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  • AS 2885.1-1997

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1997

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2885.1-1997 PIPELINES-GAS AND LIQUID PETROLEUM - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.0 BASIS OF AS 2885 SERIES OF STANDARDS
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 EXCLUSIONS
    8 - 1.3 RETROSPECTIVE APPLICATION
    8 - 1.4 DEPARTURES FROM THIS STANDARD
    8 - 1.5 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.6 INTERPRETATIONS
    8 - 1.7 CONVERSION TO SI UNITS
    9 - 1.8 ROUNDING OF NUMBERS
    9 - 1.9 NOTATION
    9 - 1.10 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.10.1 Accessory
    9 - 1.10.2 Actual yield stress (AYS)
    9 - 1.10.3 Approved and approval
    9 - 1.10.4 Buckle
    9 - 1.10.5 Casing
    9 - 1.10.6 Collapse
    9 - 1.10.7 Component
    9 - 1.10.8 Construction
    9 - 1.10.9 Control piping
    9 - 1.10.10 Defect
    9 - 1.10.11 Dent
    9 - 1.10.12 Diameter
    9 - 1.10.13 Fitting
    9 - 1.10.14 Fluid
    10 - 1.10.15 Gas
    10 - 1.10.16 Heat
    10 - 1.10.17 High vapour pressure liquid (HVPL)
    10 - 1.10.18 Hoop stress
    10 - 1.10.19 Hot tap
    10 - 1.10.20 Imperfection
    10 - 1.10.21 Inert gas
    10 - 1.10.22 Inspector
    10 - 1.10.23 Leak test
    10 - 1.10.24 Location class
    10 - 1.10.25 Mainline pipework
    10 - 1.10.26 Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
    10 - 1.10.27 May
    10 - 1.10.28 Mechanical interference-fit joint
    10 - 1.10.29 Not applicable
    10 - 1.10.30 Operating authority
    10 - 1.10.31 Petroleum
    10 - 1.10.32 Pig
    10 - 1.10.33 Pig trap (scraper trap)
    10 - 1.10.34 Piping
    10 - 1.10.35 Pre-tested
    10 - 1.10.36 Pressure strength
    11 - 1.10.37 Proprietary item
    11 - 1.10.38 Protection measures-Procedural
    11 - 1.10.39 Protection measures-Physical
    11 - 1.10.40 Regulatory authority
    11 - 1.10.41 Riser
    11 - 1.10.42 Shall
    11 - 1.10.43 Should
    11 - 1.10.44 Sour service
    11 - 1.10.45 Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS)
    11 - 1.10.46 Station pipework
    11 - 1.10.47 Strength test
    11 - 1.10.48 Telescoped pipeline
    11 - 1.10.49 Wall thickness, nominal
    11 - 1.10.50 Nominated Standard
    12 - SECTION 2 SAFETY
    12 - 2.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    12 - 2.2 GENERAL
    12 - 2.2.1 Risk assessment methodology
    12 - 2.2.2 Approval
    12 - 2.2.3 Implementation
    12 - 2.3 RISK IDENTIFICATION
    12 - 2.3.1 Location analysis
    13 - 2.3.2 Threat analysis
    13 - 2.3.3 External interference protection design
    13 - 2.3.4 Failure analysis
    13 - 2.3.5 Determination of hazardous events
    13 - 2.4 RISK EVALUATION
    13 - 2.4.1 General
    13 - 2.4.2 Frequency analysis
    14 - 2.4.3 Consequence analysis
    14 - 2.4.4 Risk ranking
    15 - 2.5 MANAGEMENT OF RISKS
    15 - 2.5.1 General
    15 - 2.5.2 Design stage
    16 - 2.5.3 Operating pipelines
    16 - 2.6 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
    16 - 2.7 ELECTRICAL SAFETY
    16 - 2.8 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
    18 - SECTION 3 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    18 - 3.0 BASIS OF SECTION
    18 - 3.1 QUALIFICATION OF MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    18 - 3.1.1 General
    18 - 3.1.2 Materials and components complying with nominated Standards
    18 - 3.1.3 Materials and components complying with Standards not nominated in this Standard
