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  • AS 2885.1-2007

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  25-05-2007

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2885.1-2007 PIPELINES-GAS AND LIQUID PETROLEUM - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    4 - PREFACE
    8 - CONTENTS
    17 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    17 - 1.1 SCOPE
    17 - 1.2 GENERAL
    17 - 1.3 RETROSPECTIVE APPLICATION
    18 - 1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    18 - 1.5 DEFINITIONS
    18 - 1.5.1 Accessory
    18 - 1.5.2 Approved and approval
    18 - 1.5.3 As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)
    18 - 1.5.4 Buckle
    18 - 1.5.5 Casing
    18 - 1.5.6 Collapse
    18 - 1.5.7 Competent person
    18 - 1.5.8 Common threats
    18 - 1.5.9 Component
    18 - 1.5.10 Construction
    18 - 1.5.11 Control piping
    19 - 1.5.12 Critical defect length
    19 - 1.5.13 Defect
    19 - 1.5.14 Dent
    19 - 1.5.15 Failure
    19 - 1.5.16 Fitting
    19 - 1.5.17 Fluid
    19 - 1.5.18 Gas
    19 - 1.5.19 Heat
    19 - 1.5.20 High consequence area
    19 - 1.5.21 High vapour pressure liquid (HVPL)
    19 - 1.5.22 Hoop stress
    19 - 1.5.23 Hot tap
    20 - 1.5.24 Inspector
    20 - 1.5.25 Leak test
    20 - 1.5.26 Licensee
    20 - 1.5.27 Location class
    20 - 1.5.28 May
    20 - 1.5.29 Mechanical interference-fit joint
    20 - 1.5.30 Nominated Standard
    20 - 1.5.31 Non-credible threat
    20 - 1.5.32 Non-location specific threat
    20 - 1.5.33 Petroleum
    20 - 1.5.34 Pig
    20 - 1.5.35 Pig trap (scraper trap)
    20 - 1.5.36 Pipework, mainline
    20 - 1.5.37 Pipework, station
    21 - 1.5.38 Piping
    21 - 1.5.39 Pretested
    21 - 1.5.40 Pressure, design
    21 - 1.5.41 Pressure, maximum allowable operating (MAOP)
    21 - 1.5.42 Pressure, maximum operating (MOP)
    21 - 1.5.43 Pressure strength
    21 - 1.5.44 Propagating fracture
    21 - 1.5.45 Proprietary item
    21 - 1.5.46 Protection measures, procedural
    21 - 1.5.47 Protection measures, physical
    21 - 1.5.48 Regulatory authority
    21 - 1.5.49 Rupture
    21 - 1.5.50 Safety management study or process
    21 - 1.5.51 Shall
    21 - 1.5.52 Should
    22 - 1.5.53 Sour service
    22 - 1.5.54 Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS)
    22 - 1.5.55 Strength test
    22 - 1.5.56 Telescoped pipeline
    22 - 1.5.57 Threat
    22 - 1.5.58 Wall thickness, design pressure (tP)
    22 - 1.5.59 Wall thickness, required (tW)
    22 - 1.5.60 Wall thickness, nominal(tN)
    22 - 1.6 SYMBOLS AND UNITS
    24 - 1.7 ABBREVIATIONS
    26 - SECTION 2 SAFETY
    26 - 2.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    26 - 2.2 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
    26 - 2.2.1 Approval
    27 - 2.2.2 Documentation
    27 - 2.2.3 Implementation
    27 - 2.2.4 Safety management study validation
    27 - 2.2.5 Operational Review
    28 - 2.3 SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROCESS
    28 - 2.3.1 General
    29 - 2.3.2 Threats
    31 - 2.3.3 Controls
    32 - 2.3.4 Failure analysis
    33 - 2.3.5 Risk assessment
    33 - 2.3.6 Demonstration of fault tolerance
    33 - 2.4 STATIONS, PIPELINE FACILITIES AND PIPELINE CONTROL SYSTEMS
    33 - 2.4.1 General
    33 - 2.4.2 Safety assessments
    34 - 2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
    34 - 2.6 ELECTRICAL
    35 - 2.7 CONSTRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING
    35 - 2.7.1 Construction safety
    36 - 2.7.2 Testing safety
    36 - 2.7.3 Commissioning safety
    37 - SECTION 3 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    37 - 3.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    37 - 3.2 QUALIFICATION OF MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    37 - 3.2.1 General
    37 - 3.2.2 Materials and components complying with nominated Standards
    38 - 3.2.3 Materials and components complying with Standards not nominated in this Standard
    39 - 3.2.4 Components, other than pipe, for which no Standard exists
    39 - 3.2.5 Reclaimed pipe
    39 - 3.2.6 Reclaimed accessories, valves and fittings
    40 - 3.2.7 Identification of components
    40 - 3.2.8 Material and components not fully identified
    40 - 3.2.9 Unidentified materials and components
    40 - 3.2.10 Hydrostatic test
    40 - 3.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPONENTS TO BE WELDED
    40 - 3.3.1 Welding of prequalified materials
    40 - 3.3.2 Materials specifications
