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  • AS 2159-1995

    AvailableSuperseded An Available Superseded Standard is one, which has been made available for a period of time although it has been formally superseded by another Standard. Its availability is maintained where it is referenced in legislation/regulations or in other Standards and its use should be restricted to where so referenced. No responsibility is taken by SAI Global as to the ongoing technical validity of such a Standard, the responsibility resting with the referencing authority.
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    Piling - Design and installation

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  05-08-1995

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2159-1995 PILING - DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    8 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 APPLICATION
    8 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.4.1 Bored cast-in-place pile
    9 - 1.4.2 Cased pile
    9 - 1.4.3 Characteristic strength
    9 - 1.4.4 Cone penetration test (CPT)
    9 - 1.4.5 Continuous flight auger pile (CFA)
    9 - 1.4.6 Design action
    9 - 1.4.7 Design action effect-S*
    9 - 1.4.8 Design geotechnical strength
    9 - 1.4.9 Design serviceability load
    9 - 1.4.10 Design structural strength
    9 - 1.4.11 Driven cast-in-place pile
    9 - 1.4.12 Driven preformed pile
    9 - 1.4.13 Durability
    9 - 1.4.14 End bearing pile
    9 - 1.4.15 Footing
    10 - 1.4.16 Foundation
    10 - 1.4.17 Friction pile
    10 - 1.4.18 Ground anchor
    10 - 1.4.19 Limit state
    10 - 1.4.20 Pile
    10 - 1.4.21 Pile group
    10 - 1.4.22 Pile head
    10 - 1.4.23 Pile heave
    10 - 1.4.24 Professional engineer
    10 - 1.4.25 Raking pile
    10 - 1.4.26 Serviceability
    10 - 1.4.27 Set
    10 - 1.4.28 Standard penetration test (SPT)
    10 - 1.4.29 Temporary compression
    10 - 1.4.30 Test pile
    10 - 1.4.31 Toe
    10 - 1.4.32 Ultimate geotechnical strength
    10 - 1.4.33 Ultimate structural strength
    10 - 1.5 NOTATION
    12 - 1.6 CLASSIFICATION OF PILES
    12 - 1.6.1 General
    12 - 1.6.2 Displacement piles
    12 - 1.6.3 Non-displacement piles
    12 - 1.6.4 Partial displacement, post-grouted and preloaded non-displacement piles
    13 - 1.7 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
    13 - 1.7.1 General
    13 - 1.7.2 Existing structures
    14 - SECTION 2 SITE INVESTIGATIONS
    14 - 2.1 SITE INVESTIGATION
    14 - 2.2 INFORMATION REQUIRED
    15 - SECTION 3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
    15 - 3.1 AIM
    15 - 3.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    15 - 3.2.1 General
    15 - 3.2.2 Design for ultimate strength
    16 - 3.2.3 Design for serviceability
    16 - 3.2.4 Design for durability
    16 - 3.2.5 Design for other relevant requirements
    16 - 3.3 LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICE ABILITY DESIGN
    16 - 3.3.1 Loads and other actions
    17 - 3.3.2 Load combinations for strength design
    17 - 3.3.3 Load combinations for serviceability design
    18 - SECTION 4 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN
    18 - 4.1 SCOPE
    18 - 4.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOTECHNICAL STRENGTH DESIGN
    18 - 4.2.1 Design geotechnical strength
    18 - 4.2.2 Assessment of geotechnical strength reduction factor
    18 - 4.2.3 Assessment of ultimate geotechnical strength
    20 - 4.3 DETAILED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR STRENGTH
    20 - 4.3.1 Ultimate geotechnical strength in compression
    20 - 4.3.2 Ultimate geotechnical strength in uplift
    20 - 4.3.3 Ultimate geotechnical strength of a pile group in compression or uplift
    21 - 4.3.4 Combined pile and raft footing
    22 - 4.3.5 Negative friction
    22 - 4.3.6 Soil swelling
    22 - 4.3.7 Ultimate geotechnical strength for lateral loading
    22 - 4.3.8 Cyclic loading
    22 - 4.3.9 Dynamic loading
    22 - 4.3.10 Earthquake loading
    23 - 4.4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY
    23 - 4.4.1 Design actions
    23 - 4.4.2 Design criteria
    23 - 4.4.3 Deflection limits
    23 - 4.4.4 Geotechnical parameters, for serviceability limit states
    23 - 4.5 DETAILED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SERVICEABILITY
