 6.2.4 Power flues
    24 - 6.3 FLUE SUPPORTS
    24 - 6.3.1 Direct-mounted flues
    24 - 6.3.2 Free-standing flues
    24 - 6.3.3 Guys, stays, and supports
    24 - 6.4 EARTHING
    24 - 6.5 FLUE DAMPERS
    24 - 6.5.1 Damper/fuel interlock
    24 - 6.5.2 Damper settings
    24 - 6.6 DUCTS
    24 - 6.6.1 Construction
    24 - 6.6.2 Joints
    24 - 6.6.3 Cleaning
    24 - 6.6.4 Condensation provisions
    24 - 6.6.5 Dampers
    25 - APPENDIX A - OPERATING DATA, SPECIAL PURPOSE OVENS
    26 - APPENDIX B - REGULAR TESTING OF SAFETY DEVICES AND PROCEDURES
    26 - B1 REGULAR TESTING
    26 - B2 PERSONNEL, ORGANIZATION.
    26 - B3 GENERAL OUTLINE OF PROCEDURES
    26 - B4 TYPICAL TESTING SCHEDULES
    29 - APPENDIX C - TYPICAL IGNITION PROCEDURES
    31 - APPENDIX D - CRITICAL ENERGY AND CRITICAL TIME
    31 - D1 INTRODUCTION
    32 - D2 SYMBOLS
    33 - D3 CALCULATING THE CRITICAL TIME, CASE A
    33 - D4 DERIVATION OF FORMULAS, CASE A
    33 - D5 CALCULATING THE CRITICAL TIME, CASE B
    33 - D6 DERIVATION OF FORMULA, CASE B
    35 - APPENDIX E - RELIEF OF EXPLOSIONS
    35 - E1 INTRODUCTION
    36 - E2 OUTLINE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE
    36 - E3 SYMBOLS
    37 - E4 DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PRESSURE
    37 - E4.1 Objective
    37 - E4.2 Determination of strength
    37 - E5 DETERMINATION OF RELIEF VENT AREA
    38 - E6 DETERMINATION OF THE OPENING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RELIEF VENT CLOSURE
    38 - E6.1 Introduction
    38 - E6.2 Mass-gravity closure
    39 - E6.3 Hinged panels
    39 - E6.4 Closure that bursts to relieve pressure
    39 - E6.5 Spring-loaded panels
    39 - E6.6 Panels held in place by magnets or spring catches
    39 - E7 LOCATION OF RELIEF VENTS ON APPLIANCES
    39 - REFERENCES
    41 - APPENDIX F - DILUTION
    41 - F1 INTRODUCTION
    41 - F2 CALCULATION OF DILUTION AIRFLOW RATE
    41 - F3 DETERMINATION OF V
    41 - F4 DETERMINATION OF A
    42 - F5 DETERMINATION OF VA
    42 - F5.1 General
    42 - F5.2 Calculation when either V or A is unknown
    42 - F5.3 Calculation for mixed solvents
    42 - F6 DETERMINATION OF C
    42 - F7 DETERMINATION OF Q
    42 - F7.1 Continuous process oven
    42 - F7.2 Batch process ovens
    43 - F8 DETERMINATION OF F
    43 - F9 EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS
    43 - F9.1 Continuous oven
    43 - F9.2 Batch oven, below 120°C
    43 - F9.3 Batch oven, above 120°C
    45 - APPENDIX G - CHARACTERISTICS DATA
    50 - APPENDIX H - MODEL COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE
    50 - H1 SCOPE
    50 - H2 STAGE 1: PRELIMINARY INSPECTION
    50 - H3 STAGE 2: ACTIVATION-RUN WITHOUT FUEL
    50 - H4 STAGE 3: ACTIVATION-RUN WITH FUEL
    51 - H5 STAGE 4: OPERATION
    51 - H6 STAGE 5: COMPLETION
    52 - ANNEX - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Gives principles for the design, construction and operation of industrial appliances that are heated by the combustion of a fuel, i.e. ovens, furnaces, boilers, dryers and the like. It deals with the safety of the fuel combustion process, and with safety in relation to combustible vapours, dusts, etc. that may occur or be generated within an appliance. Methods of calculating critical appliance characteristics, explosion relief areas, and air dilution volumes are given.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This standard sets out the safety principles relating to the design, installation, and operation of industrial appliances that involve the combustion of gas or oil, or other fuel in air suspension, or the generation of combustible vapours in such appliances.NOTE: Although the rules for combustion safety given in this standard are applicable in principle to very high energy release appliances such as large land boilers for electricity generation and for solid fuel and pulverized coal firing, it should be recognized that appliances of such a size present unique problems, often requiring comparatively sophisticated control systems. Each such case should be studied individually and its safety evaluated in relation to its own particular conditions.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee AG-011
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 4554-2005 Gas laundry dryers
    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS/NZS 4114.1:2003 Spray painting booths, designated spray painting areas and paint mixing rooms - Design, construction and testing
    AS 3873-1995 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS 4563-2003 (AG 300) Commercial catering gas equipment
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS 2593-2004 Boilers - Safety management and supervision systems (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3653-1993 Boilers - Safety, management, combustion and other ancillary equipment
    AS/NZS 2243.10:2004 Safety in laboratories Storage of chemicals
    AS 1681-2002 Safety requirements for electrically heated Type 1 ovens in which flammable volatiles occur
    AS 4563-2004 Commercial catering gas equipment
    AS 3814-2005 Industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances
    AS/NZS 4114(INT):1993 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Spray painting booths - Design, construction, installation and maintenance
    AS 4558-2011 Decorative gas log and other fuel effect appliances
    AS 2593-1995 Boilers - Unattended and limited attendance
    AS 2809.5-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods Tankers for bitumen-based products
    AS 4565-2004 Radiant gas heaters for outdoor and non-residential indoor use
    AS 4041-2006 Pressure piping
    AS 4554-2002 (AG 104) Gas laundry dryers
    AS 2661-1983 Vapour degreasing plant - Design, installation and operation - Safety requirements
    AS 4556-2011 Indirect gas-fired ducted air heaters
    AS 4041-1992 Pressure piping
    AS 2243.6-1990 Safety in laboratories - Mechanical aspects
    AS 3814-2002 (AG 501) Industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances
    AS/NZS 1596:1997 Storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 3873-2001 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 4114.1:1995 Spray painting booths - Design, construction and testing
    AS 1853-1983 Automatic oil and gas burners - Mechanical draught
    AS 1691-1985 Domestic oil-fired appliances - Installation
    AS 2593-2001 Boilers - Unattended and limited attendance
    AS 4551-2008 Domestic gas cooking appliances
    HB 13-2007 Electrical equipment for hazardous areas
    AS 4643-2007 Overhead radiant tube gas heaters
    AS 2714-1993 The storage and handling of hazardous chemical materials - Class 5.2 substances (organic peroxides)
    AS 5263.0-2013 Gas appliances - General requirements
    AS 3814-1998 Code for Industrial and Commercial Gas Fired Appliances
    HB 13-2000 Electrical equipment for hazardous areas
    AS 4557-2004 Domestic outdoor gas barbecues
    AS 4552-2005 Gas fired water heaters for hot water supply and/or central heating
    AS 2243.10-1993 Safety in laboratories - Storage of chemicals
    AS 4560-2004 Gas pool heaters
    AS 3892-1995 Pressure equipment - Installation
    AS 3814-2009 Industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances
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