    40 - 3.4 ADDITIONAL MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS
    40 - 3.4.1 Yield strength
    40 - 3.4.2 Pipe Yield to Tensile Ratio
    41 - 3.4.3 Strength de-rating
    41 - 3.4.4 Fracture toughness
    41 - 3.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPERATURE°AFFECTED ITEMS
    41 - 3.5.1 General
    42 - 3.5.2 Items heated subsequent to manufacture
    42 - 3.5.3 Pipe operated at elevated temperatures
    42 - 3.5.4 Pipe exposed to cryogenic temperatures
    42 - 3.6 MATERIALS TRACEABILITY AND RECORDS
    42 - 3.7 RECORDS
    43 - SECTION 4 DESIGN-GENERAL
    43 - 4.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    44 - 4.2 ROUTE
    44 - 4.2.1 General
    44 - 4.2.2 Investigation
    45 - 4.2.3 Route selection
    45 - 4.2.4 Route identification
    46 - 4.3 CLASSIFICATION OF LOCATIONS
    46 - 4.3.1 General
    46 - 4.3.2 Measurement length
    46 - 4.3.3 Location classification
    46 - 4.3.4 Primary location class
    47 - 4.3.5 Secondary location class
    48 - 4.4 PIPELINE MARKING
    48 - 4.4.1 General
    49 - 4.4.2 Sign location
    50 - 4.4.3 Sign design
    51 - 4.5 SYSTEM DESIGN
    51 - 4.5.1 Design Basis
    52 - 4.5.2 Maximum velocity
    52 - 4.5.3 Design life
    53 - 4.5.4 Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
    54 - 4.5.5 Minimum strength test pressure
    54 - 4.6 ISOLATION
    54 - 4.6.1 General
    55 - 4.6.2 Isolation plan
    55 - 4.6.3 Review of isolation plan
    55 - 4.6.4 Isolation valves
    56 - 4.7 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR HIGH CONSEQUENCE AREAS
    56 - 4.7.1 General
    57 - 4.7.2 No rupture
    57 - 4.7.3 Maximum discharge rate
    57 - 4.7.4 Change of location class
    58 - 4.8 FRACTURE CONTROL
    58 - 4.8.1 General
    59 - 4.8.2 Fracture control plan
    62 - 4.8.3 Specification of toughness properties for brittle fracture control
    62 - 4.8.4 Specification of toughness properties for tearing fracture control
    65 - 4.8.5 Critical defect length
    66 - 4.9 LOW TEMPERATURE EXCURSIONS
    66 - 4.10 ENERGY DISCHARGE RATE
    67 - 4.11 RESISTANCE TO PENETRATION
    67 - 4.11.1 General
    67 - 4.11.2 Penetration resistance requirements
    68 - 4.11.3 Calculation of resistance to penetration
    69 - SECTION 5 PIPELINE DESIGN
    69 - 5.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    69 - 5.2 DESIGN PRESSURE
    69 - 5.2.1 Internal pressure
    69 - 5.2.2 External pressure
    70 - 5.3 DESIGN TEMPERATURES
    70 - 5.4 WALL THICKNESS
    70 - 5.4.1 Nominal wall thickness (tN)
    71 - 5.4.2 Required wall thickness (tW)
    71 - 5.4.3 Wall thickness for design internal pressure (tP)
    72 - 5.4.4 Wall thickness for design internal pressure of bends
    72 - 5.4.5 Wall thickness design for external pressure
    73 - 5.4.6 Allowances (G)
    73 - 5.4.7 Pipe manufacturing tolerance (H)
    73 - 5.4.8 Wall thickness summary
    75 - 5.5 EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE PROTECTION
    75 - 5.5.1 General
    75 - 5.5.2 Depth of cover
    76 - 5.5.3 Depth of cover-Rock trench
    77 - 5.5.4 Design for protection-General requirements
    78 - 5.5.5 Physical controls
    79 - 5.5.6 Procedural controls
    81 - 5.5.7 Other protection
    81 - 5.6 PREQUALIFIED PIPELINE DESIGN
    81 - 5.6.1 Minimum requirements
    81 - 5.6.2 Prequalified design coverage
    82 - 5.6.3 Prequalified design does not apply
    82 - 5.6.4 Prequalified design not permitted
    82 - 5.6.5 Prequalified design special cases
    83 - 5.7 STRESS AND STRAIN
    83 - 5.7.1 General
    83 - 5.7.2 Terminology
    84 - 5.7.3 Stresses due to normal loads
    86 - 5.7.4 Stresses due to occasional loads
    86 - 5.7.5 Stresses due to construction
    86 - 5.7.6 Hydrostatic pressure testing
    87 - 5.7.7 Fatigue
    87 - 5.7.8 Summary of stress limits
    87 - 5.7.9 Plastic strain and limit state design methodologies
    88 - 5.8 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
    88 - 5.8.1 General
    89 - 5.8.2 Above°ground piping
    89 - 5.8.3 Pipeline with reduced cover or above ground
    92 - 5.8.4 Tunnels and shafts
    92 - 5.8.5 Directionally drilled crossings
    92 - 5.8.6 Submerged crossings
    93 - 5.8.7 Pipeline attached to a bridge
    94 - 5.8.8 Road and railway reserves
    97 - 5.9 PIPELINES ASSEMBLIES
    97 - 5.9.1 General
    97 - 5.9.2 Scraper assemblies
    97 - 5.9.3 Mainline valve assembly
    97 - 5.9.4 Isolating valve assembly
    97 - 5.9.5 Branch connection assembly
    98 - 5.9.6 Attachment of pads, lugs and other welded connections
