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  • ASTM D 4254 : 2016 : REDLINE

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    Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

    Available format(s):  PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-03-2016

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.08, 2017 Specifies the determination of the minimum-index dry density/unit weight of cohesionless, freedraining soils.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1These test methods cover the determination of the minimum-index dry density/unit weight of cohesionless, free-draining soils. The adjective “dry” before density or unit weight is omitted in the title and remaining portions of this standards to be be consistent with the applicable definitions given in Section 3 on Terminology.

    1.2System of Units:

    1.2.1The testing apparatus described in this standard has been developed and manufactured using values in the gravimetric or inch-pound system. Therefore, test apparatus dimensions and mass given in inch-pound units are regarded as the standard.

    1.2.2It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a unit of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This test method has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, balances or scales measure mass; and weight must be calculated. In the inch-pound system, it is common to assume that 1 lbf is equal to 1 lbm. While reporting density is not regarded as nonconformance with this standard, unit weights should be calculated and reported since the results may be used to determine force or stress.

    1.2.3The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit volume, whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard, density is given only in SI units. After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.

    1.3Three alternative methods are provided to determine the minimum index density/unit weight, as follows:

    1.3.1Method A—Using a funnel pouring device or a hand scoop to place material in mold.

    1.3.2Method B—Depositing material into a mold by extracting a soil filled tube.

    1.3.3Method C 2—Depositing material by inverting a graduated cylinder.

    1.4The method to be used should be specified by the agency requesting the test. If no method is specified, the provisions of Method A shall govern. Test Method A is the preferred procedure for determining minimum index density/unit weight as used in conjunction with the procedures of Test Methods D4253. Methods B and C are provided for guidance of testing used in conjunction with special studies, especially where there is not enough material available to use a 0.100 ft3 (2830 cm3) or 0.500 ft3 (14 200 cm3) mold as required by Method A.

    1.5These test methods are applicable to soils that may contain up to 15 %, by dry mass, of soil particles passing a No. 200 (75-μm) sieve, provided they still have cohesionless, free-draining characteristics (nominal sieve dimensions are in accordance with Specification E11).

    1.5.1Method A is applicable to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3-in. (75-mm) sieve and which may contain up to 30 %, by dry mass, of soil particles retained on a 11/2-inch (37.5-mm) sieve.

    1.5.2Method B is applicable to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3/4-inch (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.5.3Method C is applicable only to fine and medium sands in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve and which may contain up to 10 %, by dry mass, of soil particles retained on a No. 10 (2.00-mm) sieve.

    1.5.4Soils, for the purposes of these test methods, shall be regarded as naturally occurring cohesionless soils, processed particles, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed particles, provided they are free-draining.

    1.6All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.6.1For purposes of comparing a measured or calculated value(s) to specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.6.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.7This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Redline
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5311/D5311M : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil
    ACI 360R : 2010 GUIDE TO DESIGN OF SLABS-ON-GROUND
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (Withdrawn 2015)
    ANSI/AWWA D110:2013(R2018) WIRE- AND STRAND-WOUND, CIRCULAR, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE WATER TANKS
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM D 4914/D4914M : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM C 361M : 2016 : REDLINE SPECIFICATION FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE LOW-HEAD PRESSURE PIPE [METRIC]
    ASTM D 5030 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    AWWA M45 : 3 FIBERGLASS PIPE DESIGN
    BS 6349-5:2016 MARITIME WORKS - PART 5: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DREDGING AND LAND RECLAMATION
    ASTM F 1668 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried Plastic Pipe
    AASHTO T 310 : 2013 METHOD OF TEST FOR IN-PLACE DENSITY AND MOISTURE CONTENT OF SOIL AND SOIL-AGGREGATE BY NUCLEAR METHODS (SHALLOW DEPTH)
    NORSOK G 001:2004 MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    BS EN ISO 19901-8:2015 Petroleum and natural gas industries. Specific requirements for offshore structures Marine soil investigations
    ACI 325.10R : 1995 REPORT ON ROLLER-COMPACTED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS
    15/30329101 DC : 0 BS EN 16907-6 - EARTHWORKS - PART 6: LAND RECLAMATION WITH DREDGED HYDRAULIC FILL
    ISO 19901-8:2014 Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for offshore structures Part 8: Marine soil investigations
    CSA ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    CSA ISO 19901-8:15 (R2020) Petroleum and natural gas industries — Specific requirements for offshore structures — Part 8: Marine soil investigations (Adopted ISO 19901-8:2014, first edition, 2014-12-01)
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    I.S. EN ISO 19901-8:2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM E 2788 : 2011 Standard Specification for Use of Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate (ESCS) as a Mineral Component in the Growing Media and the Drainage Layer for Vegetative (Green) Roof Systems
    EN ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    13/30257183 DC : 0 BS EN ISO 19901-8 - PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    PREN 16907-6 : DRAFT 2015 EARTHWORKS - PART 6: LAND RECLAMATION WITH DREDGED HYDRAULIC FILL
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM C 361 : 2019 : REDLINE SPECIFICATION FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE LOW-HEAD PRESSURE PIPE

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 177 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM C 127 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
    ASTM D 854 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
    ASTM E 11 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
    ASTM D 4753 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
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