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  • AS 2316.1-2009

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Artificial climbing structures and challenge courses Fixed and mobile artificial climbing and abseiling walls

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  28-11-2009

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2316.1-2009 ARTIFICIAL CLIMBING STRUCTURES AND CHALLENGE COURSES - FIXED AND MOBILE ARTIFICIAL CLIMBING AND ABSEILING...
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    9 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    9 - 1.1 SCOPE
    9 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    11 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    11 - 1.3.1 Abseiling
    11 - 1.3.2 Acceleration
    11 - 1.3.3 Acceleration pulse
    11 - 1.3.4 Accelerometer
    11 - 1.3.5 Anchor
    11 - 1.3.6 Artificial climbing wall (ACW)
    11 - 1.3.7 Autobelay system
    11 - 1.3.8 Belay system
    11 - 1.3.9 Bouldering
    12 - 1.3.10 Climbing route
    12 - 1.3.11 Competent person
    12 - 1.3.12 Descender device
    12 - 1.3.13 Design load
    12 - 1.3.14 Fall height
    12 - 1.3.15 Fall zone
    12 - 1.3.16 Free space
    12 - 1.3.17 g
    12 - 1.3.18 gmax
    12 - 1.3.19 Ground anchor
    12 - 1.3.20 Head injury criteria (HIC)
    12 - 1.3.21 Impact attenuation system
    13 - 1.3.22 Impact height
    13 - 1.3.23 Impact measurement
    13 - 1.3.24 Impact attenuation test
    13 - 1.3.25 Impact attenuation test position
    13 - 1.3.26 Lead anchor
    13 - 1.3.27 Minimum breaking load
    13 - 1.3.28 Mobile artificial climbing wall
    13 - 1.3.29 Multiple ground anchor system
    13 - 1.3.30 Multiple top-rope anchor system
    13 - 1.3.31 Nominal load
    13 - 1.3.32 Out of service
    13 - 1.3.33 Proof test load
    13 - 1.3.34 Shall
    13 - 1.3.35 Should
    13 - 1.3.36 Span
    13 - 1.3.37 Spotter
    14 - 1.3.38 Stability design loads
    14 - 1.3.39 Stance anchor
    14 - 1.3.40 Top-rope anchor system
    14 - 1.3.41 Transducer
    14 - 1.3.42 Tri-axial accelerometer
    15 - SECTION 2 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
    15 - 2.1 DESIGN
    15 - 2.1.1 Structural requirements
    15 - 2.1.2 Access ways and platforms
    15 - 2.1.3 Hydraulic, pneumatic and propelling equipment
    15 - 2.1.4 Combustibility of materials
    15 - 2.1.5 Lightning protection
    15 - 2.2 VERIFICATION OF THE STRENGTH AND STABILITY OF AN ACW
    15 - 2.2.1 General
    16 - 2.2.2 Verification of strength
    17 - 2.2.3 Verification for stability
    18 - 2.3 IMPACT STRENGTH OF THE ACW SURFACE
    18 - 2.4 BELAY SYSTEMS
    18 - 2.4.1 General
    18 - 2.4.2 Types of belay systems
    23 - 2.4.3 Anchors
    23 - 2.4.4 Ground anchors
    23 - 2.4.5 Lead anchors
    24 - 2.4.6 Top-rope anchor system
    24 - 2.4.7 Marking
    25 - 2.5 GEOMETRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT-MINIMUM CURVE RADIUS
    25 - 2.6 ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
    27 - 2.7 PROOF TESTING
    27 - 2.7.1 Fixed ACW
    27 - 2.7.2 Mobile and temporary ACW
    27 - 2.7.3 Subsequent inspection, maintenance and testing
    27 - 2.8 SURFACE FINISHES AND ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS
    28 - 2.9 FLOOR OR GROUND SURFACING AND IMPACT ATTENUATION
    28 - 2.9.1 General requirements
    28 - 2.9.2 Specific requirements for impact attenuation
    29 - 2.9.3 Impact attenuation testing requirements
    29 - 2.10 FALL ZONES
    29 - 2.10.1 General
    29 - 2.10.2 Fall zone dimensions