    98 - 5.9.7 Special fabricated assemblies
    99 - 5.10 JOINTING
    99 - 5.10.1 General
    99 - 5.10.2 Welded joints
    99 - 5.10.3 Flanged joints
    100 - 5.10.4 Threaded fittings
    100 - 5.10.5 Other types
    100 - 5.11 SUPPORTS AND ANCHORS
    100 - 5.11.1 General
    101 - 5.11.2 Settlement, scour, and erosion
    101 - 5.11.3 Design
    101 - 5.11.4 Forces on an above-ground pipeline
    101 - 5.11.5 Attachment of anchors, supports, and clamps
    101 - 5.11.6 Restraint due to soil friction
    102 - 5.11.7 Anchorage at a connection
    102 - 5.11.8 Support of branch connections
    103 - SECTION 6 STATION DESIGN
    103 - 6.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    103 - 6.2 DESIGN
    103 - 6.2.1 Location
    104 - 6.2.2 Layout
    104 - 6.2.3 Other considerations
    104 - 6.2.4 Safety
    107 - 6.3 STATION PIPEWORK
    107 - 6.3.1 Design standard
    107 - 6.3.2 Pipework subject to vibration
    107 - 6.4 STATION EQUIPMENT
    107 - 6.4.1 General
    108 - 6.4.2 Pressure vessels
    108 - 6.4.3 Proprietary equipment
    108 - 6.4.4 Equipment isolation
    108 - 6.4.5 Station valves
    109 - 6.5 STRUCTURES
    109 - 6.5.1 General
    109 - 6.5.2 Buildings
    109 - 6.5.3 Below°ground structures
    110 - 6.5.4 Corrosion protection
    110 - 6.5.5 Electrical installations
    110 - 6.5.6 Drainage
    112 - SECTION 7 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL DESIGN
    112 - 7.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    112 - 7.2 CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF PIPELINE SYSTEM
    112 - 7.2.1 Pipeline pressure control
    114 - 7.2.2 Separation of pipeline sections with different MAOP
    114 - 7.2.3 Pipeline facility control
    114 - 7.3 FLUID PROPERTY LIMITS
    114 - 7.4 SCADA-SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITIONS SYSTEM
    115 - 7.5 COMMUNICATION
    115 - 7.6 CONTROL FACILITIES
    116 - SECTION 8 MITIGATION OF CORROSION
    116 - 8.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    116 - 8.2 PERSONNEL
    116 - 8.3 RATE OF DEGRADATION
    116 - 8.3.1 Assessment
    117 - 8.3.2 Internal corrosion
    117 - 8.3.3 External corrosion
    117 - 8.3.4 Environmentally assisted cracking
    117 - 8.3.5 Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)
    117 - 8.4 CORROSION MITIGATION METHODS
    117 - 8.4.1 General
    117 - 8.4.2 Corrosion mitigation methods
    118 - 8.5 CORROSION ALLOWANCE
    118 - 8.6 CORROSION MONITORING
    119 - 8.7 INTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION METHODS
    119 - 8.7.1 General
    119 - 8.7.2 Internal lining
    119 - 8.7.3 Corrosion inhibitors and biocides
    120 - 8.7.4 Corrosion°resistant materials
    120 - 8.8 EXTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION METHODS
    120 - 8.8.1 General
    120 - 8.8.2 Coating
    121 - 8.8.3 Cathodic protection
    121 - 8.8.4 Design considerations
    122 - 8.8.5 Measurement of potential
    123 - 8.8.6 Electrical earthing
    123 - 8.9 EXTERNAL ANTI-CORROSION COATING
    123 - 8.9.1 Coating system
    123 - 8.9.2 Coating selection
    123 - 8.9.3 Coating application
    124 - 8.9.4 Joint and coating repair
    124 - 8.10 INTERNAL LINING
    124 - 8.10.1 Pipeline lining
    124 - 8.10.2 Joint and lining repair
    125 - SECTION 9 UPGRADE OF MAOP
    125 - 9.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    125 - 9.2 MAOP UPGRADE PROCESS
    125 - 9.2.1 Process stages
    125 - 9.2.2 Upgrade Design Basis
    126 - 9.2.3 Data collection
    127 - 9.2.4 Engineering analysis
    129 - 9.2.5 Safety management study
    129 - 9.2.6 Rectification
    129 - 9.2.7 Revised MAOP
    129 - 9.2.8 Approval
    129 - 9.2.9 Commissioning and testing
    129 - 9.2.10 Records
    130 - SECTION 10 CONSTRUCTION
    130 - 10.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    130 - 10.2 SURVEY
    130 - 10.2.1 General
    130 - 10.2.2 Survey accuracy
    130 - 10.2.3 Horizontal directional drilled installation
    131 - 10.2.4 Records
    131 - 10.3 HANDLING OF PIPE AND COMPONENTS
    131 - 10.3.1 General
    131 - 10.3.2 Pipe transport
    131 - 10.3.3 Construction loads
    132 - 10.4 INSPECTION OF PIPE AND COMPONENTS
    132 - 10.4.1 General
    132 - 10.4.2 Ovality
    132 - 10.4.3 Buckles
    132 - 10.4.4 Dents
    132 - 10.4.5 Gouges, grooves and notches
    132 - 10.4.6 Repair of defects
    133 - 10.4.7 Laminations and notches
    133 - 10.5 CHANGES IN DIRECTION
    133 - 10.5.1 Accepted methods for changes in direction
