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  • ASTM C 494/C494M : 2017

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  28-08-2020

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  15-06-2017

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This specification covers materials for use as chemical admixtures to be added to hydraulic-cement concrete mixtures in the field for the purpose or purposes indicated for the eight types as follows:Type A—Water-reducing admixtures,Type B—Retarding admixtures, Type D—Water-reducing and retarding admixtures,Type E—Water-reducing and accelerating admixtures,Type F—Water-reducing, high range admixtures,Type G—Water-reducing, high range, and retarding admixtures, and1.1.8 Type S—Specific performance admixtures.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This specification covers materials for use as chemical admixtures to be added to hydraulic-cement concrete mixtures in the field for the purpose or purposes indicated for the eight types as follows:

    1.1.1Type A—Water-reducing admixtures,

    1.1.2Type B—Retarding admixtures,

    1.1.3Type C—Accelerating admixtures,

    1.1.4Type D—Water-reducing and retarding admixtures,

    1.1.5Type E—Water-reducing and accelerating admixtures,

    1.1.6Type F—Water-reducing, high range admixtures,

    1.1.7Type G—Water-reducing, high range, and retarding admixtures, and

    1.1.8Type S—Specific performance admixtures.

    1.2This specification stipulates tests of an admixture with suitable concreting materials as described in 11.1 – 11.3 or with cement, pozzolan, aggregates, and an air-entraining admixture proposed for specific work (11.4). Unless specified otherwise by the purchaser, the tests shall be made using concreting materials as described in 11.1 – 11.3.

    Note 1:It is recommended that, whenever practicable, tests be made using the cement, pozzolan, aggregates, air-entraining admixture, and the mixture proportions, batching sequence, and other physical conditions proposed for the specific work (11.4) because the specific effects produced by chemical admixtures may vary with the properties and proportions of the other ingredients of the concrete. For instance, Types F and G admixtures may exhibit much higher water reduction in concrete mixtures having higher cement factors than that listed in 12.1.1.

    Mixtures having a high range water reduction generally display a higher rate of slump loss. When high-range admixtures are used to impart increased workability (6 to 8-in. slump [150 to 200–mm]), the effect may be of limited duration, reverting to the original slump in 30 to 60 min depending on factors normally affecting rate of slump loss. The use of chemical admixtures to produce high-slump (flowing) concrete is covered by Specification C1017/C1017M.

    Note 2:The purchaser should ensure that the admixture supplied for use in the work is equivalent in composition to the admixture subjected to test under this specification (see Section 6, Uniformity and Equivalence).

    Note 3:Admixtures that contain relatively large amounts of chloride may accelerate corrosion of prestressing steel. Compliance with the requirements of this specification does not constitute assurance of acceptability of the admixture for use in prestressed concrete.

    1.3This specification provides for three levels of testing.

    1.3.1Level 1—During the initial approval stage, proof of compliance with the performance requirements defined in Table 1 demonstrates that the admixture meets the requirements of this specification. Admixtures (except for Types B, C, E, and S) shall qualify for provisional compliance when the physical requirements and any of the alternative compressive strength requirements in Table 1 are met. If subsequent test results at six months or one year fail to meet the standard requirement of 100 % of reference strength, the compliance of the admixture to this standard is withdrawn and all users of the admixture shall be notified immediately. Uniformity and equivalence tests of Section 6 shall be carried out to provide results against which later comparisons can be made (see Note 4).

    TABLE 1 Physical RequirementsA

    Type A,
    Water
    Reducing

    Type B,
    Retarding

    Type C,
    Acceler-
    ating

    Type D,
    Water
    Reducing
    and
    Retarding

    Type E,
    Water
    Reducing
    and
    Accelerating

    Type F,
    Water
    Reducing,
    High Range

    Type G,
    Water
    Reducing,
    High
    Range
    and Retarding

    Type S
    Specific
    Performance

    Water content, max, % of  control

    95

    ...

    ...

    95

    95

    88

    88

    ...

    Time of setting, allowable deviation from control, h:min:

    Initial: at least

    ...

    1:00 later

    1:00 earlier

    1:00 later

    1:00 earlier

    ...

