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  • AS/NZS 1554.1:2000

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    Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  02-09-2000

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1554.1:2000 STRUCTURAL STEEL WELDING - WELDING OF STEEL STRUCTURES
    4 - PREFACE
    6 - CONTENTS
    8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    8 - 1.1 SCOPE
    9 - 1.2 EXCLUSIONS
    9 - 1.3 INNOVATION
    9 - 1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.5 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.5.1 Fabricator
    9 - 1.5.2 Inspecting authority
    9 - 1.5.3 Inspector
    9 - 1.5.4 May
    9 - 1.5.5 Principal
    10 - 1.5.6 Shall
    10 - 1.5.7 Should
    10 - 1.6 WELD CATEGORIES
    10 - 1.7 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS
    10 - 1.8 SAFETY
    10 - 1.8.1 Safety equipment and procedures
    11 - 1.8.2 Welding equipment
    12 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    12 - 2.1 PARENT MATERIAL
    12 - 2.2 BACKING MATERIAL
    12 - 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES
    12 - 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires
    12 - 2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires
    12 - 2.3.3 Flux
    13 - 2.3.4 Shielding gas
    14 - SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
    14 - 3.1 GENERAL
    14 - 3.1.1 Permissible weld types
    14 - 3.1.2 Drawings
    14 - 3.2 BUTT WELDS
    14 - 3.2.1 Size of weld
    14 - 3.2.2 Design throat thickness
    15 - 3.2.3 Effective length
    15 - 3.2.4 Effective area
    15 - 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width
    15 - 3.3 FILLET WELDS
    15 - 3.3.1 Size of weld
    15 - 3.3.2 Design throat thickness
    15 - 3.3.3 Effective length
    16 - 3.3.4 Effective area
    16 - 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds
    16 - 3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
    19 - 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS
    19 - 3.4.1 Description of compound weld
    19 - 3.4.2 Design throat thickness (DTT)
    20 - 3.5 SEAL WELDS
    20 - 3.6 PLUG WELDS
    20 - 3.7 SLOT WELDS
    20 - 3.8 COMBINING STEEL SECTIONS
    22 - SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL
    22 - 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    22 - 4.1.1 General
    22 - 4.1.2 Butt welds
    23 - 4.1.3 Fillet welds
    23 - 4.1.4 Qualification of multiple welding positions
    23 - 4.2 METHODS FOR QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE
    24 - 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    24 - 4.4 PORTABILITY OF QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    24 - 4.5 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS
    24 - 4.5.1 General
    24 - 4.5.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds
    25 - 4.5.3 Prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds
    25 - 4.5.4 Prequalified fillet welds
    25 - 4.5.5 Additional requirements for welds in hollow section members
    30 - 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
    30 - 4.6.1 Prequalified welding consumables
    35 - 4.6.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing
    36 - 4.7 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING
    36 - 4.7.1 Method of qualification
    36 - 4.7.2 Preparation of special test piece
    36 - 4.7.3 Dimensions of test pieces
    36 - 4.7.4 Macro test
    37 - 4.7.5 Transverse butt tensile test
    39 - 4.7.6 Bend test
    40 - 4.7.7 Charpy impact test
    40 - 4.7.8 Hardness comparison test for parent metal and weld metal
    40 - 4.7.9 Hardness test for weld heat-affected zones
    40 - 4.7.10 Retests
    40 - 4.8 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION
    41 - 4.9 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES
    41 - 4.10 RECORDS OF TESTS
    41 - 4.11 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES
    44 - 4.12 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL
    44 - 4.12.1 Welding supervisor
    45 - 4.12.2 Welders
    48 - SECTION 5 WORKMAN SHIP
    48 - 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING
    48 - 5.1.1 General
    48 - 5.1.2 Thermal cutting
    48 - 5.2 ASSEMBLY
    48 - 5.2.1 General
    48 - 5.2.2 Alignment of butt- welded joints
    49 - 5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds
    49 - 5.2.4 Separation of a backing material
    49 - 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTER-RUN CONTROL
    49 - 5.3.1 General
    49 - 5.3.2 Need for preheating
    49 - 5.3.3 Extent of preheating and cooling after welding
    50 - 5.3.4 Determination of preheating temperature
    56 - 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    56 - 5.5 TACK WELDS
    56 - 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO
    57 - 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS
    57 - 5.7.1 General
    57 - 5.7.2 Stressed parts
    57 - 5.7.3 Peening
    57 - 5.7.4 Correction of distortion
    57 - 5.8 BACKGOUGING AND REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS
    57 - 5.8.1 Repair of welds
    57 - 5.8.2 Removal of weld metal
    58 - 5.8.3 Grinding
    58 - 5.8.4 Stop starts
    58 - 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS
    58 - 5.10 ARC STRIKES
    59 - 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS
    59 - 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS
    60 - SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS
    60 - 6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS
    60 - 6.2 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS
    60 - 6.2.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds
    60 - 6.2.2 Permissible levels of imperfection
    60 - 6.2.3 Adjacent imperfections
    60 - 6.2.4 Interpretation of tests
    65 - 6.3 RADIOGRAPHY
    65 - 6.3.1 Method
    65 - 6.3.2 IQI sensitivity
    65 - 6.3.3 Acceptance limits
    66 - 6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
    66 - 6.4.1 Method
    66 - 6.4.2 Evaluation
    66 - 6.4.3 Acceptance limits
    66 - 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION
    67 - 6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION
    67 - 6.7 WELD DEFECTS
    67 - 6.8 REPORTING
    68 - SECTION 7 INSPECTION
    68 - 7.1 GENERAL
    68 - 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS
    68 - 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK
    68 - 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL
    70 - APPENDIX A - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    73 - APPENDIX B - BRITTLE FRACTURE
    73 - B1 METHODS
    73 - B2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
    73 - B3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
    73 - B3.1 General
    73 - B3.2 Basic design temperature
    73 - B3.3 Modifications to the basic design temperature
    74 - B4 MATERIAL SELECTION
    74 - B4.1 Selection of steel type
    74 - B4.2 Limitations
    74 - B4.3 Modification for certain applications
    75 - B5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
    78 - APPENDIX C - TYPICAL FORMS FOR WELDING PROCEDURES
    81 - APPENDIX D - MATTERS FOR RESOLUTION
    82 - APPENDIX E - WELDED JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    82 - E1 NOTATION FOR JOINT IDENTIFICATION
    82 - E2 NOTATION FOR DIMENSIONS, POSITIONS AND BACKING MATERIAL
    83 - E3 NOTATION FOR PROCESSES
    83 - E4 EXAMPLE

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings. It is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500 MPa. It does not apply to oxyacetylene, friction, thermoset or resistance welding processes or to the welding of pressure vessels or pressure piping.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes:(a) Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW).(b) Submerged arc welding (SAW).(c) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW or MIG), including pulsed mode.(d) Gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW or TIG).(e) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).(f) Electroslag (including consumable guide) welding (ESW).(g) Electrogas welding (EGW).The Standard is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500 MPa.The Standard applies specifically to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with AS 3990, AS 4100, AS/NZS 4600 or NZS 3404.1. Where the proportions of welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints that comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as limited by Item (ii) below, or the directly equivalent fatigue provisions of other application Standards.Welded joints complying with the above requirements are those that are(i) not subject to fatigue conditions; or(ii) subject to fatigue conditions, where(A) the stress range in the welded joint complies with the permissible stress range of stress categories C, D, E or F of AS 3990, or weld categories lower than or equal to detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; or(B) the stress range in the welded joint is not more than 80% of the permissible stress range of stress category B of AS 3990.In addition to the abovementioned structures the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists and other dynamically loaded structures, the welding of road and pedestrian bridges and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural.NOTE: Further information on this Standard, which the drafting committee could not incorporate, is given in WTIA Technical Note 11.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WD-003
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    DR Amendment 1 see DR 02615 First published in Australia as AS CA8-1933.
    Second edition 1939.
    Revised and redesignated in part as AS Int 352-1952.
    AS Int 352-1952 and part of AS CA8-1939 revised, amalgamated and redesignated as AS CA8.1-1965.
    Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1554.1-1974.
    Second edition 1980.
    Third edition 1985.
    Fourth edition 1991.
    First published in New Zealand in part as NZS 4701:1981.
    NZS 4704 first published 1994.
