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  • AS/NZS 1554.5:1995

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    Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  05-01-1995

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 STRUCTURAL STEEL WELDING - WELDING OF STEEL STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO HIGH LEVELS OF FATIGUE LOADING
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 INNOVATION
    8 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4.1 Fabricator
    8 - 1.4.2 Inspecting authority
    8 - 1.4.3 Inspector
    8 - 1.4.4 May
    8 - 1.4.5 Principal
    8 - 1.4.6 Shall
    8 - 1.4.7 Should
    8 - 1.5 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS
    8 - 1.6 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
    8 - 1.6.1 Welding safety
    8 - 1.6.2 Welding equipment
    9 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    9 - 2.1 PARENTMATERIAL
    9 - 2.2 BACKINGMATERIAL
    9 - 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES
    9 - 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires
    9 - 2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires
    9 - 2.3.3 Flux
    9 - 2.3.4 Shielding gas
    10 - SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
    10 - 3.1 GENERAL
    10 - 3.1.1 Permissible weld types
    10 - 3.1.2 Design stresses
    10 - 3.1.3 Drawings
    10 - 3.2 BUTT WELDS
    10 - 3.2.1 Size of weld
    10 - 3.2.2 Design throat thickness
    11 - 3.2.3 Effective length
    11 - 3.2.4 Effective area
    11 - 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width
    11 - 3.3 FILLET WELDS
    11 - 3.3.1 Size of weld
    11 - 3.3.2 Design throat thickness
    13 - 3.3.3 Effective length
    13 - 3.3.4 Effective area
    13 - 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds
    13 - 3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
    13 - 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS
    13 - 3.4.1 Description of compound weld
    13 - 3.4.2 Design throat thickness
    16 - SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL
    16 - 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    16 - 4.2 METHOD OF QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    16 - 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    16 - 4.4 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS
    16 - 4.4.1 General
    17 - 4.4.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds
    17 - 4.4.3 Prequalified in complete penetration butt welds
    17 - 4.4.4 Prequalified fillet welds
    32 - 4.5 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
    32 - 4.5.1 Prequalified welding consumables
    32 - 4.5.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing
    34 - 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING
    34 - 4.6.1 Method of qualification
    34 - 4.6.2 Extent of testing
    36 - 4.6.3 Preparation of special test piece
    36 - 4.6.4 Dimensions of test pieces
    36 - 4.6.5 Macro test
    38 - 4.6.6 Transverse butt tensile test
    38 - 4.6.7 Bend test
    38 - 4.6.8 Charpy impact test
    38 - 4.6.9 Hardness comparison test - parentmetal and weld metal
    38 - 4.6.10 Hardness test - heat-affected zone
    38 - 4.6.11 Retests
    39 - 4.7 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION
    39 - 4.8 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES
    39 - 4.8.1 Single process each side of a weld
    39 - 4.8.2 Combination of processes on the same side of a joint
    39 - 4.9 RECORDS OF TESTS
    39 - 4.10 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES
    39 - 4.10.1 Changes in essential variables requiring requalification of welding
    39 - 4.10.2 Minor changes requiring requalification of welding procedure by macro test
    39 - 4.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL
    39 - 4.11.1 Welding supervisor
    40 - 4.11.2 Welders
    44 - SECTION 5 WORKMANSHIP
    44 - 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING
    44 - 5.1.1 General
    44 - 5.1.2 Thermal cutting
    44 - 5.2 ASSEMBLY
    44 - 5.2.1 General
    44 - 5.2.2 Alignment of butt welded joints
    44 - 5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds
    45 - 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTERRUN CONTROL
    45 - 5.3.1 General
    45 - 5.3.2 Need for preheating
    45 - 5.3.3 Extent of preheating and cooling after welding
    45 - 5.3.4 Determination of preheating temperature
    46 - 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    46 - 5.4.1 Rain, snow, wind, condensation
    46 - 5.4.2 Low temperature
    46 - 5.5 TACK WELDS
    46 - 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO
    46 - 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS
    46 - 5.7.1 General
    46 - 5.7.2 Welding and cutting under stress
    48 - 5.7.3 Peening
    48 - 5.7.4 Correction of distortion
    51 - 5.8 REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS
    51 - 5.8.1 General
    51 - 5.8.2 Grinding
    51 - 5.8.3 Stop/Starts
    52 - 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS
    52 - 5.10 ARC STRIKES
    52 - 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS
    52 - 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS
    53 - SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS
    53 - 6.1 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS
    53 - 6.1.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds
    55 - 6.1.2 Permissible levels of imperfection
    55 - 6.1.3 Adjacent imperfections
    56 - 6.1.4 Qualifications of welding procedure by macro test and side-bend test
    56 - 6.2 RADIOGRAPHY
    56 - 6.2.1 Method
    56 - 6.2.2 IQI sensitivity
    56 - 6.2.3 Acceptance limits
    56 - 6.3 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
    56 - 6.3.1 Method
    56 - 6.3.2 Equipment requirements
    57 - 6.3.3 Evaluation
    57 - 6.3.4 Acceptance limits
    57 - 6.4 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION
    57 - 6.4.1 Method
    57 - 6.4.2 Acceptance limits
    57 - 6.5 WELD DEFECTS
    57 - 6.6 REPORTING
    58 - SECTION 7 INSPECTION
    58 - 7.1 GENERAL
    58 - 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS
    58 - 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK
    58 - 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL EXAMINATION
    58 - 7.4.1 Extent of non-destructive examination
    58 - 7.4.2 Personnel and operator requirements
    59 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    61 - APPENDIX B - BRITTLE FRACTURE
    61 - B1 METHODS
    61 - B2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
    61 - B3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
    61 - B3.1 Basic design temperature
    61 - B3.2 Modifications to the basic design temperature
    61 - B4 MATERIAL SELECTION
    61 - B4.1 Selection of steel type
    61 - B4.2 Limitations
    62 - B4.3 Modification for certain applications
    62 - B5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
    66 - APPENDIX D - METHOD FOR JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    66 - D1 PREQUALIFIED JOINT IDENTIFICATION