    133 - 10.5.2 Internal access
    133 - 10.5.3 Changing direction at a butt weld
    133 - 10.5.4 Bend fabricated from a forged bend or an elbow
    133 - 10.5.5 Roped bends
    133 - 10.6 COLD-FIELD BENDS
    133 - 10.6.1 General
    134 - 10.6.2 Qualification of cold-field bending procedure
    134 - 10.6.3 Acceptance limits for field bends
    135 - 10.7 FLANGED JOINTS
    135 - 10.8 WELDED JOINTS
    135 - 10.9 COVERING SLABS, BOX CULVERTS, CASINGS AND TUNNELS
    135 - 10.10 SYSTEM CONTROLS
    136 - 10.11 ATTACHMENT OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS
    136 - 10.11.1 General
    136 - 10.11.2 Aluminothermic welding
    137 - 10.12 LOCATION
    137 - 10.12.1 Position
    137 - 10.12.2 Clearances
    137 - 10.13 CLEARING AND GRADING
    137 - 10.14 TRENCH CONSTRUCTION
    137 - 10.14.1 Safety
    138 - 10.14.2 Separation of topsoil
    138 - 10.14.3 Dimensions of trenches
    138 - 10.14.4 Bottoms of trenches
    138 - 10.14.5 Scour
    138 - 10.15 INSTALLATION OF A PIPE IN A TRENCH
    138 - 10.15.1 General
    138 - 10.15.2 Installation requirement
    139 - 10.15.3 Development of specifications and procedures
    139 - 10.16 PLOUGHING-IN AND DIRECTIONALLY DRILLED PIPELINES
    139 - 10.16.1 General
    140 - 10.16.2 Testing of coating integrity within directionally drilled installations
    140 - 10.17 SUBMERGED CROSSINGS
    140 - 10.18 REINSTATEMENT
    140 - 10.19 TESTING OF COATING INTEGRITY OF BURIED PIPELINES
    141 - 10.20 CLEANING AND GAUGING PIPELINES
    142 - SECTION 11 INSPECTIONS AND TESTING
    142 - 11.1 BASIS OF SECTION
    142 - 11.2 INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN AND PROCEDURES
    142 - 11.3 PERSONNEL
    142 - 11.4 PRESSURE TESTING
    142 - 11.4.1 Application
    142 - 11.4.2 Exemptions from a field pressure test
    142 - 11.4.3 Pre-tested pipe
    143 - 11.4.4 Test procedure
    143 - 11.4.5 Strength test pressures
    143 - 11.4.6 Testing with air or gas
    144 - 11.4.7 Pressure°testing loads
    145 - 11.4.8 Acceptance criteria
    145 - 11.5 COMMENCEMENT OF PATROLLING
    146 - SECTION 12 DOCUMENTATION
    146 - 12.1 RECORDS
    147 - 12.2 RETENTION OF RECORDS
    148 - APPENDIX A - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    148 - A1 IDENTIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
    148 - A2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    153 - APPENDIX B - SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROCESS
    153 - B1 GENERAL
    154 - B2 WHOLE OF LIFE PIPELINE SAFETY MANAGEMENT
    156 - B2.1 Project phases
    157 - B3 Pre-requisites for safety management studies
    159 - APPENDIX C - THREAT IDENTIFICATION
    159 - C1 GENERAL
    159 - C2 DESCRIPTION OF THREATS
    159 - C2.1 External interference
    160 - C2.2 Corrosion
    160 - C2.3 Natural events
    160 - C2.4 Operations and maintenance
    161 - C2.5 Design defects
    161 - C2.6 Material defects
    161 - C2.7 Construction defects
    162 - C2.8 Intentional damage
    162 - C2.9 Other threats
    163 - APPENDIX D - DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE PROTECTION
    163 - D1 INTRODUCTION
    163 - D2 DEFINITION OF DESIGN EVENTS
    164 - D3 EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE PROTECTION DESIGN
    166 - APPENDIX E - EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCEDURAL CONTROLS FOR THE PREVENTION OF EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE DAMAGE TO PIPELINES
    166 - E1 GENERAL
    167 - E2 EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCEDURAL CONTROLS
    167 - E3 CAUSES OF FAILURE OF PROCEDURAL CONTROLS
    168 - E4 LIAISON
    168 - E4.1 Landowner liaison
    168 - E4.2 Third°party liaison
    169 - E5 COMMUNITY AWARENESS PROGRAMS
    169 - E6 ONE-CALL SERVICES
    170 - E7 MARKING
    170 - E7.1 Pipeline markers
    171 - E7.2 BURIED MARKER TAPE
    171 - E8 AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER ENTITIES
    172 - E9 PLANNING NOTIFICATION ZONES
    172 - E10 PATROLLING
    172 - E11 REMOTE INSTRUSION MONITORING
    173 - APPENDIX F - QUALITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
    173 - F1 GENERAL
    173 - F2 CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS
    174 - F3 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS
    174 - F4 RISK RANKING
    175 - F5 RISK TREATMENT
    175 - F5.1 General
    175 - F5.2 ALARP
    176 - F5.3 Risk treatment during design
    176 - F5.4 Risk treatment during operation
    177 - APPENDIX G - ALARP