    AS 1554.1-1991, NZS 4701:1981 and NZS 4704:1994 jointly revised, amalgamated and designated AS/NZS 1554.1:1995.
    Sixth edition 2000. First published in Australia as AS CA8-1933. Second edition 1939. Revised and redesignated in part as AS Int 352-1952. AS Int 352-1952 and part of AS CA8-1939 revised, amalgamated and redesignated as AS CA8.1-1965. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1554.1-1974. Second edition 1980. Third edition 1985. Fourth edition 1991. First published in New Zealand in part as NZS 4701:1981. NZS 4704 first published 1994. AS 1554.1-1991, NZS 4701:1981 and NZS 4704:1994 jointly revised, amalgamated and designated AS/NZS 1554.1:1995. Sixth edition 2000.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors - Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS/NZS 3679.1:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS/NZS 1595:1998 Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2177.1-1994 Non-destructive testing - Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Methods of test
    AS/NZS 1995:1995 Welding cables
    AS/NZS 1554.4:1995 Structural steel welding - Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels
    AS 2205.7.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
    AS 1450-1983 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS/NZS 3992:1998 Pressure equipment - Welding and brazing qualification
    AS 1101.3-1987 Graphical symbols for general engineering - Welding and non-destructive examination
    AS/NZS 1337:1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS/NZS 2717.1:1996 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 2205.3.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse guided bend test
    AS 1988-1989 Welding of steel castings
    AS 1448-1981 Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels - Forgings (ruling section 300 mm maximum)
    AS 2205.2.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse butt tensile test
    AS 1966.1-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Transformer type
    AS 1397-1993 Steel sheet and strip - Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
    AS 1966.2-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Rotary type
    AS 2062-1997 Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing of products and components
    AS 2812-1985 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms
    AS/NZS 1553.1:1995 Covered electrodes for welding - Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 2214-1994 Certification of welding supervisors - Structural steel welding
    AS 4037-1999 Pressure equipment - Examination and testing (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1553.2:1999 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2799-1992 Resistance welding equipment - Single-phase a.c. transformer type
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 1817-1991 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test
    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS 4458-1997 Pressure equipment - Manufacture (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 2074-1982 Steel castings
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS/NZS 4600:1996 Cold-formed steel structures
    AS 2207-1994 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
    AS 1674.2-1990 Safety in welding and allied processes - Electrical
    AS/NZS 1167.2:1999 Welding and brazing - Filler metals Filler metal for welding
    AS 1858.1-1986 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS/NZS 1594:1997 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS 2205.5.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Macro metallographic test for cross-section examination
    AS 1548-1995 Steel plates for pressure equipment
    AS/NZS 1336:1997 Recommended practices for occupational eye protection
    AS 2980-1987 Qualification of arc-welders for welding of steels
    AS 1858.2-1989 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 1171-1998 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures
    AS 2205.6.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Weld joint hardness test
    AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS 3545-1988 Welding positions

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1554.3:2002 Structural steel welding - Welding of reinforcing steel
    AS 1418.18-2001 Cranes, hoists and winches Crane runways and monorails
    AS/NZS 1100.501:2002 Technical drawing Structural engineering drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 1735.1-2001 Lifts, escalators and moving walks - General requirements
    AS/NZS 1554.2:2003 Structural steel welding Stud welding (steel studs to steel)
    AS 2809.5-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods Tankers for bitumen-based products
    AS 1418.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches General requirements
    AS 3533.3-2003 Amusement rides and devices In-service inspection
    AS/NZS 4673:2001 Cold-formed stainless steel structures
    AS 4795-2002 Double-flanged butterfly valves for waterworks purposes
    AS 2809.4-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for toxic and corrosive cargoes
    AS 6401-2003 Knife-gate valves for waterworks purposes
    AS 2327.1-2003 Composite structures Simply supported beams
    AS/NZS 3785.4:2002 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Conveyances for vertical shafts
    AS 1735.1-2003 Lifts, escalators and moving walks General requirements
    AS/NZS 2566.2:2002 Buried flexible pipelines Installation
    AS 2550.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches - Safe use - General requirements
    AS 1579-2001 Arc-welded steel pipes and fittings for water and wastewater (Reconfirmed 2018)
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