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  • ASTM C 1869 : 2018

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    Standard Test Method for Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-05-2018

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This test method determines the open-hole (notched) tensile strength of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) test specimens with a single through-hole of defined diameter (either 6 mm or 3 mm). The open-hole tensile (OHT) test method determines the effect of the single through-hole on the tensile strength and stress response of continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs at ambient temperature. The OHT strength can be compared to the tensile strength of an unnotched test specimen to determine the effect of the defined open hole on the tensile strength and the notch sensitivity of the CMC material. If a material is notch sensitive, then the OHT strength of a material varies with the size of the through-hole. Commonly, larger holes introduce larger stress concentrations and reduce the OHT strength.1.2This test method defines two baseline OHT test specimen geometries and a test procedure, based on Test MethodsC1275andD5766/D5766M. A flat, straight-sided ceramic composite test specimen with a defined laminate fiber architecture contains a single through-hole (either 6 mm or 3 mm in diameter), centered by length and width in the defined gage section (Fig. 1). A uniaxial, monotonic tensile test is performed along the defined test reinforcement axis at ambient temperature, measuring the applied force versus time/displacement in accordance with Test MethodC1275. Measurement of the gage length extension/strain is optional, using extensometer/displacement transducers. Bonded strain gages are optional for measuring localized strains and assessing bending strains in the gage section.

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    1.1This test method determines the open-hole (notched) tensile strength of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) test specimens with a single through-hole of defined diameter (either 6 mm or 3 mm). The open-hole tensile (OHT) test method determines the effect of the single through-hole on the tensile strength and stress response of continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs at ambient temperature. The OHT strength can be compared to the tensile strength of an unnotched test specimen to determine the effect of the defined open hole on the tensile strength and the notch sensitivity of the CMC material. If a material is notch sensitive, then the OHT strength of a material varies with the size of the through-hole. Commonly, larger holes introduce larger stress concentrations and reduce the OHT strength.

    1.2This test method defines two baseline OHT test specimen geometries and a test procedure, based on Test Methods C1275 and D5766/D5766M. A flat, straight-sided ceramic composite test specimen with a defined laminate fiber architecture contains a single through-hole (either 6 mm or 3 mm in diameter), centered by length and width in the defined gage section (Fig. 1). A uniaxial, monotonic tensile test is performed along the defined test reinforcement axis at ambient temperature, measuring the applied force versus time/displacement in accordance with Test Method C1275. Measurement of the gage length extension/strain is optional, using extensometer/displacement transducers. Bonded strain gages are optional for measuring localized strains and assessing bending strains in the gage section.

    FIG. 1OHT Test Specimens A and B

    OHT Test Specimens A and BOHT Test Specimens A and B

    1.3The open-hole tensile strength (SOHTx) for the defined hole diameter x (mm) is the calculated ultimate tensile strength based on the maximum applied force and the gross cross-sectional area, disregarding the presence of the hole, per common aerospace practice (see 4.4). The net section tensile strength (SNSx) is also calculated as a second strength property, accounting for the effect of the hole on the cross-sectional area of the test specimen.

    1.4This test method applies primarily to ceramic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement in multiple directions. The CMC material is typically a fiber-reinforced, 2D, laminated composite in which the laminate is balanced and symmetric with respect to the test direction. Composites with other types of reinforcement (1D, 3D, braided, unbalanced) may be tested with this method, with consideration of how the different architectures may affect the notch effect of the hole on the OHT strength and the tensile stress-strain response. This test method does not directly address discontinuous fiber-reinforced, whisker-reinforced, or particulate-reinforced ceramics, although the test methods detailed here may be equally applicable to these composites.

    1.5This test method may be used for a wide range of CMC materials with different reinforcement fibers and ceramic matrices (oxide-oxide composites, silicon carbide (SiC) fibers in SiC matrices, carbon fibers in SiC matrices, and carbon-carbon composites) and CMCs with different reinforcement architectures. It is also applicable to CMCs with a wide range of porosities and densities.

