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  • AS 1597.2-1996

    AvailableSuperseded An Available Superseded Standard is one, which has been made available for a period of time although it has been formally superseded by another Standard. Its availability is maintained where it is referenced in legislation/regulations or in other Standards and its use should be restricted to where so referenced. No responsibility is taken by SAI Global as to the ongoing technical validity of such a Standard, the responsibility resting with the referencing authority.
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    Precast reinforced concrete box culverts Large culverts (from 1500 mm span and up to and including 4200 mm span and 4200 mm height)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-04-1996

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1597.2-1996 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERTS - LARGE CULVERTS (FROM 1500 mm SPAN AND UP TO AND INCLUDING 4200 mm
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    7 - 1.2 APPLICATION
    7 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4.1 Administrative
    9 - 1.4.2 Technical
    11 - 1.5 NOTATION
    13 - 1.6 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
    13 - 1.6.1 General
    14 - 1.6.2 Existing structures
    14 - 1.7 TYPES OF CULVERTS
    14 - 1.8 CLASSIFICATION
    14 - 1.8.1 General
    14 - 1.8.2 Size Class
    14 - 1.8.3 Load Class
    16 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS, MANUFACTURE AND DIMENSIONING
    16 - 2.1 SCOPE
    16 - 2.2 FORMWORK
    16 - 2.3 REINFORCEMENT
    16 - 2.3.1 General
    16 - 2.3.2 Welding
    16 - 2.4 CONCRETE MATERIALS
    16 - 2.4.1 Cement
    16 - 2.4.2 Supplementary cementitious materials
    16 - 2.4.3 Aggregates
    16 - 2.4.4 Water
    16 - 2.4.5 Admixtures
    16 - 2.4.6 Restriction on chemical content
    16 - 2.5 SPECIFICATION AND MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
    16 - 2.5.1 Strength grade
    16 - 2.5.2 Manufacture
    17 - 2.6 HANDLING, PLACING AND FINISHING OF CONCRETE
    17 - 2.7 CURING
    17 - 2.7.1 General
    17 - 2.7.2 Moist curing
    17 - 2.7.3 Membrane curing
    17 - 2.7.4 Accelerated curing
    18 - 2.8 JOINTS
    18 - 2.9 DIMENSIONS
    18 - 2.9.1 Internal dimensions
    18 - 2.9.2 Length
    18 - 2.10 COVER TO REINFORCEMENT
    20 - 2.11 MEASUREMENT OF DIMENSIONS
    20 - 2.11.1 General
    20 - 2.11.2 Size dimensions
    21 - 2.11.3 Thickness
    21 - 2.11.4 Cover
    21 - 2.11.5 Length
    21 - 2.12 TOLERANCES
    21 - 2.12.1 General
    21 - 2.12.2 Dimension tolerances
    21 - 2.12.3 Basic shape tolerances
    21 - 2.13 PROVISION FOR LIFTING
    21 - 2.14 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
    22 - 2.15 DEFECTS
    22 - 2.15.1 General
    22 - 2.15.2 Types
    22 - 2.15.3 Acceptability
    23 - 2.16 MARKING
    23 - 2.17 FINISHING AND REPAIRS
    24 - SECTION 3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
    24 - 3.1 GENERAL
    24 - 3.1.1 Scope
    24 - 3.1.2 General design requirements
    25 - 3.2 DESIGN LOADS
    25 - 3.2.1 Dead loads
    26 - 3.2.2 Traffic loads for culverts under roadways
    28 - 3.2.3 Live loads for culverts under railways
    29 - 3.2.4 Load combinations
    30 - 3.2.5 Handling and transport loads
    30 - 3.3 LOAD EFFECT ANALYSIS
    30 - 3.3.1 General
    30 - 3.3.2 Restrained sidesway
    31 - 3.3.3 Effective width of culvert for W7/T44 wheel load
    31 - 3.4 THEORETICAL STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY CALCULATIONS
    31 - 3.4.1 Strength
    31 - 3.4.2 Serviceability
    31 - 3.4.3 Fatigue
    32 - 3.5 REINFORCEMENT DETAILING
    32 - 3.5.1 General
    32 - 3.5.2 Minimum flexural reinforcement
    32 - 3.5.3 Distribution reinforcement
    32 - 3.5.4 Crack control
    34 - SECTION 4 LOAD TESTING FOR DESIGN
    34 - 4.1 SCOPE
    34 - 4.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    34 - 4.2.1 General
    34 - 4.2.2 Prototype proof load tests for serviceability
    34 - 4.2.3 Prototype proof load tests for strength
    34 - 4.2.4 Prototype failure load tests for empirical assessments of design strengths
    34 - 4.2.5 Failure load tests for calibration of a strength prediction model
    34 - 4.3 TEST SPECIMENS
    34 - 4.3.1 General
    34 - 4.3.2 Prototype test specimens
    34 - 4.3.3 Test specimens to calibrate a theoretical strength prediction model
    34 - 4.3.4 Properties of test specimens
    35 - 4.3.5 Strength enhancement factors
    36 - 4.4 TEST LOADS
    36 - 4.4.1 General
    36 - 4.4.2 Proportional loading
    36 - 4.4.3 Critical loading
    37 - 4.4.4 Test loads for regular culverts including standard culverts
    37 - 4.4.5 Test apparatus
    37 - 4.5 PROTOTYPE PROOF LOAD TESTS FOR SERVICEABILITY
    37 - 4.5.1 General
    37 - 4.5.2 Serviceability indicators
    37 - 4.5.3 Crack width
    41 - 4.6 PROTOTYPE PROOF LOAD TESTS FOR ULTIMATE STRENGTH