    177 - G1 GENERAL
    177 - G2 THE CONCEPT OF ALARP
    178 - G3 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES
    179 - APPENDIX H - INTEGRITY OF THE SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROCESS
    179 - H1 INTRODUCTION
    179 - H2 INTEGRITY REVIEW CONCEPTS
    179 - H2.1 Approval
    179 - H2.2 Specific information for specific threats
    179 - H2.3 Effective controls
    180 - H2.4 Positive confirmation
    180 - H3 INTEGRITY CHECKING
    180 - H3.1 General
    180 - H3.2 Methodology
    180 - H3.3 Personnel
    181 - H3.4 Data and documentation
    187 - APPENDIX I - ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
    187 - I1 GENERAL
    188 - I2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROCESS
    189 - APPENDIX J - PREFERRED METHOD FOR TENSILE TESTING OF WELDED LINE PIPE DURING MANUFACTURE
    189 - J1 APPLICABILITY
    189 - J2 METHOD FOR DETERMINING TENSILE PROPERTIES
    189 - J3 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE
    190 - APPENDIX K - FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TEST METHODS
    190 - K1 SCOPE
    190 - K2 SAMPLING
    190 - K3 FRACTURE APPEARANCE TESTING FOR CONTROL OF BRITTLE FRACTURE
    190 - K3.1 General
    190 - K3.2 Test specimens
    190 - K3.3 Test temperature
    190 - K3.4 Criteria of acceptance
    191 - K4 ENERGY ABSORPTION TESTING FOR CONTROL OF LOW ENERGY TEARING DUCTILE FRACTURE
    191 - K4.1 General
    191 - K4.2 Test specimens
    191 - K4.3 Test temperature
    191 - K4.4 Criteria of acceptance
    192 - APPENDIX L - FRACTURE CONTROL PLAN FOR STEEL PIPELINES
    192 - L1 GENERAL
    192 - L2 THE BASIS OF FRACTURE CONTROL
    193 - L3 FACTORS AFFECTING BRITTLE AND TEARING DUCTILE FRACTURE
    193 - L3.1 General
    193 - L3.2 Fluid parameters
    194 - L3.3 Operating parameters
    196 - L3.4 Diameter limits
    196 - L3.5 Calculation of Charpy energy requirements for the arrest of ductile tearing fracture
    196 - L4 GUIDANCE ON TEST TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATION
    199 - L5 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
    199 - L5.1 Smaller diameter-High pressure pipe
    200 - L5.2 Decompression behaviour and rich and multi-phase gases
    200 - L6 REFERENCES
    202 - APPENDIX M - CALCULATION OF RESISTANCE TO PENETRATION
    202 - M1 GENERAL
    202 - M2 CALCULATIONS
    202 - M3 TOOTH AND HOLE DIMENSIONS
    204 - M4 TOOL FORCE
    204 - M5 FACTOR B
    206 - M6 AUSTRALIAN FIELD TRIALS
    207 - APPENDIX N - FATIGUE
    207 - N1 GENERAL
    207 - N2 MATERIALS
    207 - N3 DESIGN
    207 - N3.1 General
    208 - N3.2 Definition of fatigue life
    209 - N3.3 Definition of stress cycles
    209 - N3.4 Revalidation
    210 - APPENDIX O - FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION
    210 - O1 GENERAL
    210 - O2 INTERNAL CORROSION
    210 - O3 EXTERNAL CORROSION
    211 - O4 ENVIRONMENTALLY ASSISTED CRACKING
    211 - O5 CORROSION PRIOR TO COMMISSIONING
    213 - APPENDIX P - ENVIRONMENT°RELATED CRACKING
    213 - P1 GENERAL
    213 - P2 HIGH pH (CLASSICAL) STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
    213 - P2.1 Description
    213 - P2.2 Conditions
    214 - P3 LOW pH (NEAR NEUTRAL) STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
    214 - P3.1 Description
    214 - P3.2 Conditions
    215 - P4 HYDROGEN SULFIDE CRACKING
    215 - P4.1 General
    215 - P4.2 Hydrogen°induced cracking (HIC)
    215 - P4.3 Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC)
    216 - P5 HYDROGEN°ASSISTED COLD CRACKING (HACC)
    216 - P6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS TO MITIGATE STRESS°CORROSION CRACKING
    216 - P6.1 General
    217 - P6.2 Stress
    217 - P6.3 Cyclic variation of stress
    217 - P6.4 Pipeline anti-corrosion coating
    217 - P6.5 Age of pipeline
    218 - P6.6 Soil environment
    218 - P6.7 Surface preparation
    218 - P6.8 Cathodic protection system
    218 - P6.9 Pipe wall temperature
    219 - P7 REFERENCES
    220 - APPENDIX Q - INFORMATION FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION
    222 - APPENDIX R - MITIGATION OF EFFECTS FROM HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL POWERLINES
    222 - R1 GENERAL
    222 - R1.1 Powerline effects
    222 - R1.2 High voltage direct current transmission lines
    222 - R1.3 Mitigative measures
    223 - R2 NATURE OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
    223 - R2.1 General
    223 - R2.2 Physical damage to the structure or its coating.
