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  • AS/NZS 4600:1996

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Cold-formed steel structures

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  26-06-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-12-1996

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 4600:1996 COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURES
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    7 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    7 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    7 - 1.3.1 Action [Effect]
    7 - 1.3.2 Action effect [Action] or load effect [action]
    7 - 1.3.3 Arched compression element
    7 - 1.3.4 Bend
    7 - 1.3.5 Braced member
    7 - 1.3.6 Can
    7 - 1.3.7 Capacity [Strength reduction] factor
    7 - 1.3.8 Clinching
    7 - 1.3.9 Cold-formed steel structural members
    7 - 1.3.10 Design action effect [Design action] or design load effect [design action]
    8 - 1.3.11 Design action [Design force] or design load
    8 - 1.3.12 Design capacity
    8 - 1.3.13 Distortional buckling
    8 - 1.3.14 Effective design width
    8 - 1.3.15 Elements
    8 - 1.3.16 Feed width
    8 - 1.3.17 Flexural-torsional buckling
    8 - 1.3.18 Length (of a compression member)
    8 - 1.3.19 Limit state
    8 - 1.3.20 Load
    8 - 1.3.21 Local buckling
    8 - 1.3.22 May
    8 - 1.3.23 Multiple-stiffened element
    8 - 1.3.24 Nominal action [Nominal effect] or nominal load
    8 - 1.3.25 Nominal capacity
    8 - 1.3.26 Point-symmetric section
    8 - 1.3.27 Proof testing
    8 - 1.3.28 Prototype testing
    9 - 1.3.29 Pull-over (pull-through)
    9 - 1.3.30 Pull-out
    9 - 1.3.31 Segment (in a member subjected to bending)
    9 - 1.3.32 Serviceability limit state
    9 - 1.3.33 Shall
    9 - 1.3.34 Should
    9 - 1.3.35 Single-point fastener
    9 - 1.3.36 Special study
    9 - 1.3.37 Stability limit state
    9 - 1.3.38 Stiffened or partially stiffened compression element
    9 - 1.3.39 Stiffeners
    9 - 1.3.40 Strength [Ultimate] limit state
    9 - 1.3.41 Structural ductility factor
    9 - 1.3.42 Structural performance factor
    9 - 1.3.43 Structural response factor
    9 - 1.3.44 Sub-element
    9 - 1.3.45 Tensile strength
    9 - 1.3.46 Thickness
    9 - 1.3.47 Unformed steel
    9 - 1.3.48 Unformed steel properties
    10 - 1.3.49 Unstiffened compression element
    10 - 1.3.50 Yield stress
    12 - 1.4 NOTATION
    22 - 1.5 MATERIALS
    22 - 1.5.1 Structural steel
    25 - 1.5.2 Design stresses
    25 - 1.5.3 Fasteners and electrodes
    27 - 1.6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    27 - 1.6.1 Loads and load combinations
    28 - 1.6.2 Structural analysis and design
    28 - 1.6.3 Earthquake
    29 - 1.6.4 Durability
    29 - 1.7 NON-CONFORMING SHAPES AND CONSTRUCTION
    32 - SECTION 2 ELEMENTS
    32 - 2.1 SECTION PROPERTIES
    32 - 2.1.1 General
    32 - 2.1.2 Design procedures
    33 - 2.1.3 Dimensional limits
    34 - 2.2 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF STIFFENED ELEMENTS
    34 - 2.2.1 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements
    36 - 2.2.2 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements with circular holes
    37 - 2.2.3 Stiffened elements with stress gradient
    38 - 2.3 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF UNSTIFFENED ELEMENTS
    38 - 2.3.1 Uniformly compressed unstiffened elements
    39 - 2.3.2 Unstiffened elements and edge stiffeners with stress gradient
    40 - 2.4 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF UNIFORMLY COMPRESSED ELEMENTS WITH AN EDGE STIFFENER OR ONE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER
    40 - 2.4.1 Notation
    42 - 2.4.2 Elements with an intermediate stiffener
    43 - 2.4.3 Elements with an edge stiffener
    44 - 2.5 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF EDGE-STIFFENED ELEMENTS WITH ONE OR MORE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS, OR STIFFENED ELEMENTS WITH MORE
    46 - 2.6 ARCHED COMPRESSION ELEMENTS
    46 - 2.7 STIFFENERS
    46 - 2.7.1 Transverse stiffeners
    47 - 2.7.2 Shear stiffeners
    48 - 2.7.3 Nonconforming stiffeners
    49 - SECTION 3 MEMBERS
    49 - 3.1 GENERAL
    49 - 3.2 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO TENSION
    49 - 3.2.1 Tensile capacity
    49 - 3.2.2 Distribution of forces