    23 - 4.5.1 Deflection of a pile
    23 - 4.5.2 Combined pile and raft footing
    23 - 4.5.3 Settlement due to negative friction
    23 - 4.5.4 Pile heave due to soil swelling
    24 - 4.5.5 Deflection due to cyclic, dynamic and torsional or other loads
    25 - SECTION 5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
    25 - 5.1 SCOPE
    25 - 5.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH DESIGN
    25 - 5.2.1 Design structural strength
    25 - 5.2.2 Design bending moment
    25 - 5.2.3 Buckling of a pile
    25 - 5.2.4 Pile splice
    26 - 5.3 CONCRETE AND GROUT PILES
    26 - 5.3.1 General
    26 - 5.3.2 Strength reduction factors - concrete piles
    26 - 5.3.3 Strength reduction factors- grout piles
    26 - 5.3.4 Reinforcement requirement
    26 - 5.3.5 Partially reinforced pile
    27 - 5.3.6 Unreinforced piles
    27 - 5.3.7 Prestressed concrete pile
    27 - 5.3.8 Lateral restraint of longitudinal reinforcement and tendons
    27 - 5.4 STEEL PILES
    27 - 5.5 COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE PILES
    27 - 5.6 TIMBER PILES
    27 - 5.6.1 General
    28 - 5.6.2 Cross-sectional area
    28 - 5.6.3 Timber pile splices
    28 - 5.6.4 Connection details
    30 - SECTION 6 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
    30 - 6.1 SCOPE
    30 - 6.2 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY OF CONCRETE PILES
    30 - 6.2.1 General
    30 - 6.2.2 Design life
    30 - 6.2.3 Exposure classification for concrete piles
    30 - 6.2.4 Durability requirements
    32 - 6.3 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY OF STEEL PIPES
    32 - 6.3.1 General
    32 - 6.3.2 Design life
    32 - 6.3.3 Exposure classification for steel piles
    32 - 6.3.4 Corrosion allowance for steel piles
    34 - 6.3.5 Coating protection systems
    34 - 6.3.6 Cathodic protection
    34 - 6.4 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY OF TIMBER PILES
    34 - 6.4.1 Design life
    34 - 6.4.2 Timber selection and treatment
    34 - 6.4.3 Timber preservation
    34 - 6.4.4 Treatment after cut-off
    34 - 6.4.5 Marine piles
    35 - SECTION 7 MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
    35 - 7.1 GENERAL
    35 - 7.1.1 All materials
    35 - 7.1.2 Concrete
    35 - 7.1.3 Grout
    35 - 7.1.4 Steel
    35 - 7.1.5 Timber
    35 - 7.2 TOLERANCES AND DEFECTS
    35 - 7.2.1 Positional tolerances
    35 - 7.2.2 Cut-off levels
    35 - 7.2.3 Trimming and capping
    36 - 7.2.4 Variation in pile depths
    36 - 7.2.5 Defective piles
    36 - 7.3 DISPLACEMENT PILES - PREFORMED
    36 - 7.3.1 Dimensional tolerances
    36 - 7.3.2 Handling and storage
    37 - 7.3.3 Installation
    38 - 7.4 DISPLACEMENT PILES - DRIVEN CAST-IN-PLACE
    38 - 7.4.1 Dimensional accuracy
    38 - 7.4.2 Liners
    38 - 7.4.3 Construction
    39 - 7.5 NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES
    39 - 7.5.1 Dimensional accuracy
    39 - 7.5.2 Support systems
    40 - 7.5.3 Excavation of the pile shaft
    40 - 7.5.4 Base and shaft preparation
    40 - 7.5.5 Construction
    41 - 7.5.6 Continuous flight auger piles
    41 - 7.6 RECORDS OF DATA
    41 - 7.6.1 Driven displacement piles
    42 - 7.6.2 Non-displacement piles
    43 - SECTION 8 TESTING
    43 - 8.1 SCOPE
    43 - 8.2 PILE LOAD TESTING
    43 - 8.2.1 Test load types
    43 - 8.2.2 Information required
    43 - 8.2.3 Acceptance of Piles
    43 - 8.3 STATIC LOAD TESTING
    43 - 8.3.1 Preparation for testing
    43 - 8.3.2 Reaction system
    46 - 8.3.3 Equipment for loading and test measurement
    47 - 8.3.4 Test procedure
    48 - 8.3.5 Incremental sustained load test (ISL)
    49 - 8.3.6 Supervision and recording of results
    49 - 8.3.7 Report
    49 - 8.4 DYNAMIC PILE TESTING
    49 - 8.4.1 General
    50 - 8.4.2 Pile preparation
    50 - 8.4.3 Hammer energy
    50 - 8.4.4 Instrumentation
    50 - 8.4.5 Test procedure
    51 - 8.4.6 Acceptance criteria
    51 - 8.4.7 Supervision and recording of results
    51 - 8.4.8 Report
    51 - 8.5 INTEGRITY TESTING
    51 - 8.5.1 General
    52 - 8.5.2 Preparation for testing
    52 - 8.5.3 Time of testing
    52 - 8.5.4 Test procedure
    52 - 8.5.5 Sonic impact test (SIT)
    52 - 8.5.6 Sonic vibration test
    52 - 8.5.7 Sonic logging test (SLT)
    52 - 8.5.8 Acceptance criteria
    53 - 8.5.9 Supervision and recording of results
    53 - 8.5.10 Report