    19 - 3.1.4 Components, other than pipe, for which no Standards exist
    19 - 3.1.5 Reclaimed pipe
    19 - 3.1.6 Reclaimed accessories, valves and fittings
    19 - 3.1.7 Material and components not fully identified
    19 - 3.1.8 Identification of components
    20 - 3.1.9 Unidentified materials and components
    20 - 3.1.10 Hydrostatic test
    20 - 3.2 PRESSURE-CONTAINING COMPONENTS
    20 - 3.3 CARBON EQUIVALENT
    20 - 3.4 YIELD STRESS
    20 - 3.5 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS
    20 - 3.6 HEATED OR HOT-WORKED ITEMS
    21 - 3.7 RECORDS
    22 - SECTION 4 PIPELINE DESIGN
    22 - 4.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    23 - 4.2 PIPELINE GENERAL
    23 - 4.2.1 Design criteria
    25 - 4.2.2 Design life
    25 - 4.2.3 Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
    25 - 4.2.4 Route
    27 - 4.2.5 External interference protection
    32 - 4.2.6 Control and management of the pipeline system
    35 - 4.3 PIPELINE DESIGN
    35 - 4.3.1 General
    36 - 4.3.2 Design pressure
    36 - 4.3.3 Design temperatures
    36 - 4.3.4 Wall thickness
    37 - 4.3.5 Control, instrument and sampling piping
    38 - 4.3.6 Stress and strain
    41 - 4.3.7 Fracture control
    47 - 4.3.8 Special construction
    48 - 4.3.9 Pipeline assemblies
    50 - 4.3.10 Jointing
    50 - 4.3.11 Supports and anchors
    51 - 4.4 STATIONS
    51 - 4.4.1 General
    51 - 4.4.2 Design
    54 - 4.4.3 Safety
    55 - 4.4.4 Station pipework
    55 - 4.4.5 Station equipment
    56 - 4.4.6 Structures
    57 - 4.4.7 Corrosion protection
    57 - 4.4.8 Electrical installations
    57 - 4.4.9 Drainage
    59 - SECTION 5 MITIGATION OF CORROSION
    59 - 5.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    59 - 5.2 PERSONNEL
    59 - 5.3 RATE OF DEGRADATION
    59 - 5.3.1 Assessment
    59 - 5.3.2 Internal corrosion
    59 - 5.3.3 External corrosion
    59 - 5.3.4 Environment-related cracking
    60 - 5.4 CORROSION MITIGATION
    60 - 5.4.1 General
    60 - 5.4.2 Corrosion mitigation methods
    60 - 5.4.3 Corrosion allowance
    60 - 5.5 CORROSION MONITORING
    61 - 5.6 INTERNAL CORROSION MITIGRATION METHODS
    61 - 5.6.1 General
    61 - 5.6.2 Internal lining
    61 - 5.6.3 Corrosion inhibitors and biocides
    61 - 5.7 EXTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION METHODS
    61 - 5.7.1 General
    61 - 5.7.2 Coating
    62 - 5.7.3 Cathodic protection
    62 - 5.7.4 Protection criteria
    62 - 5.7.5 Design considerations
    63 - 5.7.6 Measurement of potential
    64 - 5.7.7 Electrical earthing
    64 - 5.8 EXTERNAL ANTI-CORROSION COATING
    64 - 5.8.1 Coating system
    64 - 5.8.2 Coating selection
    64 - 5.8.3 Coating application
    64 - 5.8.4 Joint and coating repair
    65 - 5.9 INTERNAL LINING
    65 - 5.9.1 Pipeline lining
    65 - 5.9.2 Joint and repair lining
    66 - SECTION 6 CONSTRUCTION
    66 - 6.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    66 - 6.2 SURVEY
    66 - 6.3 HANDLING OF COMPONENTS
    66 - 6.3.1 General
    66 - 6.3.2 Pipe transport
    66 - 6.3.3 Construction loads
    66 - 6.4 INSPECTION OF PIPE AND COMPONENTS
    66 - 6.4.1 General
    67 - 6.4.2 Ovality
    67 - 6.4.3 Buckles
    67 - 6.4.4 Dents
    67 - 6.4.5 Gouges, grooves and notches
    67 - 6.4.6 Repair of defects
    67 - 6.4.7 Laminations and notches
    67 - 6.5 CHANGES IN DIRECTION
    67 - 6.5.1 Accepted methods for changes in direction
    67 - 6.5.2 Internal access
    68 - 6.5.3 Changing direction at a butt-weld
    68 - 6.5.4 Use of heat