    50 - 3.3 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BENDING
    50 - 3.3.1 Bending moment
    51 - 3.3.2 Nominal section moment capacity
    52 - 3.3.3 Nominal member moment capacity
    58 - 3.3.4 Shear
    59 - 3.3.5 Combined bending and shear
    60 - 3.3.6 Bearing
    63 - 3.3.7 Combined bending and bearing
    64 - 3.4 CONCENTRICALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
    64 - 3.4.1 General
    65 - 3.4.2 Sections not subject to torsional or flexural-torsional
    65 - 3.4.3 Doubly- or singly-symmetric sections subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
    66 - 3.4.4 Point-symmetric sections
    66 - 3.4.5 Non-symmetric sections
    66 - 3.4.6 Singly-symmetric sections subject to distortional buckling
    66 - 3.4.7 Columns with one flange through-fastened to sheeting
    67 - 3.5 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING
    67 - 3.5.1 Combined axial compressive load and bending
    69 - 3.5.2 Combined axial tensile load and bending
    69 - 3.6 CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS
    69 - 3.6.1 General
    69 - 3.6.2 Bending
    69 - 3.6.3 Compression
    70 - 3.6.4 Combined bending and compression
    71 - SECTION 4 STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES
    71 - 4.1 BUILT-UP SECTIONS
    71 - 4.1.1 I-Sections composed of two channels
    72 - 4.1.2 Cover plates, sheets or non-integral stiffeners in compression
    72 - 4.2 MIXED SYSTEMS
    72 - 4.3 LATERAL RESTRAINTS
    72 - 4.3.1 General
    72 - 4.3.2 Symmetrical beams and columns
    73 - 4.3.3 Channel and Z-section beams
    76 - 4.4 WALL STUDS AND WALL STUD ASSEMBLIES
    77 - SECTION 5 CONNECTIONS
    77 - 5.1 GENERAL
    77 - 5.2 WELDED CONNECTIONS
    77 - 5.2.1 General
    77 - 5.2.2 Butt welds
    78 - 5.2.3 Fillet welds
    79 - 5.2.4 Arc spot welds (puddle welds)
    83 - 5.2.5 Arc seam welds
    84 - 5.2.6 Flare welds
    85 - 5.2.7 Resistance welds
    86 - 5.3 BOLTED CONNECTIONS
    86 - 5.3.1 General
    87 - 5.3.2 Tearout
    88 - 5.3.3 Net section tension
    88 - 5.3.4 Bearing
    89 - 5.3.5 Bolts
    90 - 5.4 SCREWED CONNECTIONS
    90 - 5.4.1 General
    90 - 5.4.2 Screwed connections in shear
    92 - 5.4.3 Screwed connections in tension
    92 - 5.5 BLIND RIVETED CONNECTIONS
    92 - 5.5.1 General
    92 - 5.5.2 Riveted connections in shear
    94 - 5.6 RUPTURE
    94 - 5.6.1 Shear rupture
    94 - 5.6.2 Tension rupture
    94 - 5.6.3 Block shear rupture
    94 - 5.7 OTHER CONNECTIONS USING ANY TYPE OF FASTENERS
    95 - SECTION 6 TESTING
    95 - 6.1 TESTING FOR DETERMINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
    95 - 6.1.1 Testing of unformed steel
    95 - 6.1.2 Compression testing
    95 - 6.1.3 Testing of full sections
    95 - 6.1.4 Testing of flat coupons of formed members
    96 - 6.1.5 Testing for determining section properties
    96 - 6.1.6 Testing of single-point fastener connections
    96 - 6.2 TESTING FOR ASSESSMENT OR VERIFICATION
    96 - 6.2.1 General
    96 - 6.2.2 Static tests for strength or serviceability
    99 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    101 - APPENDIX B - FLEXURAL MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BENDING
    101 - B1 GENERAL
    101 - B2 LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY [STRENGTH]
    101 - B3 DEFLECTIONS
    101 - B4 LIMITATIONS
    102 - APPENDIX C - PROTECTION
    102 - C1 SCOPE
    102 - C2 PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION
    102 - C2.1 Members to be protected
    102 - C2.2 Protective coating
    102 - C2.3 Members made from uncoated steel
    102 - C2.4 Members made from coated steel
    102 - C3 PROTECTION DURING TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE
    102 - C3.1 General
    102 - C3.2 Transport and handling
    102 - C3.3 Storage
    103 - C4 REPAIRS TO COATINGS
    104 - APPENDIX D - DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING STRESSES OF GENERAL CHANNELS, LIPPED CHANNELS AND Z-SECTIONS IN COMPRESSION AND BENDING
    104 - D1 GENERAL CHANNELS IN COMPRESSION
    105 - D2 SIMPLE LIPPED CHANNELS IN COMPRESSION
    106 - D3 SIMPLE LIPPED CHANNELS OR Z-SECTIONS IN BENDING ABOUT THE AXIS PERPENDICULAR TO THE WEB
    108 - APPENDIX E - SECTION PROPERTIES
    108 - E1 SHEAR CENTRE DISTANCE, TORSION CONSTANT AND WARPING CONSTANT
    108 - E2 MONOSYMMETRY SECTION CONSTANTS
    112 - APPENDIX F - UNSTIFFENED ELEMENTS WITH STRESS GRADIENT