    223 - R2.3 Risk to personnel who may be in contact with or close proximity to the structure
    223 - R2.4 Cathodic protection
    223 - R3 HAZARD MECHANISMS
    223 - R3.1 General
    224 - R3.2 Low frequency induction under operating conditions
    224 - R3.3 Low frequency induction under fault conditions
    224 - R3.4 Earth potential rise
    225 - R3.5 Capacitive coupling
    225 - R3.6 Conductive coupling
    225 - R3.7 Lightning
    226 - R4 ACCEPTABLE VOLTAGE LIMITS
    226 - R4.1 General
    226 - R4.2 Category A (see AS/NZS 4853)
    226 - R4.3 Category B (see AS/NZS 4853)
    227 - R4.4 Voltage limits during construction or maintenance activities.
    227 - R4.5 Voltage limits on buried sections of pipeline.
    227 - R5 ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD
    228 - R6 PROTECTIVE MEASURES
    228 - R7 PERSONNEL SAFETY DURING PIPELINE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
    228 - R7.1 General
    228 - R7.2 Operational activities
    229 - R7.3 Pipe excavation
    229 - R7.4 Equipotential mats
    229 - R7.5 Protective equipment
    229 - R7.6 Pipe continuity
    230 - APPENDIX S - PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION FOR COLD FIELD BENDS
    230 - S1 INTRODUCTION
    230 - S2 BASIS OF REQUIREMENTS FOR COLD FIELD BENDS
    231 - S3 OBJECTIVES
    233 - S4 SUGGESTED METHOD
    235 - APPENDIX T - GUIDELINES FOR THE TENSIONING OF BOLTS IN THE FLANGED JOINTS OF PIPING SYSEMS
    235 - T1 INTRODUCTION
    235 - T2 NOTATION
    238 - T3 THE EFFECT OF THE GASKET ON THE LOAD CARRIED
    238 - T4 STRENGTH CAPACITY OF A BOLT
    238 - T5 INITIAL LOAD AND PRELOAD
    239 - T6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN APPLIED TORQUE AND TENSION
    240 - T7 LOADS IMPOSED ON A BOLT
    240 - T8 COMBINED STRESSES
    240 - T8.1 Stresses during installation
    241 - T8.2 Stresses during operation
    241 - T8.3 Stresses during the hydrostatic pressure test
    242 - T9 FATIGUE FROM OPERATING LOADS
    242 - T10 THE EFFECTS OF PIPING LOADS ON FLANGED JOINTS
    243 - T11 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
    243 - T12 COMPONENTS OF THE FLANGE ASSEMBLY
    243 - T13 DERATING OF ALLOWABLE STRESS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
    244 - T14 ALLOWABLE STRESS LIMITS
    244 - T15 WORKED EXAMPLE
    244 - T15.1 Details for the worked example
    244 - T15.2 Gasket compression and test pressure
    245 - T15.3 Operating loads
    245 - T15.4 The applied load (Q)
    246 - T15.5 The applied torque (T)
    246 - T15.6 Combined stress level in the bolts during installation
    247 - T15.7 Stress level in the bolts during the hydrostatic pressure test
    247 - T15.8 Sustained stress level in the bolts during operation
    247 - T15.9 Fatigue stress level during operation
    249 - T16 VALIDATION OF THE TORQUE WRENCH TIGHTENING PROCEDURE
    251 - APPENDIX U - STRESS TYPES AND DEFINITIONS
    251 - U1 GENERAL
    251 - U2 STRESSES IN RESTRAINED PIPELINES
    251 - ¿U2.1 Hoop or circumferential pressure stress (¿H)
    252 - ¿U2.2 Longitudinal pressure stress (¿L)
    252 - U2.3 Longitudinal thermal expansion stress
    252 - ¿U2.4 Bending stress ¿W
    253 - ¿U2.5 Direct axial stresses ¿F and ¿other
    253 - ¿U2.6 Sustained stress (¿sus)
    253 - ¿U2.7 Total longitudinal stress (¿T)
    253 - U2.8 Total shear stress ()
    254 - ¿U2.9 Combined equivalent stress (¿c)
    254 - U3 STRESSES IN UNRESTRAINED PIPELINES
    254 - ¿U3.1 Hoop or circumferential pressure stress (¿H)
    254 - ¿U3.2 Longitudinal pressure stress (¿L)
    255 - ¿U3.3 Thermal expansion stress (¿E)
    255 - ¿U3.4 Bending stress (¿w)
    256 - ¿U3.5 Direct axial stresses ¿F and ¿other
    256 - ¿U3.6 Sustained stress (¿sus)
    256 - U3.7 Total shear stress ()
    256 - U4 STRESSES IN ALL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS
    256 - ¿U4.1 Occasional stress (¿o)
    258 - APPENDIX V - EXTERNAL LOADS
    258 - V1 GENERAL
    258 - V2 API RPI 1102
    258 - V3 LOAD SITUATIONS
    259 - V4 VEHICLE LOADS
    259 - V5 EQUIVALENT API RP 1102 LOADS
    260 - V6 OTHER DESIGN METHODS
    262 - APPENDIX W - COMBINED EQUIVALENT STRESS
    262 - W1 INTRODUCTION
    262 - W2 DESIGN LIMITS
    263 - W3 DISCUSSION OF DESIGN FACTOR, STRESS AND TEMPERATURE
    263 - W4 DESIGN ENVELOPES
    264 - W5 DERIVATION OF STRESS AND TEMPERATURE VALUES
    264 - W5.1 The von Mises formula
    266 - W5.2 Tresca formulae
    272 - APPENDIX X - PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS
    272 - X1 GENERAL
    272 - X2 FAILURE MODES AND CRITERIA
    273 - X3 RESTRAINED AND UNRESTRAINED PIPE
    273 - X4 SUSTAINED AND SELF-LIMITING LOADS
    274 - X5 THEORIES OF FAILURE (TRESCA AND VON MISES)
    275 - X6 YIELDING
    275 - X7 COMPUTATION OF STRESSES
    277 - APPENDIX Y - RADIATION CONTOUR
    277 - Y1 GENERAL
    277 - Y2 FULL BORE RUPTURE OF GAS PIPELINE
    280 - Y3 LEAK FROM GAS PIPELINE
    281 - Y4 LIQUID HYDROCARBON PIPELINES
