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  • AS 3961-1991

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Liquefied natural gas - Storage and handling

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1991

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 3961:1991 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS - STORAGE AND HANDLING
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    7 - FIRE SAFETY
    7 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    7 - ENGINEERING FOR FIRE SAFETY
    8 - TREATMENT OF EMERGENCIES
    9 - SECTION 1 - SCOPE AND GENERAL
    9 - 1.1 SCOPE
    9 - 1.2 NEW DESIGNS, INNOVATIONS
    9 - 1.3 INTERPRETATIONS
    9 - 1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.5 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.5.1 Automotive refuelling station
    9 - 1.5.2 Approved, approval
    9 - 1.5.3 Authority
    9 - 1.5.4 Atmospheric tank
    9 - 1.5.5 Boundary
    9 - 1.5.6 Bund
    9 - 1. 5.7 Capacity (of a tank)
    9 - 1.5.8 Combustible liquid
    9 - 1.5.9 Compound
    9 - 1.5.10 Emergency shut- down system
    9 - 1.5.11 Excess-flow valve
    9 - 1.5.12 Fire-resistance level
    9 - 1.5.13 Fire wall
    9 - 1.5.14 Flammable liquid
    10 - 1.5.15 Holding time
    10 - 1.5.16 Ignition source
    10 - 1.5.17 Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
    10 - 1.5.18 Maximum filling level
    10 - 1.5.19 Non-return valve (check valve)
    10 - 1.5.20 On-site facilities
    10 - 1.5.21 Pressure tank
    10 - 1.5.22 Protected works
    10 - 1.5.23 Public place
    10 - 1.5.24 Restricted area
    10 - 1.5.25 Safety valve
    10 - 1.5.26 Tank
    10 - 1.5.27 Tanker
    10 - 1.5.28 Transfer connection
    10 - 1.5.29 Trycock
    10 - 1.5.30 Vapour barrier
    11 - SECTION 2 - GENERAL INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
    11 - 2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    11 - 2.2 TANKS
    11 - 2.2.1 General tank design
    11 - 2.2.2 Tank data plate
    11 - 2.3 PRESSURE AND VACUUM RELIEF
    11 - 2.3.1 Relief devices for tanks
    11 - 2.3.2 Other equipment
    11 - 2.3.3 Discharge from relief devices
    12 - 2.4 GAUGES AND CONTROLS
    12 - 2.4.1 Reserve instrumentation
    12 - 2.4.2 General failsafe requirement
    12 - 2.4.3 Vacuum jacket gauges
    12 - 2.4.4 Leak detection
    12 - 2.5 PLANT EMERGENCY SHUT-DOWN SYSTEMS
    12 - 2.5.1 Where required
    12 - 2.5.2 Exceptions
    12 - 2.5.3 Principles of design
    12 - 2.5.4 Actuation
    12 - 2.5.5 Monitors and alarms
    12 - 2.6 LOCATIONS
    12 - 2.6.1 General
    12 - 2.6.2 Risk assessment
    13 - 2.6.3 Tank location and spacing
    13 - 2.6.4 Liquefaction equi pment
    13 - 2.6.5 Vaporizers
    13 - 2.6.6 Changed site conditions
    14 - 2.6.7 Overhead electricity lines
    14 - 2.6.8 Storage of materials other than LNG
    14 - 2.6.9 Ignition sources
    14 - 2.6.10 Use of vapour barriers and fire walls
    14 - 2.6.11 Construction of vapour barriers
    14 - 2.6.12 Construction of fire walls
    14 - 2.6.13 Use of existing construction
    14 - 2.6.14 Ventilation and access
    15 - 2.7 POTENTIAL FLAME IMPINGEMENT
    15 - 2.8 ROAD AND RAIL TANKER TRANSFER INSTALLATIONS
    15 - 2.8.1 Tank filling connection
    15 - 2.8.2 Tanker-loading connection
    15 - 2.8.3 Remote transfer connection
    15 - 2.8.4 Drive-away protection
    16 - 2.8.5 Emergency shut-down for transfer facilities
    16 - 2.8.6 Separation distances
    16 - 2.8.7 Access for contents gauging
    16 - 2.9 PIPING, VALVES AND ACCESSORIES
    16 - 2.9.1 General design
    16 - 2.9.2 Tank connections
    16 - 2.9.3 Piping joints