    66 - D2 PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    66 - D3EXAMPLE
    67 - APPENDIX E - CHECK LIST OF MATTERS FOR DISCUSSION
    68 - APPENDIX F - SUGGESTED EXTENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures subject to fatigue loading exceeding the range allowed by AS/NZS 1554.1, Structural steel welding, Part 1: Welding of steel structures.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies materials of construction, weld preparations and weld qualities, qualification of welding procedures and welding personnel, and fabrication nd inspection requirements for welds. It applies to fusion welding of steelwork in structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet, or sections, including hollowsections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes:(a) Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW).(b) Submerged-arc welding (SAW).(c) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW).(d) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).(e) Electroslag welding (ESW) (including consumable guide).(f) Electrogas welding (EGW).The Standard is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 450 MPa. The Standard applies specifically to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1. Where the proportions of welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints which comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990 where the stress range in the welded joint is greater than 80% of the permissible stress range for Category B of AS 3990, or exceeds the stress range permitted for detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, but does not exceed the maximum stress ranges permitted for these categories.NOTE: Fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds may be used in AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1 detail category 125, and in Category B fatigue applications of AS 3990 when the direction of the weld is parallel to the direction of the applied stress. In addition to the abovementioned structures, the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists, and other dynamically loaded structures; the welding of road and pedestrian bridges; and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural. The Standard does not apply to the welding of structures by the following processes:(i) Gas welding (GW).(ii) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW).(iii) Resistance welding (RW).(iv) Friction welding (FW).(v) Thermit welding (TW).It also does not apply to the welding of pressure vessels and pressure piping. The Standard does not cover the design of welded connections or permissible stresses in welds, nor the production, rectification, or repair of castings.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WD-003
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Amendment 1 to AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 see DR 97457 CP. Under Revision see DR 02618 First published as AS 1554.5-1989.
    Jointly revised and designated as Joint Standard AS/NZS 1554.5:1995. First published as AS 1554.5-1989. Jointly revised and designated as Joint Standard AS/NZS 1554.5:1995.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1450-1983 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 1674.2-1990 Safety in welding and allied processes - Electrical
    AS 2207-1994 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
    AS 2205.2.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse butt tensile test
    AS 1995-1977 Welding cables
    AS 3679.1-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1595-1981 Cold-rolled unalloyed low carbon steel sheet and strip
    AS 1594-1989 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS 1336-1982 Recommended practices for eye protection in the industrial environment
    AS 2074-1982 Steel castings
    AS 1171-1998 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures
    AS 2812-1985 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms
    AS 2214-1994 Certification of welding supervisors - Structural steel welding
    AS 3679.2-1991 Structural steel - Welded sections
    AS 1858.1-1986 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 2980-1987 Qualification of arc-welders for welding of steels
    AS 1553.2-1987 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 1553.1-1983 Covered electrodes for welding - Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors - Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2205.6.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Weld joint hardness test
    AS 1101.3-1987 Graphical symbols for general engineering - Welding and non-destructive examination
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS 2205.7.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1817-1991 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 2717.1-1984 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 3678-1990 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 1548-1995 Steel plates for pressure equipment
    AS 2177.1-1994 Non-destructive testing - Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Methods of test
    AS 1966.1-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Transformer type
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS/NZS 1337:1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS 2205.3.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse guided bend test

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1554.1:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 1418.18-2001 Cranes, hoists and winches Crane runways and monorails
    AS/NZS 1100.501:2002 Technical drawing Structural engineering drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS/NZS 4600:1996 Cold-formed steel structures
    AS/NZS 1554.2:2003 Structural steel welding Stud welding (steel studs to steel)
    AS 4324.1-1995 Mobile equipment for continuous handling of bulk materials - General requirements for the design of steel structures
    AS 2809.5-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods Tankers for bitumen-based products
    AS 4457-1997 Earth-moving machinery - Off-highway rims and wheels - Maintenance and repair
    AS 2809.2-1999 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for flammable liquids
    AS 1418.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches General requirements
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 4673:2001 Cold-formed stainless steel structures
    AS 2809.4-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for toxic and corrosive cargoes
    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
    AS/NZS 4677:2000 Steel utility services poles
    AS/NZS 3845:1999 Road safety barrier systems
    AS/NZS 1554.5:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2000 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS/NZS 3785.4:2002 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Conveyances for vertical shafts
    AS 2550.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches - Safe use - General requirements
    AS 2205.7.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
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