    68 - 6.5.5 Bend fabricated from a forged bend or an elbow
    68 - 6.5.6 Roped bends
    68 - 6.6 COLD-FIELD BENDS
    68 - 6.6.1 General
    68 - 6.6.2 Qualification of cold-field bending procedure
    68 - 6.6.3 Acceptance limits for field bends
    69 - 6.7 FLANGED JOINTS
    69 - 6.8 COVERING SLABS, BOX CULVERTS, CASINGS AND TUNNELS
    70 - 6.9 SYSTEM CONTROLS
    70 - 6.10 ATTACHMENT OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS
    70 - 6.10.1 General
    70 - 6.10.2 Aluminothermic welding with qualification
    71 - 6.11 LOCATION
    71 - 6.11.1 Position
    71 - 6.11.2 Clearances
    71 - 6.12 CLEARING AND GRADING
    71 - 6.13 TRENCH CONSTRUCTION
    71 - 6.13.1 Safety
    71 - 6.13.2 Separation of topsoil
    71 - 6.13.3 Dimensions of trenches
    71 - 6.13.4 Bottoms of trenches
    71 - 6.13.5 Scour
    72 - 6.14 INSTALLATION OF A PIPE IN A TRENCH
    72 - 6.15 PLOUGHING-IN AND DIRECTIONALLY DRILLED PIPELINES
    72 - 6.16 REINSTATEMENT
    72 - 6.17 CLEANING AND GAUGING PIPELINES
    72 - 6.18 RECORDS
    74 - SECTION 7 INSPECTIONS AND TESTING
    74 - 7.1 GENERAL
    74 - 7.2 INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN AND PROCEDURES
    74 - 7.3 PERSONNEL
    74 - 7.4 PRESSURE TESTING
    74 - 7.4.1 Application
    74 - 7.4.2 Exemptions from a field pressure test
    74 - 7.4.3 Test procedure
    74 - 7.4.4 Minimum test pressures
    75 - 7.4.5 Testing with a gas
    76 - 7.4.6 Pressure testing loads
    76 - 7.4.7 Acceptance criteria
    76 - 7.5 COMMENCEMENT OF PATROLLING
    76 - 7.6 RECORDS
    77 - APPENDIX A - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    77 - A1 IDENTIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
    77 - A2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    81 - APPENDIX B - ELECTRICAL HAZARDS ON PIPELINES AND INTERACTION WITH CATHODIC PROTECTION (CP)
    81 - B1 INTRODUCTION
    81 - B2 CATEGORIES
    81 - B3 HAZARD MECHANISMS
    81 - B4 LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION (LFI)
    83 - B5 A.C. ELECTRIFIED RAILWAY OR SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) LINES
    83 - B6 EARTH POTENTIAL RISE (ERP)
    85 - B7 CAPACITIVE COUPLING
    85 - B8 INTERACTION OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTION WITH CP
    85 - B9 FARADAY CAGES
    85 - B10 OTHER HAZARDS
    86 - B11 CONCLUSION
    87 - APPENDIX C - PREFERRED METHOD FOR TENSILE TESTING OF WELDED LINE PIPE DURING MANUFACTURE
    87 - C1 APPLICABILITY
    87 - C2 METHOD FOR DETERMINING TENSILE PROPERTIES
    87 - C3 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE
    88 - APPENDIX D - FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TEST METHODS
    88 - D1 SCOPE
    88 - D2 SAMPLING
    88 - D3 FRACTURE APPEARANCE TESTING FOR CONTROL OF BRITTLE FRACTURE
    88 - D3.1 General
    88 - D3.2 Test specimens
    88 - D3.3 Test temperature
    88 - D3.4 Criteria of acceptance
    88 - D4 ENERGY ABSORPTION TESTING FOR CONTROL OF LOW ENERGY TEARING DUCTILE FRACTURE
    88 - D4.1 General
    88 - D4.2 Test specimens
    89 - D4.3 Test temperature
    89 - D4.4 Criteria of acceptance
    90 - APPENDIX E - DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE PROTECTION
    90 - E1 INTRODUCTION
    90 - E2 DEFINITION OF DESIGN EVENTS
    91 - E3 PROTECTION DESIGN
    92 - E4 PENETRATION RESISTANCE
    93 - APPENDIX F - FRACTURE CONTROL PLAN FOR STEEL PIPELINES
    93 - F1 SCOPE
    93 - F2 FACTORS AFFECTING BRITTLE AND TEARING (DUCTILE) FRACTURE
    93 - F2.1 General