    282 - APPENDIX Z - REINFORCEMENT OF WELDED BRANCH CONNECTIONS
    282 - Z1 SCOPE
    282 - Z2 REINFORCEMENT OF SINGLE WELDED BRANCH CONNECTIONS
    283 - Z3 Reinforcement of multiple openings
    283 - Z3.1 Overlapping of effective reinforcement areas
    283 - Z3.2 Minimum distance between adjacent openings
    283 - Z3.3 Closely spaced openings
    283 - Z4 EXTRUDED OUTLET
    288 - APPENDIX AA - FIBREGLASS PIPE-MANUFACTURE, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS
    288 - AA1 INTRODUCTION
    288 - AA2 PIPE PROPERTIES
    288 - AA2.1 Physical properties
    289 - AA2.2 Damage
    290 - AA2.3 Failure modes
    290 - AA3 PIPE SPECIFICATION
    290 - AA3.1 Pressure definition
    291 - AA3.2 Process conditions
    291 - AA3.3 Hydrostatic test conditions
    292 - AA3.4 Bends
    292 - AA3.5 Pressure design
    292 - AA3.6 Joint selection
    293 - AA4 PIPE MANUFACTURE
    293 - AA4.1 ISO 14692/API 15HR/API 15LR/Other
    293 - AA4.2 Shop testing
    293 - AA4.3 Quality records
    294 - AA5 PIPELINE DESIGN
    294 - AA5.1 General
    294 - AA5.2 Physical properties of the pipe required for design and analysis
    295 - AA5.3 Structural design
    295 - AA5.4 Transient loads
    295 - AA5.5 Load combinations
    295 - AA5.6 Design tools
    296 - AA5.7 Burial and crossing design
    296 - AA5.8 Environmental loads
    296 - AA5.9 External interference risk
    296 - AA5.10 Static electricity
    296 - AA5.11 Fire
    296 - AA5.12 Hazardous area classification
    296 - AA6 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION
    296 - AA6.1 General
    296 - AA6.2 Competence and training
    297 - AA6.3 Receipt, storage and handling
    297 - AA6.4 Installation
    297 - AA6.5 Supervision and inspection
    298 - AA6.6 Quality records
    298 - AA6.7 Hydrostatic testing
    298 - AA6.8 Pigging and gauging
    298 - AA7 MAINTENANCE
    298 - AA7.1 Repair methods

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the design and construction of carbon and carbon-manganese steel pipelines and associated piping and components that are used to transmit single-phase and multi-phase hydrocarbon fluids, such as natural and manufactured gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gasoline, crude oil, natural gas liquids and liquid petroleum products.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for design and construction of carbon and carbon-manganese steel pipelines and associated piping and components that are used to transmit single-phase and multi-phase hydrocarbon fluids, such as natural and manufactured gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gasoline, crude oil, natural gas liquids and liquid petroleum products.The principles are expressed in practical rules and guidelines for use by competent persons.The fundamental principles and the practical rules and guidelines set out in AS 2885.1, AS 2885.2, AS 2885.3 and AS 2885.5 are the basis on which an engineering assessment is to be made where these Standards do not provide detailed requirements appropriate to a specific item.NOTE: AS 2885.4 for offshore submarine pipeline systems is a standalone document.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee ME-038
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in part as part of AS CB28-1972.Revised and redesignated AS 1697-1975.AS 1958 first published 1976.AS 2018 first published 1977.Second edition AS 1697-1979.Third edition 1981.Second edition AS 1958-1981.Second edition AS 2018-1981.AS 1958-1981 and parts of AS 1697-1981 and AS 2018-1981 revised, amalgmated and redesignated AS 2885-1987.Parts of AS 1697-1981, AS 2018-1981 and AS 2885-1987 revised, amalgamated and redesignated in part as AS 2885.1-1997.Second edition 2007. First published in part as part of AS CB28-1972. Revised and redesignated AS 1697-1975. AS 1958 first published 1976. AS 2018 first published 1977. Second edition AS 1697-1979. Third edition 1981. Second edition AS 1958-1981. Second edition AS 2018-1981. AS 1958-1981 and parts of AS 1697-1981 and AS 2018-1981 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 2885-1987. Parts of AS 1697-1981, AS 2018-1981 and AS 2885-1987 revised, amalgamated and redesignated in part as AS 2885.1-1997. Second edition 2007.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 5100.2-2004 Bridge design - Design loads
    AS/NZS 60079.10:2004 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres Classification of hazardous areas (IEC 60079-10:2002 MOD)
    AS 3894.12-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Inspection report - Coating (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS 1680.2.1-1993 Interior lighting Circulation spaces and other general areas
    AS 1319-1994 Safety signs for the occupational environment (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 3000:2000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
    AS 4799-2000 Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway boundaries