    1:00 later

     not more than

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    3:30 later

    3:30 earlier

    3:30 later

    3:30 earlier

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    3:30 later

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    Final: at least

    ...

    ...

    1:00 earlier

    ...

    1:00 earlier

    ...

    ...

     not more than

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    3:30 later

    ...

    3:30 later

    ...

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    3:30 later

    1:00 earlier
    nor 1:30
    later

    Compressive strength, min, % of control:B

      1 day

    ...

    ...

    ...

    ...

    ...

    140

    125

    ...

      3 days

    110

    90

    125

    110

    125

    125

    125

    90

      7 days

    110

    90

    100

    110

    110

    115

    115

    90

     28 days

    110
    (120)C

    90

    100

    110
    (120)C

    110

    110
    (120)C

    110
    (120)C

    90

     90 days

    (117)C

    n/a

    n/a

    (117)C

    n/a

    (117)C

    (117)C

    n/a

      6 months

    100
    (113)C

    90

    90

    100
    (113)C

    100

    100
    (113)C

    100
    (113)C

    90

      1 year

    100

    90

    90

    100

    100

    100

    100

    90

    Flexural strength, min,  % control:B

      3 days

    100

    90

    110

    100

    110

    110

    110

    90

      7 days

    100

    90

    100

    100

    100

    100

    100

    90

     28 days

    100

    90

    90

    100

    100

    100

    100

    90

    Length change, max  shrinkage (alternative  requirements):D

    Percent of control

    135

    135

    135

    135

    135

    135

    135

    135

     Increase over control

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    0.010

    Relative durability
     factor, minE

    80

    80

    80

    80

    80

    80

    80

    80

    (A)The values in the table include allowance for normal variation in test results. The object of the 90 % compressive strength requirement for a Type B amd Type S admixture is to require a level of performance comparable to that of the reference concrete.
    (B)The compressive and flexural strength of the concrete containing the admixture under test at any test age shall be not less than 90 % of that attained at any previous test age. The objective of this limit is to require that the compressive or flexural strength of the concrete containing the admixture under test shall not decrease with age.
    (C)Alternative requirement. If the physical requirements are met and any of the measured relative strengths are greater than the requirement in parentheses, the admixture shall be considered provisionally qualified until the one-year strength test results are obtained.
    (D)Alternative requirements, see 17.1.4, % of control limit applies when length change of control is 0.030 % or greater; increase over control limit applies when length change of control is less than 0.030 %.
    (E)This requirement is applicable only when the admixture is to be used in air-entrained concrete which may be exposed to freezing and thawing while wet.

    Note 4:Allowing for provisional compliance while retaining longer term compressive strength requirements promotes more rapid qualification of new materials, but also provides assurance that new admixture technologies will not exhibit unexpected longer term performance. The alternative compressive strength requirements in Table 1 are based on statistical analysis of 103 Specification C494/C494M evaluation tests. The alternative requirements correspond to a 99 % probability of passing subsequent test age requirements.2

    1.3.2Level 2—Limited retesting is described in 5.2 – 5.2.2. Proof of compliance with the requirements of Table 1 demonstrates continued conformity of the admixture with the requirements of the specification.

    1.3.3Level 3—For acceptance of a lot or for measuring uniformity within or between lots, when specified by the purchaser, the uniformity and equivalence tests of Section 6 shall be used.

    1.4The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.5The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.

    1.6The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test method sections, Sections 11 – 18 of this Specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee C 09
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 1252 : 1998 : R2007 Standard Practice for General Techniques for Obtaining Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis
    ASTM E 1252 : 1998 Standard Practice for General Techniques for Obtaining Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis
    ASTM D 1193 : 1977 : R1983 : EDT 1 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM D 1193 : 2006 : R2011 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM D 1193 : 1991 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM D 1193 : 1970 Standard Specification For Reagent Water
    ASTM D 1193 : 2006 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM D 1193 : 1999 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM E 1252 : 1998 : R2013 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for General Techniques for Obtaining Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis
    ASTM D 1193 : 2006 : R2018 Standard Specification for Reagent Water
    ASTM E 1252 : 1998 : R2002 Standard Practice for General Techniques for Obtaining Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis
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