    17 - 2.9.4 Interconnected tanks
    17 - 2.9.5 Underground piping
    17 - 2.9.6 Liquid lines between valves
    17 - 2.9.7 Protective valves
    17 - 2.9.8 Piping drain or bleed valves
    17 - 2.9.9 Support of piping
    17 - 2.9.10 Cold-contact hazards
    17 - 2.9.11 Vapour-phase piping
    17 - 2.9.12 Piping within buildings
    17 - 2.9.13 Identification of pipes
    17 - 2.9.14 Testing and inspection
    18 - 2.9.15 Vent and discharge piping
    18 - 2.9.16 Transfer hoses
    18 - 2.9.17 Transfer hose coupling
    18 - 2.10 INSULATION
    18 - 2.10.1 Combustibility
    18 - 2.10.2 Exposed insulation
    18 - 2.10.3 Tank insulation
    18 - 2.11 VAPORIZER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    18 - 2.11.1 Design and construction
    18 - 2.11.2 Marking
    18 - 2.12 VAPORIZER INSTALLATION
    18 - 2.12.1 Compatibility check
    18 - 2.12.2 Shelter
    18 - 2.12.3 Isolation valves
    19 - 2.13 PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS
    19 - 2.13.1 Suitability
    19 - 2.13.2 Isolating valves
    19 - 2.13.3 Output pressure control
    19 - 2.13.4 Internal pressure control
    19 - 2.13.5 Foundations
    19 - 2.13.6 Cool-down provisions
    19 - 2.13.7 Compressor venting
    19 - 2.13.8 Pumps
    19 - 2.13.9 Compressors
    19 - 2.13.10 Location
    19 - 2.14 SECURITY AND DAMAGE PROTECTION
    19 - 2.14.1 Tank security
    19 - 2.14.2 Security fence
    19 - 2.14.3 Damage protection
    20 - 2.15 EARTHING AND BONDING
    20 - 2.15.1 Earthing provision
    20 - 2.15.2 Bonding to tanker
    20 - 2.16 PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
    20 - 2.16.1 Emergency protective equipment
    20 - 2.16.2 Operational protective equipment
    20 - 2.16.3 Requirements
    20 - 2.17 LADDERS, STEPS, AND PLATFORMS
    20 - 2.18 ODORIZERS
    20 - 2.19 MARKINGS AND NOTICES
    20 - 2.19.1 Signs, notices
    20 - 2.19.2 Equipment identification
    20 - 2.20 ILLUMINATION
    21 - SECTION 3 - PRESSURE TANK STORAGES
    21 - 3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    21 - 3.2 TANK DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    21 - 3.2.1 Tank design requirements
    21 - 3.2.2 Holding time
    21 - 3.2.3 Maximum filling level
    21 - 3.2.4 Marking of openings
    21 - 3.3 CONTROLS AND GAUGES
    21 - 3.3.1 Protection of openings
    21 - 3.3.2 Operational flow control system
    21 - 3.3.3 Openings for gauges
    21 - 3.3.4 Vapour pressure gauges
    22 - 3.3.5 Liquid level gauging
    22 - 3.3.6 Boil-off and flash gas
    22 - 3.3.7 Vacuum jacket gauges
    22 - 3.3.8 Temperature indicators
    22 - 3.4 LOCATION AND INSTALLATION
    22 - 3.4.1 Tank location and spacing
    22 - 3.4.2 Foundations and supports
    22 - 3.4.3 Fire resistance of supports
    22 - 3.4.4 Thermal effects
    23 - SECTION 4 - ATMOSPHERIC TANK STORAGES
    23 - 4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    23 - 4.2 TANK DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    23 - 4.2.1 Tank design requirement
    23 - 4.2.2 Concrete containment
    23 - 4.2.3 Maximum filling level
    23 - 4.3 GAUGES AND CONTROLS
    23 - 4.3.1 Flow control system
    23 - 4.3.2 Liquid level gauging
    23 - 4.3.3 Vapour pressure and vacuum gauges
    23 - 4.3.4 Temperature indicators
    23 - 4.3.5 Boil-off and flash gas
    23 - 4.4 LOCATION AND INSTALLATION
    23 - 4.4.1 Location
    23 - 4.4.2 Foundations
    24 - 4.5 SPILLAGE CONTAINMENT AND CONTROL
    24 - 4.5.1 Containment
    24 - 4.5.2 Ground spillage control
    24 - 4.5.3 Compound capacity
    24 - 4.5.4 Compound design and construction
    24 - 4.5.5 Compound drainage
