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  • ASTM D 4814 : 2021 : REV C

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    Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  22-12-2021

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This specification covers the establishment of requirements of liquid automotive fuels for ground vehicles equipped with spark-ignition engines.

    1.2This specification describes various characteristics of automotive fuels for use over a wide range of operating conditions. It provides for a variation of the volatility and water tolerance of automotive fuel in accordance with seasonal climatic changes at the locality where the fuel is used. For the period May 1 through September 15, the maximum vapor pressure limits issued by the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are specified for each geographical area except Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. Territories. Variation of the antiknock index with seasonal climatic changes and altitude is discussed in Appendix X1. This specification neither necessarily includes all types of fuels that are satisfactory for automotive vehicles, nor necessarily excludes fuels that can perform unsatisfactorily under certain operating conditions or in certain equipment. The significance of each of the properties of this specification is shown in Appendix X1.

    1.3The spark-ignition engine fuels covered in this specification are gasoline and its blends with oxygenates, such as alcohols and ethers and where gasoline is the primary component by volume in the blend. The concentrations and types of oxygenates are not specifically limited in this specification. The composition of both unleaded and leaded fuel is limited by economic, legal, and technical consideration, but their properties, including volatility, are defined by this specification. In many countries, regulatory authorities having jurisdiction have set laws and regulations that limit the concentration of oxygenates and certain other compounds found in spark-ignition engine fuel. In the United States, oxygenate types and concentrations are limited to those approved under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) substantially similar rule (see X3.3.1), waivers, and partial waivers including some restrictions on vehicle and equipment use (see X3.3.2). With regard to fuel properties, including volatility, this specification can be more or less restrictive than the EPA rules, regulations, and waivers. Refer to Appendix X3 for discussions of EPA rules relating to fuel volatility, lead and phosphorous contents, sulfur content, benzene content, deposit control additive certification, and use of oxygenates in blends with unleaded gasoline. Contact the EPA for the latest versions of the rules and additional requirements.

    1.4This specification does not address the emission characteristics of reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel. Reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel is required in some areas to lower emissions from automotive vehicles, and its characteristics are described in Monograph 12 (MONO12) on reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel.2 However, in addition to the legal requirements found in MONO12, reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel should meet the performance requirements found in this specification.

    1.5This specification represents a description of automotive fuel as of the date of publication. The specification is under continuous review, which can result in revisions based on changes in fuel, automotive requirements, or test methods, or a combination thereof. All users of this specification, therefore, should refer to the latest edition.

    Note 1:If there is any doubt as to the latest edition of Specification D4814, contact ASTM International Headquarters.

    1.6The type of fuel under consideration must first be identified in order to select applicable tests. Test Method D4815 provides a procedure for determining oxygenate concentration in mass percent. Test Method D4815 also includes procedures for calculating mass oxygen content and oxygenate concentration in volume percent. Appendix X4 provides a procedure for calculating the mass oxygen content of a fuel using measured oxygenate type, oxygenate concentration in volume percent, and measured density or relative density of the fuel.

    1.7The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: For purposes of determining conformance with these specifications, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded “to the nearest unit” in the right-most significant digit used in expressing the specification limit, in accordance with the rounding method of Practice E29. For a specification limit expressed as an integer, a trailing zero is significant only if the decimal point is specified. For a specified limit expressed as an integer, and the right-most digit is non-zero, the right-most digit is significant without a decimal point being specified. This convention applies to specified limits in Tables 1, 3, and X8.1, and it will not be observed in the remainder of this specification.

    1.8The values stated in SI units are the standard, except when other units are specified by U.S. federal regulation. Values given in parentheses are provided for information only.

    Note 2:Many of the values shown in Table 1 were originally developed using U.S. customary units and were subsequently soft-converted to SI values. As a result, conversion of the SI values will sometimes differ slightly from the U.S. customary values shown because of round-off. In some cases, U.S. federal regulations specify non-SI units.


