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  • AS/NZS 1020:1995

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    The control of undesirable static electricity

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-03-1995

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1020:1995 - THE CONTROL OF UNDESIRABLE STATIC ELECTRICITY
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    9 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    9 - 1.1 SCOPE
    9 - 1.2 PURPOSE
    9 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.3.1 Standards
    10 - 1.3.2 Other publications
    11 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    11 - 1.4.1 Antistatic (used as adjective)
    11 - 1.4.2 Bonding
    11 - 1.4.3 Earthing (Grounding)
    11 - 1.4.4 Conductors
    12 - 1.4.5 Non-conductors (insulators)
    12 - 1.4.6 Ignitable materials and mixtures
    12 - 1.4.7 Intrinsically safe circuit
    12 - 1.4.8 Static electricity
    12 - 1.4.9 Static discharge
    12 - 1.4.10 Resistivity
    13 - SECTION 2 GENERATION, INDUCTION AND DANGERS BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
    13 - 2.1 GENERATION OF STATIC
    13 - 2.2 INDUCTION OF STATIC
    13 - 2.3 COMMON SOURCES OF GENERATION
    14 - 2.4 FIRE AND EXPLOSION DANGERS
    14 - 2.5 REMOVAL OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION DANGERS
    14 - 2.6 WORKING SURFACES AND FLOOR SURFACE COVERINGS
    16 - SECTION 3 STATIC DISCHARGES
    16 - 3.1 NATURE OF STATIC DISCHARGES
    16 - 3.2 ENERGY OF A STATIC DISCHARGE
    18 - SECTION 4 SOLID OBJECTS
    18 - 4.1 SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE CONTROL METHOD
    18 - 4.2 CONDUCTING OBJECTS
    18 - 4.2.1 General
    18 - 4.2.2 Earthing
    19 - 4.2.3 Bonding
    19 - 4.2.4 Earthing and bonding conductors
    19 - 4.2.5 Mobile apparatus
    19 - 4.2.6 Rotating shafts
    19 - 4.3 NON-CONDUCTING OBJECTS
    19 - 4.3.1 General
    20 - 4.3.2 Increasing the conductivity of non-conducting objects
    20 - 4.3.3 Increasing the humidity of the air
    20 - 4.3.4 Ionization of the air
    23 - SECTION 5 PERSONS
    23 - 5.1 GENERAL
    23 - 5.2 WEARING APPAREL (OTHER THAN FOOTWEAR)
    23 - 5.3 EARTHING OF PERSONS BY FOOTWEAR
    24 - 5.4 OTHER MEANS OF EARTHING PERSONS
    25 - SECTION 6 LIQUIDS
    25 - 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    25 - 6.1.1 Generation of static
    25 - 6.1.2 Fire and explosion dangers
    25 - 6.1.3 Factors affecting static generation
    27 - 6.1.4 Tendency of particular liquids to generate static
    27 - 6.2 SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF AN APPROPRIATE CONTROL METHOD
    28 - 6.3 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM INSTALLATIONS
    28 - 6.4 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM LIQUIDS
    28 - 6.4.1 Conducting liquids
    28 - 6.4.2 Non-conducting liquids
    28 - 6.5 CONDUCTIVITY IMPROVERS (ANTISTATIC ADDITIVES)
    28 - 6.6 REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD OF STATIC DISCHARGES ABOVE A LIQUID SURFACE
    29 - 6.7 AVOIDANCE OF TURBULENCE
    29 - 6.8 AVOIDANCE OF CONTAMINANTS
    29 - 6.9 AVOIDANCE OF HIGH FLOW VELOCITIES
    29 - 6.9.1 General
    29 - 6.9.2 Hydrocarbons
    30 - 6.9.3 Liquids other than hydrocarbons
    30 - 6.10 USE OF RELAXATION SECTIONS
    31 - 6.11 STATIC CHARGE REDUCERS
    31 - 6.12 METALLIC PIPING
    32 - 6.13 HOSES AND COUPLINGS
    33 - 6.14 FILLING OF VESSELS
    33 - 6.15 NON-CONDUCTING VESSELS
    33 - 6.15.1 General
    33 - 6.15.2 Lined vessels
    33 - 6.15.3 Road tankers
    33 - 6.16 TRANSFER OF SMALL QUANTITIES
    33 - 6.17 BLENDING AND MIXING
    33 - 6.18 SAMPLING FROM HIGH PRESSURE SOURCES
