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  • ASTM D 396 : 2021

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    Standard Specification for Fuel Oils

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  13-04-2021

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This specification (see Note 1) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:

    1.1.1Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 1 S15, No. 2 S5000, No. 2 S500, and No. 2 S15 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, and No. 1 S15 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel.

    1.1.2Grades B6–B20 S5000, B6–B20 S500, and B6–B20 S15 are middle distillate fuel/biodiesel blends for use in domestic and small industrial burners.

    1.1.3Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range.

    1.1.4Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization.

    Note 1:For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1.

    Note 2:A more detailed description of the grades of fuel oils is given in X1.3.

    1.2This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases of fuel oils and for the guidance of consumers of fuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs.

    1.3Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive.

    1.4The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

    1.4.1Non-SI units are provided in Table 1 and Table 2 and in 7.1.2.1/7.1.2.2 because these are common units used in the industry.

    Note 3:The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate burner fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.

    1.5This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 02
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 7687 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Cellular Adenosine Triphosphate in Fuel and Fuel-associated Water With Sample Concentration by Filtration
    ASTM D 2274 : 2014 : R2019 Standard Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil (Accelerated Method)
    ASTM D 7112 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Determining Stability and Compatibility of Heavy Fuel Oils and Crude Oils by Heavy Fuel Oil Stability Analyzer (Optical Detection)
    ASTM D 4868 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net and Gross Heat of Combustion of Hydrocarbon Burner and Diesel Fuels
    ASTM D 8166 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulates in Middle Distillate Fuels and Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20) Using Continuous Flow and Bottle Sampler Automatic Particle Condition Monitors
    ASTM D 543 : 2020 Standard Practices for Evaluating the Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents
    ASTM D 7451 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Water Separation Properties of Light and Middle Distillate, and Compression and Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels
    ASTM D 2517 : 2018 Standard Specification for Reinforced Epoxy Resin Gas Pressure Pipe and Fittings
    ASTM D 8274 : 2020 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) Content in Diesel Fuel Oil by Portable Rapid Mid-Infrared Analyzer
    ASTM D 2880 : 2020 Standard Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
    ASTM D 7827 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Measuring n-Heptane Induced Phase Separation of Asphaltene from Heavy Fuel Oils as Separability Number by an Optical Device
    ASTM D 6756 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Red Dye Concentration and Estimation of the ASTM Color of Diesel Fuel and Heating Oil Using a Portable Visible Spectrophotometer
    ASTM D 7544 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel
    ASTM D 7463 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Content of Microorganisms in Fuel, Fuel/Water Mixtures, and Fuel Associated Water
    ASTM D 6021 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Total Hydrogen Sulfide in Residual Fuels by Multiple Headspace Extraction and Sulfur Specific Detection
    ASTM D 8070 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Screening of Fuels and Fuel Associated Aqueous Specimens for Microbial Contamination by Lateral Flow Immunoassay
    ASTM D 7545 : 2014 : R2019 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Middle Distillate Fuels—Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT)
    ASTM D 7157 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Determination of Intrinsic Stability of Asphaltene-Containing Residues, Heavy Fuel Oils, and Crude Oils (n-Heptane Phase Separation; Optical Detection)
    ASTM D 2709 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
    ASTM D 7619 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particles in Light and Middle Distillate Fuels, by Automatic Particle Counter
    ASTM D 6748 : 2002 : REV A : R2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Potential Instability of Middle Distillate Fuels Caused by the Presence of Phenalenes and Phenalenones (Rapid Method by Portable Spectrophotometer)
    ASTM C 1125 : 1989 : R2015 Standard Test Method for Penetration Index of Asbestos (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 445 : 2019 : REV A Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 7060 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Maximum Flocculation Ratio and Peptizing Power in Residual and Heavy Fuel Oils (Optical Detection Method)
    ASTM D 7464 : 2020 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Liquid Fuels, Associated Materials and Fuel System Components for Microbiological Testing
    ASTM D 6823 : 2008 : R2013 Standard Specification for Commercial Boiler Fuels With Used Lubricating Oils
    ASTM D 7548 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Accelerated Iron Corrosion in Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 8181 : 2019 Standard Specification for Microemulsion Blendstock for Preparing Microemulsion Test Fuel Oils
    ASTM D 7061 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measuring n-Heptane Induced Phase Separation of Asphaltene-Containing Heavy Fuel Oils as Separability Number by an Optical Scanning Device
    ASTM D 2068 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining Filter Blocking Tendency
    ASTM D 7621 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils by Rapid Liquid Phase Extraction
    ASTM D 6217 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Middle Distillate Fuels by Laboratory Filtration
    ASTM D 4865 : 2019 Standard Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
    ASTM E 1259 : 2018 Standard Practice for Evaluation of Antimicrobials in Liquid Fuels Boiling Below 390 °C
    ASTM D 97 : 2017 : REV B Standard Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 5705 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vapor Phase Above Residual Fuel Oils
    ASTM D 6468 : 2008 : R2019 Standard Test Method for High Temperature Stability of Middle Distillate Fuels
    ASTM D 6258 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Solvent Red 164 Dye Concentration in Diesel Fuels
    ASTM D 130 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
    ASTM D 6469 : 2020 Standard Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
    ASTM D 4625 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability at 43 °C (110 °F)
    ASTM D 6426 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Determining Filterability of Middle Distillate Fuel Oils
    ASTM D 7042 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 6448 : 2016 Standard Specification for Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lubricating Oils
    ASTM D 7095 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Rapid Determination of Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products Using a Disposable Copper Foil Strip

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 29 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
    ASTM D 4052 : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
    ASTM D 7945 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Constant Pressure Viscometer
    ASTM D 3828 : 2016 : REV A : R2021 Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
    ASTM D 2624 : 2021 Standard Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
    ASTM D 975 : 2021 Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel
    ASTM D 2624 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
    ASTM D 975 : 2020 : REV C Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel
    ASTM D 56 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
    ASTM D 3828 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
    ASTM D 7346 : 2015 : R2021 Standard Test Method for No Flow Point and Pour Point of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels
    ASTM D 56 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
    ASTM D 1552 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and Infrared (IR) Detection or Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
    ASTM D 445 : 2019 : REV A Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 4294 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM D 56 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
    ASTM D 4294 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM D 2622 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM D 445 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 7945 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Constant Pressure Viscometer
    ASTM D 7042 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 445 : 2021 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
    ASTM D 1552 : 2016 : R2021 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and Infrared (IR) Detection or Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
    ASTM D 7346 : 2015 Standard Test Method for No Flow Point and Pour Point of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels
    ASTM D 2624 : 2015 Standard Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
    ASTM D 2622 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM E 29 : 2022 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
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