    41 - 4.6.1 Prototype proof loads for ultimate strength
    42 - 4.6.2 Ultimate strength acceptance criteria based on prototype proof load tests
    42 - 4.7 FAILURE LOAD TESTS
    42 - 4.7.1 Prototype failure load tests for empirical assessments of design strengths
    43 - 4.7.2 Failure load tests for calibration of a strength prediction model
    45 - 4.7.3 Test capacity reduction factor
    47 - SECTION 5 ROUTINE SAMPLING AND TESTING
    47 - 5.1 GENERAL
    47 - 5.2 REQUIRED TESTS
    47 - 5.2.1 General
    47 - 5.2.2 Concrete strength
    47 - 5.2.3 Dimensional accuracy, and cover to reinforcement
    47 - 5.2.4 Crack serviceability test load
    48 - 5.3 SAMPLING FOR LOAD TESTING
    48 - 5.4 COMPLIANCE
    48 - 5.5 ACCEPTANCE
    49 - SECTION 6 INSTALLATION
    49 - 6.1 SCOPE
    49 - 6.2 EXCAVATION
    49 - 6.3 FOUNDATION PREPARATION
    49 - 6.4 PLACING PRECAST UNITS
    50 - 6.5 COMPACTION
    50 - 6.6 BACKFILLING
    51 - 6.7 CONSTRUCTION LOADS ON CULVERTS
    52 - APPENDIX A - PURCHASING GUIDELINES
    52 - A1 GENERAL
    52 - A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    52 - A3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER
    53 - APPENDIX B - MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD
    53 - B1 SCOPE
    53 - B2 STATISTICAL SAMPLING
    53 - B3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
    53 - B4 SUPPLIER’S QUALITY SYSTEM
    54 - B5 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT
    55 - APPENDIX C - LOW PRESSURE STEAM CURING OF CONCRETE UNITS
    55 - C1 SCOPE
    55 - C2 GENERAL
    55 - C3 DEFINITIONS
    55 - C3.1 Initial maturity
    55 - C3.2 Recording thermometer
    55 - C3.3 Temperature probe
    55 - C4 STEAM DELIVERY
    55 - C4.1 Steam points
    55 - C4.2 Avoidance of overheating
    55 - C5 STEAM CURING CYCLES
    55 - C5.1 Initial maturity
    55 - C5.2 Rate of temperature rise
    55 - C5.3 Maximum temperature
    55 - C5.4 Removal of steam covers
    55 - C5.5 Records
    56 - APPENDIX D - METHODS FOR COVER TESTING OF UNITS
    56 - D1 SCOPE
    56 - D2 PRINCIPLE
    56 - D3 APPARATUS
    56 - D4 PROCEDURE
    56 - D4.1 Direct method
    56 - D4.2 Indirect method
    57 - D5 REPORT
    58 - APPENDIX E - MEASUREMENT OF CRACK WIDTH
    58 - E1 SCOPE
    58 - E2 PRINCIPLE
    58 - E3 APPARATUS
    58 - E4 PROCEDURE
    58 - E5 REPORT
    59 - APPENDIX F - GRAVITY FORCES AND DENSITIES OF MATERIALS FOR CULVERT DESIGN
    60 - APPENDIX G - FLOW CHARTS FOR PROTOTYPE TESTING
    66 - APPENDIX H - METHOD FOR CRACK LOAD TESTING (ROUTINE TESTING) OF CULVERT UNITS LINK OR BASE SLABS
    66 - H1 SCOPE
    66 - H2 APPLICATION
    66 - H3 APPARATUS
    66 - H4 SAMPLE PREPARATION
    67 - H5 GENERAL TEST CONSIDERATIONS
    67 - H5.1 Positioning of sample test unit
    67 - H5.2 Rate of loading
    67 - H5.3 Selection and measurement of crack width
    67 - H6 PROCEDURE FOR CRACK SERVICEABILITY TEST LOAD
    67 - H6.1 Procedure
    67 - H6.2 Maximum test load
    67 - H6.3 Determination of test crack width
    67 - H7 REPORT
    70 - APPENDIX I - TABLES OF SERVICEABILITY TEST LOADS FOR STANDARD CULVERT UNITS AND LINK SLABS
    70 - I1 SCOPE
    70 - I2 SERVICEABILITY TEST LOADS
    70 - I3 TEST LOAD METHOD
    72 - APPENDIX J - TABLES OF BASIC TEST LOADS FOR STANDARD CULVERT UNITS AND LINK SLABS
    72 - J1 SCOPE
    72 - J2 BASIC TEST LOADS
    72 - J3 TEST LOAD ARRANGEMENT
    86 - APPENDIX K - SAMPLING SCHEME FOR ROUTINE TESTING
    86 - K1 SCOPE
    86 - K2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    86 - K2.1 Size of batch
    86 - K2.2 Inspection modes and switching rules
    87 - K3 SAMPLING PLAN
    87 - K3.1 Sampling plan for crack load testing

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the design, testing, manufacture and installation of precast reinforced concrete rectangular box culverts, for conveying water not under pressure and for carrying roadway and railway loadings.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design, testing, manufacture and installation of precast reinforced concrete rectangular box culverts for conveying water not under pressure, and for carrying roadway and railway loadings permitted by Australian road and railway authorities.Design requirements are based on the methods of limit state design, using theoretical strength and serviceability calculations, or prototype testing.This Standard is applicable to rectangular precast culvert units having a maximum length of 3600 mm, a maximum height of 4200 mm and a span from 1500 mm to 4200 mm and having a height of fill over the top of the culvert unit not exceeding 10 m.NOTES:1 Guidelines to purchasers on requirements that may need to be agreed upon at the time of calling for tenders or quotations are detailed in Appendix A.2 Methods for demonstrating compliance with this Standard are given in Appendix B.3 For precast reinforced box culverts of internal dimensions exceeding 4200 mm span or height, additional design considerations may be necessary. Additional design considerations are required for special culverts, e.g. skewed ends, culvert units with large holes, culverts subject to loading other than standard roadways and railways loadings.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee CE/26