    33 - 6.19 PNEUMATIC TRANSFER OF LIQUIDS
    34 - 6.20 SPRAYING
    34 - 6.21 SWITCH LOADING
    35 - SECTION 7 GASES
    35 - 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    35 - 7.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
    35 - 7.3 PREVENTION OF STATIC ACCUMULATION
    35 - 7.4 REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MATERIALS AND MIXTURES
    36 - SECTION 8 DUSTS
    36 - 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    36 - 8.1.1 General
    36 - 8.1.2 Generation of static
    36 - 8.1.3 Factors influencing static generation and accumulation
    37 - 8.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
    37 - 8.3 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM EQUIPMENT
    37 - 8.3.1 Outlet nozzles
    37 - 8.3.2 Objects in dust streams
    37 - 8.3.3 Sampling
    37 - 8.3.4 Bags and containers for collecting and transporting dust
    38 - SECTION 9 POWDERED OR GRANULAR SOLIDS
    38 - 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    38 - 9.2 HANDLING
    38 - 9.3 CONTROL OF STATIC
    39 - SECTION 10 DRIVE AND CONVEYOR BELTS
    39 - 10.1 GENERATION OF STATIC
    39 - 10.2 CONTROL OF STATIC
    39 - 10.2.1 Replacement of drive
    39 - 10.2.2 Belts
    40 - 10.2.3 Pulleys, idler rollers and shafting
    40 - 10.2.4 Safety guards
    41 - 10.2.5 Materials discharged from conveyors
    42 - SECTION 11 EXPLOSIVES
    42 - 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    42 - 11.2 ASSESSING THE HAZARD
    42 - 11.3 MINIMIZING THE HAZARD
    42 - 11.3.1 Materials of construction
    43 - 11.3.2 The application of suitable surface coating
    43 - 11.3.3 Radioactive ionizers
    43 - 11.3.4 Relative humidity
    43 - 11.3.5 Bonding and earthing
    43 - 11.3.6 Plant arrangement
    43 - 11.3.7 Clothing and footwear
    43 - 11.3.8 Drive belts and conveyor belts
    44 - SECTION 12 PRINTING PROCESSES
    44 - 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    44 - 12.1.1 General
    44 - 12.1.2 Generation of static
    44 - 12.1.3 Factors influencing static generation
    44 - 12.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
    45 - 12.3 PREVENTION OF STATIC ACCUMULATION
    45 - 12.4 REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MIXTURES
    46 - SECTION 13 COATING, SPREADING AND IMPREGNATING
    46 - 13.1 INTRODUCTION
    46 - 13.2 CONTROL OF STATIC AND REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MIXTURES
    47 - SECTION 14 PROCESSING AND CONVERSION OF PLASTICS AND RUBBER MATERIALS
    47 - 14.1 INTRODUCTION
    47 - 14.2 GENERATION OF STATIC
    47 - 14.2.1 Flexible web processes
    47 - 14.2.2 Extrusion processes
    47 - 14.2.3 Moulding processes
    47 - 14.3 CONTROL OF STATIC
    48 - 14.4 SOLUTION CASTING OF FILM
    48 - 14.4.1 General
    48 - 14.4.2 Prevention of static accumulation during film casting
    48 - 14.4.3 Dissolving film waste (Spoil)
    48 - 14.4.4 Removal of flammable mixtures
    48 - 14.5 END-USE APPLICATIONS
    50 - SECTION 15 DRYCLEANING
    50 - 15.1 INTRODUCTION
    50 - 15.2 CONTROL OF STATIC
    50 - 15.2.1 Earthing and bonding
    50 - 15.2.2 Solvent conductivity
    50 - 15.2.3 Humidification
    50 - 15.2.4 Persons
    51 - SECTION 16 SUNDRY PROCESSES INVOLVING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
    51 - 16.1 LOADING AND UNLOADING ROAD TANKERS
    51 - 16.2 RAIL TANK WAGONS
    51 - 16.3 FUELLING AND DEFUELLING AIRCRAFT
    51 - 16.4 LOADING AND UNLOADING TANKERS AND BARGES
    51 - 16.5 FUELLING MOTOR VEHICLES
    51 - 16.6 TRANSFER OF ETHER AND CARBON DISULPHIDE
    52 - SECTION 17 SUNDRY PROCESSES INVOLVING PRESSURIZED GAS
    52 - 17.1 DISCHARGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE
    52 - 17.2 MIXTURES OF HYDROGEN OR ACETYLENE WITH AIR
    52 - 17.3 TRANSFER OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
    52 - 17.4 STEAM JETS
    52 - 17.5 SPRAY PAINTING
    53 - SECTION 18 HANDLING OF ELECTROSTATIC SENSITIVE DEVICES
    53 - 18.1 INTRODUCTION
    53 - 18.2 BASIC PROTECTION PRINCIPLES
    53 - 18.3 LABELLING
    53 - 18.4 TYPES OF PACKAGES AVAILABLE
    53 - 18.4.1 Polymer bags with thin metal coating
    53 - 18.4.2 Coloured polymer bags
    54 - 18.4.3 Polymer bags with high carbon content
    55 - SECTION 19 DETECTION OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL OR ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH
    55 - 19.1 GENERAL
    55 - 19.2 NEON LAMPS
    55 - 19.3 ELECTROSCOPES
    55 - 19.4 OTHER METHODS
    56 - SECTION 20 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL OR ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH
    56 - 20.1 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL WITH CONTACTING INSTRUMENTS
    56 - 20.1.1 Electrostatic voltmeters
    57 - 20.1.2 Electronic voltmeters
    57 - 20.2 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTHWITHNON-CONTACTINGINSTRUMENTS. 20.2.1 General
    57 - 20.2.1 General
    58 - 20.2.2 Electrometers
    58 - 20.2.3 Induction electric field strength meters
    59 - 20.2.4 Radioactive ionization field strength meters
    59 - 20.3 CALIBRATION OF NON-CONTACTING ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS
    60 - 20.4 MEASUREMENTS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
    60 - 20.4.1 General
    60 - 20.4.2 Using an electrostatic or electronic voltmeter
    64 - 20.4.3 Using non-contacting instruments
    65 - SECTION 21 DETERMINATION OF CAPACITANCE
    65 - 21.1 CALCULATION OF CAPACITANCE
    65 - 21.2 CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT
    65 - 21.2.1 General
    65 - 21.2.2 Elimination of errors due to earthing the Cx terminal
    66 - 21.2.3 Elimination of error due to lead capacitance
    67 - SECTION 22 MEASUREMENT OF CHARGES
    67 - 22.1 MEASUREMENT OF STATIC CHARGE
    68 - SECTION 23 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE OR CONDUCTANCE
    68 - 23.1 GENERAL
    68 - 23.2 RESISTANCE OF EARTHING CIRCUITS
    68 - 23.3 RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
    68 - 23.4 PERSONNEL RESISTANCE TESTER
    69 - 23.5 LIQUID CONDUCTIVITY
    71 - APPENDIX A - EXAMPLES OF SOLVING PRACTICAL PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM STATIC
    71 - A1 EXAMPLE WITH DRIVING BELT
    71 - A1.1 Problem
    71 - A1.2 Solution
    71 - A2 EXAMPLE WITH CONDUCTING SHOES
    71 - A2.1 Problem
    71 - A2.2 Solution
    72 - A3 EXAMPLE WITH STATIC COMB
    72 - A3.1 Problem
    72 - A3.2 Solution
    72 - A4 EXAMPLE WITH INSULATING SHEET CHARGED BY CONTACT AND SEPARATION WITH ANOTHER BODY
    72 - A4.1 Problem
    72 - A4.2 Solution
    73 - A5 EXAMPLES WITH LIQUIDS AND RELAXATION SECTIONS
    73 - A5.1 Problem
    73 - A5.2 Solution
    73 - A5.3 Problem
    73 - A5.4 Solution
    74 - A6 EXAMPLE WITH FILM CHARGED BY PASSING THROUGH A MACHINE
    74 - A6.1 Problem
    74 - A6.2 Investigation
    74 - A6.3 Calculation
    75 - A6.4 Evaluation of results
    75 - A6.5 Solution
    76 - APPENDIX B - FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
    76 - B1 VAPOURS
    76 - B1.1 Vapour pressure
    76 - B1.2 Flammable limits
    77 - B1.3 Mists and foams
    77 - B2 REDUCING THE HAZARDS OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
    77 - B2.1 General precautions
    77 - B2.2 Reducing quantity of flammable liquids
    78 - B2.3 Enclosure of flammable mixtures
    78 - B2.4 Preventing formation of flammable mixture.