    30 - 2.11 DOCUMENTATION
    30 - 2.12 INSTRUCTION MANUAL
    31 - 2.13 COMMISSIONING INSPECTION
    31 - 2.14 EQUIPMENT
    31 - 2.14.1 General
    31 - 2.14.2 Identification
    32 - 2.14.3 Ropes
    32 - 2.14.4 Harnesses
    32 - 2.14.5 Karabiners and connectors
    33 - 2.14.6 Belay systems
    33 - 2.14.7 Descender devices
    33 - 2.14.8 Pulleys
    34 - 2.14.9 Helmets
    34 - 2.14.10 Access ladders
    34 - 2.14.11 Climbing holds
    34 - 2.14.12 Equipment belonging to participants
    35 - SECTION 3 IN-SERVICE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
    35 - 3.1 TESTING AND INSPECTION
    35 - 3.1.1 General
    37 - 3.1.2 Anchorages-Proof testing
    37 - 3.2 MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, REPLACEMENT AND ALTERATION
    37 - 3.3 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE RECORDS
    38 - 3.4 RETIREMENT OF EQUIPMENT FROM SERVICE
    39 - SECTION 4 MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
    39 - 4.1 GENERAL
    39 - 4.2 SUPERVISION
    39 - 4.3 COMPETENCIES
    39 - 4.4 RULES
    39 - 4.5 INDUCTION
    39 - 4.6 SPECTATORS
    39 - 4.7 WORKING AT HEIGHT
    39 - 4.8 FIRST AID
    40 - 4.9 EMERGENCY
    41 - APPENDIX A - LOAD TESTING OF ANCHOR COMPONENTS AND ACW WHERE VERIFICATION BY CALCULATION IS NOT AVAILABLE
    41 - A1 GENERAL
    41 - A2 TEST SAMPLES
    41 - A3 PROCEDURE
    41 - A4 TEST RESULTS
    42 - APPENDIX B - PROOF TESTING
    42 - B1 PROCEDURE FOR ALL PROOF TESTING
    42 - B2 TEST OF ANCHORS
    42 - B2.1 Force application
    42 - B2.2 Components to be tested
    42 - B2.3 Multiple floor and top-rope anchors
    43 - B2.4 Test report
    43 - B3 TEST OF SURFACE INTEGRITY
    43 - B3.1 Force application
    43 - B3.2 Components to be tested
    43 - B3.3 Test report
    43 - B4 TEST OF HOLD INSERT RESISTANCE
    43 - B4.1 Force application
    44 - B4.2 Components to be tested
    44 - B4.3 Test report
    47 - APPENDIX C - BEAUFORT SCALE
    48 - APPENDIX D - STABILITY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF AN ACW
    48 - D1 GENERAL PRINCIPLE
    48 - D2 FOR AN ACW
    48 - D3 FOR A BOULDERING WALL
    49 - APPENDIX E - METHOD FOR STABILITY ASSESSMENT AND WORKED EXAMPLES
    49 - E1 SCOPE
    49 - E2 EQUATIONS RELATING TO COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES
    49 - E3 EXAMPLE CALCULATION FOR AN INTERNAL CLIMBING WALL
    50 - E4 EXAMPLE CALCULATION FOR AN OUTDOOR CLIMBING WALL
    51 - E5 EXAMPLE USING TYPICAL CLIMBING WALL PARAMETERS
    53 - APPENDIX F - IMPACT STRENGTH OF THE CLIMBING SURFACE
    53 - F1 GENERAL
    53 - F2 IMPACT STRENGTH TEST
    53 - F2.1 Basis for test
    53 - F2.2 Test apparatus
    53 - F2.3 Sampling
    53 - F2.4 Procedure
    53 - F2.5 Test results
    56 - APPENDIX G - DETERMINATION OF HIC AND gmax VALUES
    56 - G1 SCOPE
    56 - G2 PRINCIPLE
    56 - G3 APPARATUS
    56 - G3.1 Fall test headform
    56 - G3.2 Accelerometer
    57 - G3.3 Impact measurement equipment
    57 - G4 TEST CONDITIONS
    57 - G4.1 On-site testing
    57 - G4.2 Sample testing
    57 - G5 TEST PROCEDURE
    57 - G5.1 Selecting the test position
    57 - G5.2 Specific test procedures
    58 - G6 CALCULATION OF RESULTS
    58 - G6.1 HIC
    58 - G6.2 Impact profiles
    58 - G7 TEST REPORT
    60 - APPENDIX H - CLIMBING HOLD TESTING
    60 - H1 SCOPE
    60 - H2 SAMPLE PREPARATION
    60 - H3 STRENGTH
    60 - H4 RESISTANCE TO ROTATION
    60 - H5 RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE IN USE
    61 - H6 TEST REPORT
    62 - APPENDIX I - SUSPENSION TRAUMA