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status AvailableSuperseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 1597.2-1996.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1289.5.1.1-1993 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of the dry density/moisture content relation of a soil using standard compactive effort
    AS 3582.3-1994 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland cement - Silica fume
    AS 1289.5.4.1-2007 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Compaction control test - Dry density ratio, moisture variation and moisture ratio (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3600-2001 Concrete structures
    AS/NZS ISO 9004.1:1994 Quality management and quality system elements Guidelines
    AS 1302-1991 Steel reinforcing bars for concrete
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS 1289.5.4.1-1993 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Compaction control test - Dry density ratio, moisture variation and moisture ratio
    AS 3582.2-1991 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland cement Slag - Ground granulated iron blast-furnace
    AS 1399-1990 Guide to AS 1199 - Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    AS 1012.1-1993 Methods of testing concrete Sampling of fresh concrete
    AS 1199-1988 Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    HB 18.28-2005 Conformity assessment - Guidance on a third-party certification system for products
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    AS/NZS ISO 8402:1994 Quality management and quality assurance - Vocabulary
    AS 1289.C6.1-1977 Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes Soil classification tests - Determination of the particle size distribution of a soil - Standard method of analysis by sieving
    AS 3600-1994 Concrete structures
    AS 2758.1-1998 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Concrete aggregates
    AS 1289.E3.5-1982 Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes - Part E - Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of the field dry density of a soil - Water replacement method
    AS 1289.E5.1-1977 Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of minimum and maximum dry density of a cohesionless material
    AS 1304-1991 Welded wire reinforcing fabric for concrete
    AS 1303-1991 Steel reinforcing wire for concrete
    AS 1289.5.3.2-2004 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of the field density of a soil - Sand replacement method using a sand pouring can, with or without a volume displacer (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS ISO 9000.1:1994 Quality management and quality assurance standards Guidelines for selection and use
    AS 1289.E6.1-1981 Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Compaction control test - Density index method for a cohesionless material
    AS 1379-2007 Specification and supply of concrete (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS 1012.9-1999 Methods of testing concrete Determination of the compressive strength of concrete specimens
    AS 1478-1992 Chemical admixtures for concrete
    AS 3582.2-2001 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Slag - Ground granulated iron blast-furnace
    AS/NZS 3582.3:2002 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Amorphous silica
    AS 1289.5.3.2-1993 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of the field dry density of a soil - Sand replacement method using a sand pouring can, with or without a volume displacer
    AS 3582.1-1998 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Fly ash
    AS 1012.8-1986 Methods of testing concrete - Method for making and curing concrete compression, indirect tensile and flexure test specimens, in the laboratory or in the field
    AS 1289.5.1.1-2003 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Soil compaction and density tests - Determination of the dry density/moisture content relation of a soil using standard compactive effort
    AS 1726-1993 Geotechnical site investigations

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 5100.5-2004 Bridge design - Concrete
    AS 1597.1-2010 Precast reinforced concrete box culverts Small culverts (not exceeding 1200 mm span and 1200 mm height)
    AS 1597.2 SUPP 1-1997 Precast reinforced concrete box culverts Large culverts (from 1500 mm span and up to and including 4200 mm span and 4200 mm height) - Commentary (Supplement to AS 1597.2-1996)
    AS 5100.3-2004 Bridge design Foundations and soil supporting structures
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