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  • AS/NZS 1554.1:1995

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  05-10-1995

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1554.1:1995 STRUCTURAL STEEL WELDING - WELDING OF STEEL STRUCTURES
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 INNOVATION
    8 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4.1 Fabricator
    8 - 1.4.2 Inspecting authority
    8 - 1.4.3 Inspector
    8 - 1.4.4 May
    8 - 1.4.5 Principal
    8 - 1.4.6 Shall
    8 - 1.4.7 Should
    8 - 1.5 WELD CATEGORIES
    8 - 1.5.1 General
    8 - 1.5.2 Categories
    9 - 1.6 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS
    9 - 1.7 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
    9 - 1.7.1 Welding safety
    9 - 1.7.2 Welding equipment
    10 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    10 - 2.1 PARENT MATERIAL
    10 - 2.2 BACKING MATERIAL
    10 - 2.2.1 Permanent backing material
    10 - 2.2.2 Temporary backing
    10 - 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES
    10 - 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires
    10 - 2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires
    10 - 2.3.3 Flux
    10 - 2.3.4 Shielding gas
    11 - SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
    11 - 3.1 GENERAL
    11 - 3.1.1 Permissible weld types
    11 - 3.1.2 Design requirements
    11 - 3.1.3 Drawings
    11 - 3.2 BUTT WELDS
    11 - 3.2.1 Size of weld
    11 - 3.2.2 Design throat thickness
    12 - 3.2.3 Effective length
    12 - 3.2.4 Effective area
    12 - 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width
    12 - 3.3 FILLET WELDS
    12 - 3.3.1 Size of weld
    12 - 3.3.2 Design throat thickness
    12 - 3.3.3 Effective length
    12 - 3.3.4 Effective area
    12 - 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds
    13 - 3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
    16 - 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS
    16 - 3.4.1 Description of compound weld
    16 - 3.4.2 Design throat thickness
    17 - 3.5 SEAL WELDS
    17 - 3.5.1 Requirement
    17 - 3.5.2 Size of seal weld
    17 - 3.6 PLUG AND SLOT WELDS
    17 - 3.6.1 Plug welds
    17 - 3.6.2 Slot welds
    17 - 3.6.3 Effective areas
    17 - 3.7 WELDS FOR THE PURPOSE OF COMBINING ROLLED STEEL SECTIONS
    19 - SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL
    19 - 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    19 - 4.2 METHOD OF QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    19 - 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    19 - 4.4 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS
    19 - 4.4.1 General
    20 - 4.4.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds
    20 - 4.4.3 Prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds
    20 - 4.4.4 Prequalified fillet welds
    20 - 4.4.5 Additional requirements for welds in hollow section members
    46 - 4.5 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
    46 - 4.5.1 Prequalified welding consumables
    49 - 4.5.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing
    50 - 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING
    50 - 4.6.1 Method of qualification
    50 - 4.6.2 Extent of testing
    50 - 4.6.3 Preparation of special test piece
    50 - 4.6.4 Dimensions of test pieces
    50 - 4.6.5 Macro test
    50 - 4.6.6 Transverse butt tensile test
    50 - 4.6.7 Bend test
    50 - 4.6.8 Charpy impact test
    51 - 4.6.9 Hardness comparison test -parent metal and weld metal
    51 - 4.6.10 Hardness test -heat-affected zone
    51 - 4.6.11 Retests
    51 - 4.7 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION
    54 - 4.8 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES
    54 - 4.8.1 Single process each side of a weld
    54 - 4.8.2 Combination of processes on the same side of a joint
    54 - 4.9 RECORDS OF TESTS
    54 - 4.10 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES
    54 - 4.10.1 Changes in essential variables requiring requalification of welding procedure
    54 - 4.10.2 Minor changes requiring requalification of welding procedure by macro test
    58 - 4.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL
    58 - 4.11.1 Welding supervisor
    58 - 4.11.2 Welders
    59 - SECTION 5 WORKMANSHIP
    59 - 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING
    59 - 5.1.1 General
    59 - 5.1.2 Thermal cutting
    59 - 5.2 ASSEMBLY
    59 - 5.2.1 General
    59 - 5.2.2 Alignment of butt welded joints
    59 - 5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds
    59 - 5.2.4 Separation of a backing material
    60 - 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTERRUN CONTROL
    60 - 5.3.1 General
    60 - 5.3.2 Need for preheating
    60 - 5.3.3 Extent of preheating and cooling after welding
    60 - 5.3.4 Determination of preheating temperature
    61 - 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    61 - 5.4.1 Rain, snow, wind, condensation
    61 - 5.4.2 Low temperature
    62 - 5.5 TACK WELDS
    62 - 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO
    65 - 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS
    65 - 5.7.1 General
    65 - 5.7.2 Welding and cutting under stress
    65 - 5.7.3 Peening
    65 - 5.7.4 Correction of distortion
    68 - 5.8 REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS
    68 - 5.8.1 General
    68 - 5.8.2 Grinding
    68 - 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS
    68 - 5.10 ARC STRIKES
    68 - 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS
    68 - 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS
    69 - SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS
    69 - 6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS
    69 - 6.2 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS
    69 - 6.2.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds
    69 - 6.2.2 Permissible levels of imperfection
    69 - 6.2.3 Adjacent imperfections
    69 - 6.2.4 Qualifications of welding procedure by macro test and side-bend test
    69 - 6.3 RADIOGRAPHY
    69 - 6.3.1 Method
    69 - 6.3.2 IQI sensitivity
    71 - 6.3.3 Acceptance limits
    71 - 6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
    71 - 6.4.1 Method
    71 - 6.4.2 Equipment requirements
    71 - 6.4.3 Evaluation
    71 - 6.4.4 Acceptance Limits
    71 - 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION
    71 - 6.5.1 Method
    71 - 6.5.2 Acceptance limits
    72 - 6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION
    72 - 6.6.1 Method
    72 - 6.6.2 Acceptance limits
    72 - 6.7 WELD DEFECTS
    72 - 6.8 REPORTING
    76 - SECTION 7 INSPECTION
    76 - 7.1 GENERAL
    76 - 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS
    76 - 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK
    76 - 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL EXAMINATION
    76 - 7.4.1 Extent of non-destructive examination
    76 - 7.4.2 Personnel and operator requirements
    77 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    80 - APPENDIX B - BRITTLE FRACTURE
    80 - B1 METHODS
    80 - B2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
    80 - B3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
    80 - B3.1 Basic design temperature
    80 - B3.2 Modifications to the basic design temperature
    80 - B4 MATERIAL SELECTION
    80 - B4.1 Selection of steel type
    80 - B4.2 Limitations
    81 - B4.3 Modification for certain applications
    81 - B5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
    84 - APPENDIX C - A SUITABLE FORM OF WELDING PROCEDURE SHEET
    85 - APPENDIX D - METHOD FOR JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    85 - D1 PREQUALIFIED JOINT IDENTIFICATION
    85 - D2 PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    85 - D3 EXAMPLE
    86 - APPENDIX E - CHECK LIST OF MATTERS FOR DISCUSSION
    87 - APPENDIX F - SUGGESTED EXTENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies materials of construction, weld preparations, weld qualities, qualification of welding procedures, qualification of welding personnel and, fabrication and inspection requirements for welds related to the arc welding of steelwork in structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections or castings and forgings. Tables of weld preparations are given for both butt and fillet welds which when welded in accordance with other specified requirements are deemed prequalified and do not require qualification testing. Provides two categories of welds based on the type of application.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies materials of construction, weld preparations and weld qualities, qualification of welding procedures and welding personnel and fabrication and inspection requirements for welds related to the welding of steelwork in structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes: (a) Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW).(b) Submerged arc welding (SAW).(c) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW), including pulsed mode.(d) Gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW).(e) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).(f) Electroslag (including consumable guide) welding (ESW).(g) Electrogas welding (EGW).The Standard is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 450 MPa. The Standard applies specifically to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with AS 1538, AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1. Where the proportions of welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints which comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as limited by Item (ii) below, or the directly equivalent fatigue provisions of other application Standards. Welded joints complying with the above requirements are those which are -(i) not subject to fatigue conditions; or (ii) subject to fatigue conditions, and -(A) the stress range in the welded joint complies with the permissible stress range of stress categories C, D, E or F of AS 3990, or weld categories lower than or equal to detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; or (B) the stress range in the welded joint is not more than 80 percent of the permissible stress range of stress category B of AS 3990. In addition to the abovementioned structures the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists and other dynamically loaded structures, the welding of road and pedestrian bridges and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural. The Standard does not apply to the welding of structures by the following processes:(1) Oxyacetylene welding (OAW).(2) Friction welding (FW). (3) Thermit welding (TW). (4) Resistance welding (RW).NOTE: Resistance welds in structures complying with AS 1538 should be made in accordance with AWS C1.1. or AWS C1.3, as appropriate. The Standard does not apply to the welding of pressure vessels and pressure piping.The Standard does not cover the design of welded connections or permissible stresses in welds, nor the production, rectification or repair of castings. The Standard does not apply to the welding of pressure vessels and pressure piping. The Standard does not cover the design of welded connections or permissible stresses in welds, nor the production, rectification or repair of castings.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WD-003
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note See also HB 22-1992
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Amendment 1 to AS/NZS 1554.1:1995 see DR 97456 CP. Under Revision see DR 98630 First published as AS CA8-1933.