    25 - 4.6 MARINE TRANSFER INSTALLATIONS
    25 - 4.6.1 Installations
    25 - 4.6.2 Pipeline safety
    25 - 4.6.3 Cargo control valves
    25 - 4.6.4 Shore isolation valves
    25 - 4.6.5 Reverse flow protection
    25 - 4.6.6 Vapour return
    26 - SECTION 5 - AUTOMOTIVE REFUELLING STATIONS
    26 - 5.1 APPLICATION
    26 - 5.2 CONTROL OF IGNITION SOURCES
    26 - 5.3 TANK AND PIPING
    26 - 5.3.1 Tank installations
    26 - 5.3.2 Line isolation
    26 - 5.3.3 Emergency shut-down system
    26 - 5.4 FILLING AREA
    26 - 5.4.1 Vehicle standing area
    26 - 5.4.2 Location
    26 - 5.4.3 Illumination
    26 - 5.4.4 Dispenser protection
    26 - 5.5 DISPENSERS
    26 - 5.5.1 Dispensing hose
    26 - 5.5.2 Dispensing nozzle
    26 - 5.5.3 Filler caps
    26 - 5.6 NOTICES, SIGNS, AND INSTRUCTIONS
    26 - 5.6.1 Precautionary sign
    27 - 5.6.2 Emergency procedures
    28 - SECTION 6 - OPERATIONS
    28 - 6.1 APPLICATION
    28 - 6.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCEDURES
    28 - 6.2.1 Procedures required
    28 - 6.2.2 Promul gation of procedures
    28 - 6.2.3 Review and upkeep of procedures
    28 - 6.2.4 Operating procedures
    28 - 6.2.5 Construction and maintenance procedures
    29 - 6.2.6 Emergency procedures
    29 - 6.2.7 Training of personnel
    29 - 6.2.7.1 Employees
    29 - 6.2.7.2 Contractors
    29 - 6.2.7.3 Visitors
    30 - 6.2.7.4 Specialists
    30 - 6.2.7.5 Refresher training
    30 - 6.3 SUPERVISION
    30 - 6.4 RECORDS
    30 - 6.5 COMPLIANCE
    30 - 6.5.1 Compliance with procedures
    30 - 6.5.2 Supervision of compliance
    30 - 6.6 SPECIFIC OPERATING PROCEDURES
    30 - 6.6.1 Commissioning new or modified equipment
    30 - 6.6.2 Outlets not in use
    30 - 6.6.3 Personnel safety
    30 - 6.6.4 Ignition sources
    30 - 6.6.5 Security procedures
    30 - 6.6.6 Vehicles
    31 - 6.6.7 Illumination
    31 - 6.6.8 Contract work
    31 - 6.6.9 Post-installation site work
    31 - 6.7 MAINTENANCE, INSPECTION, TESTING
    31 - 6.7.1 Scheduled checks
    31 - 6.7.2 Authorization of work
    31 - 6.7.3 Work permit
    31 - 6.7.4 Safe procedures
    31 - 6.7.5 Preparation of work site
    31 - 6.7.6 Completion of work
    32 - 6.7.7 Hot work
    32 - 6.7.8 Routine work
    32 - 6.7.9 Open areas
    32 - 6.7.10 Equipment alterations
    32 - 6.7.11 Work within hazardous zones
    32 - 6.7.12 Pits
    32 - 6.7.13 Site upkeep
    32 - 6.8 TANK TRANSPORT OR REMOVAL
    32 - 6.8.1 Storage tanks
    32 - 6.8.2 Portable tanks
    32 - 6. 9 ROAD TANKER OPERATION
    32 - 6.9.1 Delivery vehicle
    32 - 6.9.2 Tanker loading procedures
    32 - 6.9.3 Check of accessories
    32 - 6.9.4 Fire extinguishers
    33 - 6.9.5 Holding time
    33 - 6.9.6 Parking and garaging
    33 - 6.9.7 Tanker servicing and repair
    33 - 6.10 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS FOR BULK TRANSFER
    33 - 6.10.1 Condition of tank
    33 - 6.10.2 Delivery to an unattended tank
    34 - 6.10.3 Initial delivery check
    34 - 6.10.4 Subsequent delivery check
    34 - 6.10.5 Night lighting
    34 - 6.10.6 Safe use of hose
    34 - 6.10.7 Use of protective equipment
    34 - 6.10.8 Tanker location
    34 - 6.11 SUPERVISION OF TRANSFER
    34 - 6.11.1 Number of attendants
    34 - 6.11.2 Driver in attendance
    34 - 6.11.3 Tanker in a street
    34 - 6.12 TRANSFER PROCEDURES
    34 - 6.12.1 Procedures prior to transfer
    35 - 6.12.2 Procedures during transfer
    35 - 6.12.3 Procedures after transfer
    35 - 6.13 MARINE TRANSFER
    35 - 6.13.1 Cargo and stores
    35 - 6.13.2 Traffic control
    35 - 6.13.3 Pre-transfer check