    80 - APPENDIX C - METHOD FOR LAYING AND EARTHING CONDUCTING FLOORING
    82 - APPENDIX E - CONDUCTING COATINGS FOR DRIVE AND CONVEYOR BELTS
    82 - E1 INTRODUCTION
    82 - E2 GENERAL COATING
    82 - E3 COATING FOR RUBBER BELTS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Provides recommendations relating to safe control of electrostatic charges generated incidentally by processes or activities. Its purpose is to assist in reducing fire, explosion and nuisance aspects associated with static electricity. It outlines conditions under which the presence of static causes a hazard and recommends methods for its safe dissipation or mitigation. Appendices provide information about the hazards caused by static electricity in the vicinity of flammable mixtures, on minimum ignition energies for a range of chemicals and give examples of solving problems resulting from static electricity.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out recommendations for controlling static electricity (hereinafter referred to as 'static') which may be generated incidentally by processes or activities and which may present hazards, damage or inconvenience.Considerations relating to the generation of static and the problems it presents in a given environment are given, together with a description of methods and equipment for measuring electric potential, charge, capacitance and resistance parameters associated with electrostatically charged objects. Specific control methods are given for some industries.The provisions of the standard should not be regarded as overriding statutory requirements, but may be construed as working recommendations to be used in conjunction with such requirements.Methods for minimizing the risk of static causing a fire or explosion arising from the use of flammable medical agents are not included, as they are given in AS 1169. Similarly, methods for affording protection from lightning are not included, as these are given in AS/NZS 1768, nor does this standard include the earthing systems of patient treatment areas in hospitals and the like.NOTE: Examples of the solving of some practical problems resulting from static are given in Appendix A.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee EL-025
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note Pending Revision indicates that as a result of the Aged Standards review process, the document needs updating. If no project proposal, meeting the quality criteria, is received within the 12 month timeframe, the document shall be withdrawn.
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Current
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in Australia as AS 1020-1970.Second edition 1984. First pubished in New Zealand as NZS/AS 1020:1984.Jointly revised and designated as Joint Standard AS/NZS 1020:1995. First published in Australia as AS 1020-1970. Second edition 1984. First published in New Zealand as NZS/AS 1020:1984. Jointly revised and designated as Joint Standard AS/NZS 1020:1995.

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    AS 2187.2-2006 Explosives - Storage and use Use of explosives
    AS 2106-1980 Methods for the determination of the flashpoint of flammable liquids (closed cup)
    AS 2430.1-1987 Classification of hazardous areas - Explosive gas atmospheres
    AS/NZS 1852.0:1996 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Introduction and list of Parts of AS 1852 and IEC 50
    AS 1852.00-1980 International electrotechnical vocabulary - General index
    AS/NZS 1841.1:2007 Portable fire extinguishers General requirements (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS/NZS 2210.1:1994 Occupational protective footwear - Guide to selection, care and use
    AS 3859-1991 Effects of current passing through the human body
    AS 2187.2-1993 Explosives - Storage, transport and use - Use of explosives
    AS 1841.7-1992 Portable fire extinguishers - Vapourizing-liquid type
    AS/NZS 2210.2:1994 Occupational protective footwear Specification
    AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS/NZS 1768:2007 Lightning protection
    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules)
    AS/NZS 2210.2:2000 Occupational protective footwear Requirements and test methods
    AS 1596-1989 LP Gas - Storage and handling
    AS 1841.1-1992 Portable fire extinguishers - General requirements
    AS 1169-1982 Minimizing of combustion hazards arising from the medical use of flammable anaesthetic agents
    AS 1000-1979 The International System of Units (SI) and its application
    AS 1332-1991 Conveyor belting - Textile reinforced
    AS/NZS 1841.7:2007 Portable fire extinguishers Specific requirements for vaporizing liquid type extinguishers (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS 2187.1-1998 Explosives - Storage, transport and use Storage
    AS B282-1968 Industrial castors
    AS 1332-2000 Conveyor belting - Textile reinforced (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1940-1993 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids

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    AS/NZS 1715:2009 Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment
    AS 2507-1998 The storage and handling of agricultural and veterinary chemicals
    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 1940:2017 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS/NZS 1716:2012 Respiratory protective devices
    AS 4363(INT)-1996 Soldering electrical and electronic assemblies
    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 2832.1:1998 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS/NZS 2243.10:2004 Safety in laboratories Storage of chemicals
    AS/NZS 4745:2004 Code of practice for handling combustible dusts
    AS/NZS 1768:2007 Lightning protection
    AS/NZS 3100:2017 Approval and test specification - General requirements for electrical equipment
    AS 2381.10-1995 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Selection, installation and maintenance - Equipment in combustible dust (Class II) areas
    AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS 2832.1-2004 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS/NZS 61241.14:2005 Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust Selection and installation (IEC 61241-14, Ed.1.0(2004) MOD)
    AS/NZS 4645.1:2018 Gas distribution networks Network management
    AS 2834-1995 Computer accommodation
    AS 3765.1-1990 Clothing for protection against hazardous chemicals - Protection against general or specific chemicals
    AS 1473.3-2001 Wood processing machinery - Safety Finishing machinery - Circular sawing machines
    AS 2865-2009 Confined spaces
    AS 1692-2006 Steel tanks for flammable and combustible liquids
    AS 2268-1979 Electrostatic paint and powder sprayguns for explosive atmospheres
    AS 3689.1-1989 Automatic fire extinguishing systems using halogenated hydrocarbons - Halon 1301 total flooding systems
    AS 1894-1997 The storage and handling of non-flammable cryogenic and refrigerated liquids (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS/NZS 1716:2003 Respiratory protective devices
    AS 2809.5-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods Tankers for bitumen-based products
    SAA HB 9-1994 Occupational personal protection
    AS/NZS 4853:2012 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
    AS 2809.2-1999 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for flammable liquids
    AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS/NZS 4645.1:2008 Gas distribution networks Network management
    HB 94-1997 Electrical safety in the workplace
    AS 2809.3-2008 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Road tank vehicles for compressed liquefied gases
    AS/NZS 4745:2012 Code of practice for handling combustible dusts
    AS/NZS 1715:1994 Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices
    HB 213:2003 Guidelines for safe working in a confined space
    AS/NZS 2906:2001 Fuel containers - Portable - plastic and metal
    AS 3961:2017 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS/NZS 3788:1996 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 2714-2008 The storage and handling of organic peroxides (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS 4979-2008 Flammable and combustible liquids - Precautions against electrostatic ignition during tank vehicle loading
    AS 2885.3-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance
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    AS/NZS 1596:1997 Storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS/NZS 2865:2001 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 2809.2-2008 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Road tank vehicles for flammable liquids
    AS 3873-2001 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 2381.1:2005 Electrical equipment for explosive gas atmospheres - Selection, installation and maintenance - General requirements
    AS 4332-2004 The storage and handling of gases in cylinders
    AS 1755-2000 Conveyors - Safety requirements
    AS/NZS 2843.1:2006 Timber preservation plants Timber preservation plant site design (Reconfirmed 2016)
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    AS/NZS 5026:2012 The storage and handling of Class 4 dangerous goods
    AS/NZS 3100:2002 Approval and test specification - General requirements for electrical equipment
    AS 4214:2018 Gaseous fire-extinguishing systems
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    AS/NZS 60079.14:2009 Explosive atmospheres Electrical installations design, selection and erection (IEC 60079-14, Ed. 4.0 (2007) MOD)
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    AS/NZS 3788:2001 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS/NZS 1768(INT):2003 Lightning protection
    AS 4214-2002 Gaseous fire extinguishing systems
    AS 3007.4-2004 Electrical installations - Surface mines and associated processing plant - Additional requirements for specific applications
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