    93 - F2.2 Exclusions
    93 - F2.3 Fluid parameters
    94 - F2.4 Operating parameters
    95 - F2.5 Calculation of Charpy energy requirements for the arrest of ductile tearing fracture
    97 - APPENDIX G - FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION
    97 - GI GENERAL
    97 - G2 INTERNAL CORROSION
    97 - G3 EXTERNAL CORROSION
    98 - G4 ENVIRONMENT RELATED CRACKING
    99 - APPENDIX H - ENVIRONMENT RELATED CRACKING
    99 - H1 GENERAL
    99 - H2 HIGH pH (CLASSICAL) STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
    99 - H2.1 Description
    99 - H2.2 Conditions
    100 - H3 LOW pH (NEAR NEUTRAL) STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
    100 - H3.1 Description
    100 - H3.2 Conditions
    100 - H4 HYDROGEN SULFIDE CRACKING
    100 - H4.1 General
    100 - H4.2 HIC
    101 - H4.3 SSC
    101 - H4.4 Mitigation
    101 - H5 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS TO MITIGATE STRESS- CORROSION CRACKING
    101 - H5.1 General
    101 - H5.2 Stress
    102 - H5.3 Cyclic variation of stress
    102 - H5.4 Pipeline anti-corrosion coating
    102 - H5.5 Surface condition
    102 - H5.6 Cathodic protection system
    102 - H5.7 Pipe wall temperature
    103 - APPENDIX I - INFORMATION FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION
    104 - APPENDIX J - PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION FOR COLD FIELD BENDS
    104 - J1 INTRODUCTION
    104 - J2 BASIS OF REQUIREMENTS FOR COLD FIELD BENDS
    105 - J3 OBJECTIVES
    105 - J4 SUGGESTED METHOD
    108 - INDEX

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the design and construction of steel pipelines and associated piping components that are used to transmit single phase and multiphase hydrocarbon fluids. Applies where the temperature of a fluid is within the range of -30 degrees Celsius to 200 degrees Celsius, and either the maximum allowable operating pressure is more than 1050 kPa or the hoop stress exceeds 20 percent of the specified minimum yield.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for the design and construction of steel pipelines and associated piping and components that are used to transmit single phase and multiphase hydrocarbon fluids, such as natural and manufactured gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gasoline, crude oil, natural gas liquids and liquid petroleum products. The Standard applies where-(a) the temperatures of the fluid are not more than 200C nor less than -30C; and (b) either the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of the pipeline is more than 1050 kPa, or at one or more positions in the pipeline the hoop stress exceeds 20% of the SMYS.Except for the exclusions listed in Clause 1.2, this Standard applies to flowlines and gathering pipelines on land and between submarine production facilities. The Standard also applies to pipelines between terminals (see Figures 1.1(A) and 1.1(B)). The extent of the pipelines extends only to where the pipeline is connected to facilities designed according to other Standards. In general, flowlines commence at the wellhead assembly outlet valve on a wellhead, terminate at the inlet valve of the collection manifold, and include piping within facilities integral with the pipeline, such as compressor stations, pump stations, valve stations and metering stations.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee ME-038
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Amendment 1 see DR 99490 First published in part as part of AS CB28-1972.