    35 - 6.14 AUTOMOTIVE-REFUELLING STATION OPERATIONS
    35 - 6.14.1 Refuelling personnel, supervision, and control
    35 - 6.14.2 Vehicle engine
    35 - 6.14.3 Filling level
    36 - SECTION 7 - FIRE SAFETY
    36 - 7.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    36 - 7.1.1 Design for fire safety
    36 - 7.1.2 Integration with existing facilities
    36 - 7.1.3 Variations to requirements
    36 - 7.1.4 System compatibility
    36 - 7.1.5 Location
    36 - 7.1.6 Site evaluation, tank installations
    36 - 7.1.7 Automotive refuelling installation
    37 - 7.2 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS
    37 - 7.2.1 Hydrant system
    37 - 7.2.2 Hose reels
    37 - 7.2.3 Monitors
    37 - 7.2.4 Fire extinguishers
    37 - 7.2.5 Water supply
    39 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    41 - APPENDIX B - METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF HOLDING TIME
    41 - B1 INTRODUCTION
    41 - B2 BASIC METHOD
    41 - B3 ALTERNATIVE BOIL-OFF FLOW RATE METHOD
    41 - B4 ROUNDING THE RATED HOLDING TIME
    41 - B5 MULTIPLE VESSELS OF THE SAME DESIGN
    42 - B6 APPLICATION TO OPERATIONAL CONTROL
    42 - B6.1 Object
    42 - B6.2 Preparation of data
    42 - B6.3 Application
    43 - APPENDIX C - CHARACTERISTICS OF LNG
    43 - C1 GENERAL
    43 - C2 CHARACTERISTICS
    45 - APPENDIX D - TANK AND CYLINDER LOCATIONS
    46 - APPENDIX E - HAZARDOUS ZONES
    48 - APPENDIX F - TRANSFER CONNECTION
    49 - APPENDIX G - MAXIMUM FILLING LEVEL OF PRESSURE TANKS
    50 - APPENDIX H - NOTICE OF EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR LNG
    51 - APPENDIX I - TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF WORK PERMIT

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the design, construction and operation of installations for the storage and handling of liquefied natural gas. It deals with two basic types of installation: major installations of atmospheric-type tanks for supplying marine tanker terminals, for pipeline peak saving, and the like; the other type concerns pressure tanks, usually part of a system for distribution by road tanker. It does not deal with any aspects of transport or piped distribution outside the perimeter of the static storage installation.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for the design, construction and operation of installations for the storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG). It does not apply to or deal with-(a) the functional design of liquefaction equipment; (b) frozen-ground storage techniques; (c) aspects of natural gas distribution and use that are covered by other Standards and publications such as pipeline and reticulation codes, appliance and vehicle installation codes, and the like; (d) any transport operations that are covered by the Australian Dangerous Goods Code; or (e) the transport of LNG by ship.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee ME-070
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 3961-1991.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1221-1991 Fire hose reels
    AS 2832.1-1985 Guide to the cathodic protection of metals - Pipes, cables and ducts
    AS 1596-1989 LP Gas - Storage and handling
    AS 1727-1975 Tank containers (international sizes)
    AS 1846-1985 Portable fire extinguishers - Powder type
    AS 2444-1995 Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets - Selection and location
    AS 1697-1981 Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline Code)
    AS 2121-1979 The design of earthquake-resistant buildings (known as the SAA Earthquake Code)