    Second edition 1939.
    Revised and redesignated in part as Int 352-1952.
    Int 352-1952 and part of AS CA8-1939 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS CA8.1-1965.
    Revised and redesignated AS 1554.1-1974.
    Second edition 1980.
    Third edition 1985.
    Fourth edition 1991.
    First published in New Zealand in part as NZS 4701:1981.
    NZS 4704 first published 1994.
    AS 1554.1-1991, NZS 4701:1981 and NZS 4704:1994 jointly revised, amalgamated and designated AS/NZS 1554.1:1995. First published as AS CA8-1933. Second edition 1939. Revised and redesignated in part as Int 352-1952. Int 352-1952 and part of AS CA8-1939 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS CA8.1-1965. Revised and redesignated AS 1554.1-1974. Second edition 1980. Third edition 1985. Fourth edition 1991. First published in New Zealand in part as NZS 4701:1981. NZS 4704 first published 1994. AS 1554.1-1991, NZS 4701:1981 and NZS 4704:1994 jointly revised, amalgamated and designated AS/NZS 1554.1:1995.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1538-1988 Cold-formed Steel Structures Code
    AS 2205.5.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Macro metallographic test for cross-section examination
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1450-1983 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 1674.2-1990 Safety in welding and allied processes - Electrical
    AS 2207-1994 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
    AS 1966.2-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Rotary type
    AS 2205.2.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse butt tensile test
    AS 1995-1977 Welding cables
    AS 3679.1-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1595-1981 Cold-rolled unalloyed low carbon steel sheet and strip
    AS 1594-1989 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS 1336-1982 Recommended practices for eye protection in the industrial environment
    AS 2074-1982 Steel castings
    AS 2799-1992 Resistance welding equipment - Single-phase a.c. transformer type
    AS 2812-1985 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms
    AS 1171-1998 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures
    AS 2214-1994 Certification of welding supervisors - Structural steel welding
    AS 3679.2-1991 Structural steel - Welded sections
    AS 1858.1-1986 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 2980-1987 Qualification of arc-welders for welding of steels
    AS 1553.2-1987 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 1397-1993 Steel sheet and strip - Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2062-1997 Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing of products and components
    AS 1167.2-1986 Welding and brazing - Filler metals - Filler metal for welding
    AS 2205.6.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Weld joint hardness test
    AS 1101.3-1987 Graphical symbols for general engineering - Welding and non-destructive examination
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 2717.1-1984 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 3678-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 1548-1995 Steel plates for pressure equipment
    AS 2205.7.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
    AS 2177.1-1994 Non-destructive testing - Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Methods of test
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS/NZS 1553.1:1995 Covered electrodes for welding - Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 1966.1-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Transformer type
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS/NZS 1337:1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1817-1991 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 2205.3.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse guided bend test

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 3750.15:1998 Paints for steel structures Inorganic zinc silicate paint (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS/NZS 4600:1996 Cold-formed steel structures
    AS 2809.2-1999 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for flammable liquids
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
    AS/NZS 4677:2000 Steel utility services poles
    AS/NZS 3845:1999 Road safety barrier systems
    AS/NZS 1418.9:1996 Cranes (including hoists and winches) Vehicle hoists
    AS/NZS 3856.1:1998 Hoists and ramps for people with disabilities - Vehicle-mounted Product requirements (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1562.2:1999 Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding Corrugated fibre-reinforced cement (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS/NZS 3679.1:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1418.17-1996 Cranes (including hoists and winches) Design and construction of workboxes
    AS 4458-1997 Pressure equipment - Manufacture (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS 2187.1-1998 Explosives - Storage, transport and use Storage
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