    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.10This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 02
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 7794 : 2021 Standard Practice for Blending Mid-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Vehicles with Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
    ASTM D 7932 : 2017 Standard Specification for Printed, Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Labels for Use in Extreme Distribution Environments
    ASTM D 5598 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Evaluating Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electronic Port Fuel Injector Fouling
    ASTM D 8235 : 2021 Standard Specification for Ethyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (ETBE) for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 5813 : 2004 : R2018 Standard Specification for Cured-In-Place Thermosetting Resin Sewer Piping Systems
    ASTM D 7619 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particles in Light and Middle Distillate Fuels, by Automatic Particle Counter
    ASTM F 852/F852M : 2020 Standard Specification for Portable Gasoline, Kerosene, and Diesel Containers for Consumer Use
    ASTM D 7464 : 2020 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Liquid Fuels, Associated Materials and Fuel System Components for Microbiological Testing
    ASTM D 7548 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Accelerated Iron Corrosion in Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 7920 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Fuel Methanol (M99) and Methanol Fuel Blends (M10 to M99) by Gas Chromatography
    ASTM F 2207 : 2006 : R2019 Standard Specification for Cured-in-Place Pipe Lining System for Rehabilitation of Metallic Gas Pipe
    ASTM D 8369 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis by High Resolution Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy (GC-VUV)
    ASTM D 8011 : 2019 Standard Specification for Natural Gasoline as a Blendstock in Ethanol Fuel Blends or as a Denaturant for Fuel Ethanol
    ASTM D 3120 : 2008 : R2019 Standard Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry
    ASTM D 2885 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels by On-Line Direct Comparison Technique
    ASTM D 7717 : 2011 : R2021 Standard Practice for Preparing Volumetric Blends of Denatured Fuel Ethanol and Gasoline Blendstocks for Laboratory Analysis
    ASTM F 2507 : 2015 Standard Specification for Recreational Airpark Design
    ASTM E 1259 : 2018 Standard Practice for Evaluation of Antimicrobials in Liquid Fuels Boiling Below 390 °C
    ASTM D 7719 : 2021 : REV A Standard Specification for High Aromatic Content Unleaded Hydrocarbon Aviation Gasoline Test Fuel
    ASTM F 2874 : 2020 Standard Specification for One Time Use Portable Emergency Fuel Containers (PEFC) for Use by Consumers
    ASTM D 7862 : 2021 Standard Specification for Butanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 7671 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive Spark–Ignition Engine Fuel–Silver Strip Method
    ASTM D 5500 : 2020 : REV A Standard Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation of Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation
    ASTM F 1743 : 2017 Standard Practice for Rehabilitation of Existing Pipelines and Conduits by Pulled-in-Place Installation of Cured-in-Place Thermosetting Resin Pipe (CIPP)
    ASTM D 5983 : 2021 Standard Specification for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for Blending With Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 8275 : 2021 Standard Specification for Gasoline-like Test Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines
    ASTM D 4806 : 2021 : REV A Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 7096 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline by Wide-Bore Capillary Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 5797 : 2021 Standard Specification for Methanol Fuel Blends (M51–M85) for Methanol-Capable Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
    ASTM D 8076 : 2021 : REV B Standard Specification for 100 Research Octane Number Test Fuel for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
    ASTM D 6469 : 2020 Standard Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
    ASTM D 6423 : 2020 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of pHe of Denatured Fuel Ethanol and Ethanol Fuel Blends
    ASTM F 2245 : 2020 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of a Light Sport Airplane
    ASTM D 7451 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Water Separation Properties of Light and Middle Distillate, and Compression and Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels
    ASTM D 5798 : 2021 Standard Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
    ASTM D 7667 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel—Thin Silver Strip Method

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4057 : 2019 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 5191 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels (Mini Method)
    ASTM E 29 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
    ASTM D 5599 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection
    ASTM D 4052 : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
    ASTM D 4815 : 2015 : REV B : R2019 Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 4815 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 5599 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection
    ASTM D 2700 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 4175 : 2020 : REV B : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants
    ASTM D 6378 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
    ASTM D 6378 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
    ASTM D 4177 : 2022 Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 2700 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 381 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
    ASTM D 381 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
    ASTM D 2699 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 2622 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM D 4057 : 2022 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 4306 : 2020 Standard Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
    ASTM D 4177 : 2020 Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 5191 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels (Mini Method)
    ASTM D 2622 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    ASTM E 29 : 2022 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
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