    AS 1530.1-1994 Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Combustibility test for materials
    AS 1851.9-1997 Maintenance of fire protection equipment - Delivery lay flat fire hose
    AS 1715-1982 Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices
    AS 1768-1991 Lightning protection
    AS 1216.1-1984 Classification, hazard identification and information systems for dangerous goods - Classification and class labels for dangerous goods
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1020-1984 The control of undesirable static electricity
    AS 1271-1997 Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges, and other fittings for boilers and unfired pressure vessels
    AS 2419.1-1994 Fire hydrant installations - System design, installation and commissioning
    AS 1850-1981 Portable fire extinguishers - Classification, rating and fire testing
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 2210-1980 Safety footwear (incorporating Amdts 1 and 2)
    AS 2430.3-1991 Classification of hazardous areas - Specific occupancies
    AS 1797-1986 Boilers - Fire-tube, shell, and miscellaneous
    AS 1657-1992 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation
    AS 1337-1984 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS 1851.2-1995 Maintenance of fire protection equipment - Fire hose reels
    AS 1801-1981 Industrial safety helmets (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 1848-1985 Portable fire extinguishers - Halon type
    AS 1345-1995 Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1349-1986 Bourdon tube pressure and vacuum gauges (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1940-1993 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS 2832.2-1991 Cathodic protection of metals - Compact buried structures
    AS 1716-1984 Respiratory protective devices
    AS 1674.2-1990 Safety in welding and allied processes - Electrical
    AS 2161-1978 Industrial safety gloves and mittens (excluding electrical and medical gloves)
    AS 2885-1987 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum known as the SAA Pipeline Code
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 1530.4-1990 Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures - Fire-resistance tests of elements of building construction
    AS 1228-1997 Pressure equipment - Boilers
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules) (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 2441-1988 Installation of fire hose reels
    AS 1894-1997 The storage and handling of non-flammable cryogenic and refrigerated liquids (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS 1851.1-1995 Maintenance of fire protection equipment - Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets
    AS 1851.4-1992 Maintenance of fire protection equipment - Fire hydrant installations
    AS 2809.6-1991 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for cryogenic liquids
    AS 1680.1-1990 Interior lighting - General principles and recommendations
    AS 1847-1985 Portable fire extinguishers - Carbon dioxide type

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 2243.10:2004 Safety in laboratories Storage of chemicals
    AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    HB 37.4-1994 Handbook of Australian fire Standards Building materials, products and construction (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2739-1992 Natural gas fuel systems for vehicle engines
    AS 4332-2004 The storage and handling of gases in cylinders
    AS 4332-1995 The storage and handling of gases in cylinders
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