    113 - APPENDIX G - STANDARD TESTS FOR SINGLE-POINT FASTENER CONNECTIONS
    113 - G1 SCOPE
    113 - G2 MATERIAL
    113 - G3 SHEAR TEST
    113 - G3.1 General
    113 - G3.2 Apparatus
    113 - G3.3 Test specimen
    113 - G3.4 Procedure
    113 - G4 CROSS-TENSION TEST
    113 - G4.1 General
    114 - G4.2 Apparatus
    114 - G4.3 Test specimen
    115 - G4.4 Procedure
    115 - G5 REPORT

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out minimum requirements for the design of structural members cold-formed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than 25 mm in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings and structures.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design of structural members cold-formed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than 25 mm in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings. It may also be used for structures other than buildings provided appropriate allowances are made for dynamic effects.This Standard does not apply to the design of structures subject to fire, fatigue and brittle fracture.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee BD-082
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note See also AS 1538-1988
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in Australia as AS 1538-1974.
    Second edition 1988.
    Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 4600:1996. First published in Australia as AS 1538-1974. Second edition 1988. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 4600:1996.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1559-1986 Fasteners - Bolts, nuts and washers for tower construction
    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 1112-1980 ISO metric hexagon nuts, including thin nuts, slotted nuts and castle nuts
    AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS/NZS 1110:1995 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts and screws
    AS/NZS 2312:1994 Guide to the protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion
    AS 4040.2-1992 Methods of testing sheet roof and wall cladding Resistance to wind pressures for non-cyclone regions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1391-1991 Methods for tensile testing of metals
    AS 3566-1988 Screws - Self-drilling - For the building and construction industries
    AS/NZS 1554.1:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 3623-1993 Domestic metal framing (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2311-1992 The painting of buildings
    AS 1275-1985 Metric screw threads for fasteners
    AS 1397-1993 Steel sheet and strip - Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 1170.3-1990 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Snow loads
    AS 1252-1983 High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 1554.2-1993 Structural steel welding - Stud welding (steel studs to steel)
    AS B194-1970 Tapping and metallic drive screws
    AS 1111-1980 ISO metric hexagon commercial bolts and screws
    AS 1595-1981 Cold-rolled unalloyed low carbon steel sheet and strip
    AS 1594-1989 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS 1650-1989 Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles
    AS 1170.1-1981 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Dead and live loads
    AS 1170.2-1989 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Wind loads
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 4676:2000 Structural design requirements for utility services poles
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 3826-1998 Strengthening existing buildings for earthquake
    AS/NZS 4994.1(INT):2004 Temporary roof edge protection for housing and residential buildings General requirements
    AS 2050-2002 Installation of roof tiles
    AS/NZS 2699.3:2000 Built-in components for masonry construction - Lintels and shelf angles (durability requirements)
    AS/NZS 4677:2000 Steel utility services poles
    AS/NZS 2699.3:2002 Built-in components for masonry construction Lintels and shelf angles (durability requirements)
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2000 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 1735.1-2003 Lifts, escalators and moving walks General requirements
    AS/NZS 2785:2000 Suspended ceilings - Design and installation
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