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, construction, operation, maintenance and testing of fixed and mobile artificial climbing and abseiling walls and associated components. Includes fixed, indoor, outdoor, permanent, temporary and mobile structures (including inflatable structures) and facilities used for climbing, abseiling and bouldering.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies the minimum requirements for the design, construction, operation, competencies for support personnel, supervision levels, maintenance and testing of fixed and mobile artificial climbing and abseiling walls (ACW) and associated components. It includes fixed, indoor, outdoor, permanent, temporary and mobile structures (including inflatable climbing structures) and facilities used for climbing, abseiling and bouldering.This Standard is not applicable to playground equipment (see AS 4685) or structures associated with bungy jumping activities (see AS/NZS 5848), or theatrical and stunt work.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee SF-047
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 2316.1-2009.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 4685.3-2004 Playground equipment Particular safety requirements and test methods for slides
    AS/NZS 2269.0:2008 Plywood - Structural Specifications
    AS 4685.1-2004 Playground equipment General safety requirements and test methods
    AS 4142.3-1993 Fibre ropes Man-made fibre rope for static life rescue lines
    AS 3533.4.1-2005 Amusement rides and devices - Specific requirements - Land-borne inflatable devices
    AS/NZS 3002:2008 Electrical installations - Shows and carnivals
    AS 2076-1996 Wire-rope grips for non-lifting applications
    AS/NZS 2512.1:2009 Methods of testing protective helmets Definitions and headforms
    AS 4685.2-2004 Playground equipment Particular safety requirements and test methods for swings
    AS 1720.1-1997 Timber structures - Design methods
    AS 1170.4-2007 Structural design actions Earthquake actions in Australia (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Structural design actions General principles
    AS 4497.1-1997 Roundslings - Synthetic fibre - Product specification
    AS/NZS 1892.3:1996 Portable ladders - Reinforced plastic
    AS 4100 SUPP 1-1999 Steel structures - Commentary (Supplement to AS 4100-1998)
    AS/NZS 5848:2000 Code of practice for bungy jumping
    AS 4685.5-2004 Playground equipment Particular safety requirements and test methods for carousels
    AS 3600-2001 Concrete structures
    AS 2321-2006 Short-link chain for lifting purposes
    AS 2319-2001 Rigging screws and turnbuckles
    AS 2318-2006 Swivels for lifting applications
    AS 3533.1-2009 Amusement rides and devices Design and construction
    AS/NZS 1892.1:1996 Portable ladders Metal
    AS 4685.4-2004 Playground equipment Particular safety requirements and test methods for runways
    AS/NZS 2269.1:2008 Plywood - Structural Determination of structural properties - Test methods
    AS 1353.1-1997 Flat synthetic-webbing slings Product specification (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 3600 SUPP 1-1994 Concrete structures - Commentary (Supplement to AS 3600-1994)
    AS 1170.4 SUPP 1-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Earthquake loads - Commentary (Supplement to AS 1170.4-1993)
    AS/NZS 1664.2:1997 Aluminium structures Allowable stress design (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1657-1992 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation
    AS 1720.2-2006 Timber structures Timber properties
    AS/NZS 1170.1:2002 Structural design actions Permanent, imposed and other actions
    AS/NZS 1891.4:2009 Industrial fall-arrest systems and devices Selection, use and maintenance
    AS 2741-2002 Shackles
    AS 3569-1989 Steel wire ropes
    AS/NZS 2269.2:2007 Plywood - Structural Determination of structural properties - Evaluation methods
    AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Structural design actions Wind actions
    AS 1138-2008 Thimbles for wire rope (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS/NZS 4676:2000 Structural design requirements for utility services poles
    AS 4685.6-2004 Playground equipment Particular safety requirements and test methods for rocking equipment
    AS 1720.4-2006 Timber structures - Fire resistance for structural adequacy of timber members
    AS 3533.2-2009 Amusement rides and devices Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 1892.5:2000 Portable ladders - Selection, safe use and care

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1172.2:2014 Sanitary plumbing products Flushing devices and cistern inlet and outlet valves
    AS 3533.4.2-2013 Amusement rides and devices Specific requirements - Contained play facilities
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