    AS 1330-2004 Metallic materials - Drop weight tear test for ferritic steels
    AS 1530.1-1994 Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Combustibility test for materials (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1855-1976 Methods for the determination of transverse tensile properties of round steel pipes
    AS 3920.1-1993 Assurance of product quality - Pressure equipment manufacture
    AS 2885.3-2001 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance
    AS 1929-1981 Non-destructive testing - Glossary of terms
    AS 1210-1997 Pressure vessels
    AS/NZS 1768:2007 Lightning protection
    AS/NZS 1158.1.1:2005 Lighting for roads and public spaces Vehicular traffic (Category V) lighting - Performance and design requirements
    AS 2187.2-2006 Explosives - Storage and use Use of explosives
    AS/NZS 3788:2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 2885.4-2003 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Offshore submarine pipeline systems
    AS 1345-1995 Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1349-1986 Bourdon tube pressure and vacuum gauges (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 2430.3.1:2004 Classification of hazardous areas - Examples of area classification - General
    AS/NZS 1158.1.3:1997 Road lighting Vehicular traffic (Category V) lighting - Guide to design, installation, operation and maintenance
    AS 3894.14-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Inspection report - Daily painting (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS 3894.10-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Inspection report - Daily surface and ambient conditions (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS 2812-2005 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 2566.1:1998 Buried flexible pipelines Structural design
    AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS 4041-2006 Pressure piping (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads
    AS/NZS 2312:2002 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings
    AS 1544.2-2003 Method for impact tests on metals Charpy V-notch (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS/NZS 1518:2002 External extruded high-density polyethylene coating system for pipes (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2832.1-2004 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS 1210 SUPP 2-1999 Pressure vessels - Cold-stretched austenitic stainless steel vessels (Supplement to AS 1210-1997)
    AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
    AS 1210 SUPP 1-1990 Unfired Pressure Vessels - Advanced design and construction (Supplement to AS 1210-1997)
    AS/NZS 4360:2004 Risk management
    AS 3894.1-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Non-conductive coatings - Continuity testing - High voltage (brush) method (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS 5100.2 SUPP 1-2007 Bridge design Design loads - Commentary (Supplement to AS 5100.2 - 2004)
    AS 1170.4 SUPP 1-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Earthquake loads - Commentary (Supplement to AS 1170.4-1993)
    AS/NZS 2885.5:2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Field pressure testing
    AS 3894.13-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Inspection report - Daily (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS 3894.11-2002 Site testing of protective coatings Equipment report (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS/NZS 4853:2000 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
    AS 2528-1982 Bolts, studbolts and nuts for flanges and other high and low temperature applications
    AS 1100.401-1984 Technical drawing Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS/NZS 1200:2000 Pressure equipment
    AS/NZS 2430.3.4:2004 Classification of hazardous areas - Examples of area classification - Flammable gases

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 2885.3-2012 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS/NZS 4645.2:2008 Gas distribution networks Steel pipe systems
    AS/NZS 4645.3:2008 Gas distribution networks Plastics pipe systems
    AS 2885.0-2008 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - General requirements
    AS 2832.1-2004 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS 2885.4-2010 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Submarine pipeline systems
    AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
    AS/NZS 60079.10.1:2009 Explosive atmospheres Classification of areas - Explosive gas atmospheres (IEC 60079-10-1, Ed.1.0(2008) MOD)
    AS/NZS 4853:2012 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
    AS/NZS 4645.1:2008 Gas distribution networks Network management
    AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS/NZS 1596:2008 The storage and handling of LP Gas
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