    1.6Annex A1 and Appendix X1 address how test specimens with different geometries and hole diameters may be prepared and tested to determine how those changes will modify the OHT strength properties, determine the notch sensitivity, and affect the stress-strain response.

    1.7The test method may be adapted for elevated temperature OHT testing by modifying the test equipment, specimens, and procedures per Test Method C1359 and as described in Appendix X2. The test method may also be adapted for environmental testing (controlled atmosphere/humidity at moderate (<300 °C) temperatures) of the OHT properties by the use of an environmental test chamber, per 7.6.

    1.8Values expressed in this test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) and IEEE/ASTM SI 10.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.10This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee C 28
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 2208 : 2002 : R2010 Standard Guide for Evaluating Non-Contacting Optical Strain Measurement Systems
    ASTM C 1145 : 2019 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1773 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Axial Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1359 : 1996 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1773 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Axial Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1275 : 2000 : R2005 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM E 1012 : 2014 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1326 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1145 : 1998 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1145 : 2006 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1773 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Axial Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1327 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM D 3878 : 2002 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1359 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 83 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer
    ASTM C 1326 :2008 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1275 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1326 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1327 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM D 3878 : 2015 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2019 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 83 : 1998 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer
    ASTM D 3878 : 2000 Standard Terminology Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1145 : 2005 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 2208 : 2002 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Evaluating Non-Contacting Optical Strain Measurement Systems
    ASTM E 6 : 2002 Standard Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
    ASTM E 691 : 2020 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM C 1465 : 2008 : R2019 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 1012 : 1999 Standard Practice for Verification of Specimen Alignment Under Tensile Loading
    ASTM C 1359 : 2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 1012 : 2012 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1793 : 2015 Standard Guide for Development of Specifications for Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide-Silicon Carbide Composite Structures for Nuclear Applications
    ASTM E 122 : 2017 : R2022 Standard Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
    ASTM E 122 : 2017 Standard Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
    ASTM E 1012 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1239 : 2006 : REV A Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 105 : 2021 Standard Guide for Probability Sampling of Materials
    ASTM E 1402 : 2013 Standard Guide for Sampling Design
    ASTM D 3878 : 2003 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1145 : 2003 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 691 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM E 1402 : 2013 : R2018 Standard Guide for Sampling Design
    ASTM D 3878 : 2016 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 2208 : 2002 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Evaluating Non-Contacting Optical Strain Measurement Systems
    ASTM D 3878 : 2019 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2020 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 1998 Standard Terminology Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1275 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1239 : 2013 : R2018 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1327 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 1402 : 1999 Standard Terminology Relating to Sampling
    ASTM D 3878 : 2018 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 1402 : 2008 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Sampling Design
    ASTM E 691 : 2022 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM C 1359 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 1012 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1275 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM E 691 : 2009 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 3878 : 2002 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1326 : 2008 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 6 : 2015 : EDT 3 Standard Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
    ASTM C 1465 : 2008 : R2013 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1465 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1239 : 2000 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1326 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 1012 : 2005 Standard Practice for Verification of Test Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1327 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1145 : 2006 : R2013 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM D 3878 : 2004 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1326 : 2013 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1239 : 2000 : R2005 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 4 : 2021 Standard Practices for Force Calibration and Verification of Testing Machines
    ASTM E 691 : 2021 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM C 1359 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1145 : 2002 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM D 3878 : 2007 : R2013 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2020 : REDLINE Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1465 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 105 : 2016 Standard Practice for Probability Sampling of Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2020 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2003 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 6 : 2015 : EDT 4 Standard Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
    ASTM D 3878 : 2007 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1239 : 2006 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1145 : 2002 : REV A Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1465 : 2008 : R2013 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1327 : 2015 : R2019 Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1465 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM C 1275 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM C 1359 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 2208 : 2002 Standard Guide for Evaluating Non-Contacting Optical Strain Measurement Systems
    ASTM C 1145 : 2001 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1239 : 2013 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM D 3878 : 2004 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM C 1239 : 2007 Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM C 1145 : 2006 : R2013 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
    ASTM E 1012 : 2019 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    ASTM C 1275 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM D 3878 : 2001 Standard Terminology Composite Materials
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