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies minimum requirements for the design, calculation and testing of piled foundations for civil engineering and building structures, on land and immediate inshore locations.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design, construction and testing of piled footings for civil engineering and building structures on land or immediate inshore locations. It does not extend to offshore (deepwater) construction, or to detached Class 1 building as defined in the Building Code of Australia.NOTES:1 AUSTROADS Bridge Design Code should be considered for the design of footings for road bridges.2 The date of application of the Standard on a mandatory basis is matter for the relevant authority. AS 2159-1978 will be withdrawn following substantial regulatory implementation of this edition, or within two years of publication of this edition, whichever is the earlier.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee CE/18
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note See also AS 2159-1978
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status AvailableSuperseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 2159-1978.Second edition 1995. Originated as AS 2159-1978. Second edition 1995. Incorporating: Amdt 1-1996

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1720.1-1988 Timber structures (known as the SAA Timber Structures Code) - Design methods
    AS 1450-1983 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 3735-2001 Concrete structures for retaining liquids
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    AS 3679.1-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1450-2007 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 2832.3-1992 Cathodic protection of metals - Fixed immersed structures
    AS 1170.1-1981 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Dead and live loads
    AS/NZS 3679.1:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS/NZS 1554.3:2002 Structural steel welding - Welding of reinforcing steel
    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS/NZS 1554.5:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 3678-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 1554.1-1985 Structural steel welding (known as the SAA Structural Steel Welding Code) - Welding of steel structures
    AS 2832.2-2003 Cathodic protection of metals Compact buried structures
    AS 1604-1997 Timber - Preservative-treated - Sawn and round
    AS 1302-1991 Steel reinforcing bars for concrete
    AS 2201.2-2004 Intruder alarm systems Monitoring centres
    AS/NZS 2312:1994 Guide to the protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion
    AS 1170.4-2007 Structural design actions Earthquake actions in Australia (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 3735-1991 Concrete structures for retaining liquids
    AS/NZS 1170.1:2002 Structural design actions Permanent, imposed and other actions
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS 1170.3-1990 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Snow loads
    AS 3600-2001 Concrete structures
    AS 2209-1994 Timber - Poles for overhead lines
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 3600-1994 Concrete structures
    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 3679.2-1991 Structural steel - Welded sections
    AS 1579-1993 Arc welded steel pipes and fittings for water and waste water
    AS/NZS 1554.6:1994 Structural steel welding - Welding stainless steels for structural purposes
    AS 2701.2-1984 Methods of sampling and testing mortar for masonry construction - Methods of sampling
    AS 1720.1-1997 Timber structures - Design methods
    AS 1170.2-1989 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Wind loads
    AS/NZS 2312:2002 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1379-2007 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS 2832.3-2005 Cathodic protection of metals Fixed immersed structures
    AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Structural design actions Wind actions
    AS 1579-2001 Arc-welded steel pipes and fittings for water and wastewater (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2832.2-1991 Cathodic protection of metals - Compact buried structures
    AS/NZS 1554.4:2004 Structural steel welding - Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS 1726-1993 Geotechnical site investigations
    AS/NZS 1554.2:2003 Structural steel welding Stud welding (steel studs to steel)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 2870-1996 Residential slabs and footings - Construction
    AS 4678-2002 Earth-retaining structures
    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
    AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Structural design actions General principles
    AS 3533.1-2009 Amusement rides and devices Design and construction
    AS 3818.3-2001 Timber - Heavy structural products - Visually graded Piles
    AS 5100.3-2004 Bridge design Foundations and soil supporting structures
    AS 2159 SUPP 1-1996 Piling - Design and installation - Guidelines (Supplement to AS 2159 - 1995) (Reconfirmed 2018)
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