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  • ASTM D 4452 : 2014 : REDLINE

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Practice for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples

    Available format(s):  PDF

    Superseded date:  05-11-2022

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  03-09-2014

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.08, 2017 Determines the quality of soil samples in thin wall tubes or of extruded cores by X-ray radiography.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This practice covers the determination of the quality of soil samples in thin wall tubes or of extruded cores by X-ray radiography.

    1.2This practice enables the user to determine the effects of sampling and natural variations within samples as identified by the extent of the relative penetration of X-rays through soil samples.

    1.3This practice can be used to X-ray cores (or observe their features on a fluoroscope) in thin wall tubes or liners ranging from approximately 50 to 150 mm (2 to 6 in.) in diameter. X-rays of samples in the larger diameter tubes provide a radiograph of major features of soils and disturbances, such as large scale bending of edges of varved clays, shear planes, the presence of large concretions, silt and sand seams thicker than 6 mm (1/4in.), large lumps of organic matter, and voids or other types of intrusions. X-rays of the smaller diameter cores provide higher resolution of soil features and disturbances, such as small concretions (3 mm (1/8in.) diameter or larger), solution channels, slight bending of edges of varved clays, thin silt or sand seams, narrow solution channels, plant root structures, and organic matter. The X-raying of samples in thin wall tubes or liners requires minimal preparation.

    1.4Greater detail and resolution of various features of the soil can be obtained by X-raying of extruded cores, as compared to samples in metal tubes. The method used for X-raying cores is the same as that for tubes and liners, except that extruded cores have to be handled with extreme care and have to be placed in sample holders (similar to Fig. 2) before X-raying. This practice should be used only when natural water content or other intact soil characteristics are irrelevant to the end use of the sample.

    1.4.1Often it is necessary to obtain greater resolution of features to determine the propriety of sampling methods, the representative nature of soil samples, or anomalies in soils. This practice requires that either duplicate samples be obtained or already tested specimens be X-rayed.

    1.5This practice can only be used to their fullest extent after considerable experience is obtained through many detailed comparisons between the X-ray image and the sample X-rayed.

    1.6Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units, which are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.6.1Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

    1.7 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

    1.8All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.8.1For purposes of comparing, a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.8.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the signification digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precaution statements, see Section 6.

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    Committee D 18
    Document Type Redline
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2435 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 2435/D2435M : 2011 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    BS EN ISO 19901-8:2015 Petroleum and natural gas industries. Specific requirements for offshore structures Marine soil investigations
    NORSOK G 001:2004 MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    AASHTO T 216 : 2007 METHOD OF TEST FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION PROPERTIES OF SOILS
    ISO 19901-8:2014 Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for offshore structures Part 8: Marine soil investigations
    CSA ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    CSA ISO 19901-8:15 (R2020) Petroleum and natural gas industries — Specific requirements for offshore structures — Part 8: Marine soil investigations (Adopted ISO 19901-8:2014, first edition, 2014-12-01)
    AASHTO R 13 : 2012 PRACTICE FOR CONDUCTING GEOTECHNICAL SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATIONS
    ASTM D 1587/D1587M : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Fine-Grained Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6236 : 2011 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Coring and Logging Cement - or Lime-Stabilized Soil
    ASTM D 6169 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    EN ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    13/30257183 DC : 0 BS EN ISO 19901-8 - PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    I.S. EN ISO 19901-8:2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    ASTM D 6528 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Direct Simple Shear Testing of Fine Grain Soils

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 7 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
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