    Revised and redesignated AS 1697-1975.
    AS 1958 first published 1976.
    AS 2018 first published 1977.
    Second edition AS 1697-1979.
    Third edition 1981.
    Second edition AS 1958-1981.
    Second edition AS 2018-1981.
    AS 1958-1981 and parts of AS 1697-1981 and AS 2018-1981 revised, amalgmated and redesignated AS 2885-1987.
    Parts of AS 1697-1981, AS 2018-1981 and AS 2885-1987 revised, amalgamated and redesignated in part as AS 2885.1-1997. First published in part as part of AS CB28-1972. Revised and redesignated AS 1697-1975. AS 1958 first published 1976. AS 2018 first published 1977. Second edition AS 1697-1979. Third edition 1981. Second edition AS 1958-1981. Second edition AS 2018-1981. AS 1958-1981 and parts of AS 1697-1981 and AS 2018-1981 revised, amalgmated and redesignated AS 2885-1987. Parts of AS 1697-1981, AS 2018-1981 and AS 2885-1987 revised, amalgamated and redesignated in part as AS 2885.1-1997.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1100.401-1984 Technical drawing Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules) (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 1697-1981 Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline Code)
    AS 1929-1981 Non-destructive testing - Glossary of terms
    AS 1680.2.1-1993 Interior lighting - Circulation spaces and other general areas
    AS 2812-1985 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms
    AS 1319-1994 Safety signs for the occupational environment (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads
    AS 1158.1-1986 The lighting of urban roads and other public thoroughfares - Performance and installation design requirements
    AS 2885.2-1995 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS 3859-1991 Effects of current passing through the human body
    AS 1544.2-1989 Methods for impact tests on metals - Charpy V-notch
    AS 2528-1982 Bolts, studbolts and nuts for flanges and other high and low temperature applications
    AS 1978-1987 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Field pressure testing (known as the SAA Code for Field Pressure Testing of Pipelines)
    AS 1530.1-1994 Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Combustibility test for materials
    AS 1518-1979 Extruded high density polyethylene protective coating for pipes
    AS 1391-1991 Methods for tensile testing of metals
    AS/NZS 3931(INT):1995 Risk analysis of technological systems - Application guide
    AS 2885.3-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance
    AS 1349-1986 Bourdon tube pressure and vacuum gauges (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2430.1-1987 Classification of hazardous areas - Explosive gas atmospheres
    AS 1330-1974 Method for the dropweight tear test of ferritic steels
    AS 1376-1973 Conversion factors (incorporating Amdts 1 and 2)
    AS 1855-1976 Methods for the determination of transverse tensile properties of round steel pipes
    AS 3862-1991 External fusion-bonded epoxy coating for steel pipes
    AS 2518-1992 Fusion-bonded low-density polyethylene coating for pipes and fittings
    AS 2706-1984 Numerical values - Rounding and interpretation of limiting values
    AS 4041-1998 Pressure piping
    AS 1345-1995 Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2832.1-1985 Guide to the cathodic protection of metals - Pipes, cables and ducts

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 2885.2-2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS 4564-2005 Specification for general purpose natural gas
    AS/NZS 2832.1:1998 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS/NZS 2885.5:2002 Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum - Field pressure testing
    AS/NZS 2430.3.4:2004 Classification of hazardous areas - Examples of area classification - Flammable gases
    AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS 2832.1-2004 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS 3846-2005 The handling and transport of dangerous cargoes in port areas
    AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
    AS 4041-2006 Pressure piping
    AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS 2885.3-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 3788:2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 4568-2005 Preparation of a safety and operating plan for gas networks
    AS 3846-1998 The handling and transport of dangerous cargoes in port areas
    AS 2885.3-2001 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 3788:2001 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 4564-2003 (AG 864) Specification for general purpose natural gas
    AS 4799-2000 Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway boundaries
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