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  • ASTM E 2982 : 2014 : EDT 1

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Thin-Walled Metallic Liners in Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels Used in Aerospace Applications

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  27-04-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-04-2019

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This guide discusses current and potential nondestructive testing (NDT) procedures for finding indications of discontinuities in thin-walled metallic liners in filament-wound pressure vessels, also known as composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). In general, these vessels have metallic liner thicknesses less than 2.3 mm (0.090 in.), and fiber loadings in the composite overwrap greater than 60 percent by weight. In COPVs, the composite overwrap thickness will be of the order of 2.0 mm (0.080 in.) for smaller vessels, and up to 20 mm (0.80 in.) for larger ones.

    1.2This guide focuses on COPVs with nonload sharing metallic liners used at ambient temperature, which most closely represents a Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Type III metal-lined COPV. However, it also has relevance to (1) monolithic metallic pressure vessels (PVs) (CGA Type I), and (2) metal-lined hoop-wrapped COPVs (CGA Type II).

    1.3The vessels covered by this guide are used in aerospace applications; therefore, the examination requirements for discontinuities and inspection points will in general be different and more stringent than for vessels used in non-aerospace applications.

    1.4This guide applies to (1) low pressure COPVs and PVs used for storing aerospace media at maximum allowable working pressures (MAWPs) up to 3.5 MPa (500 psia) and volumes up to 2 m3 (70 ft3), and (2) high pressure COPVs used for storing compressed gases at MAWPs up to 70 MPa (10,000 psia) and volumes down to 8000 cm3 (500 in.3). Internal vacuum storage or exposure is not considered appropriate for any vessel size.

    1.5The metallic liners under consideration include but are not limited to ones made from aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, nickel-based alloys, and stainless steels. In the case of COPVs, the composites through which the NDT interrogation must be made after overwrapping include, but are not limited to, various polymer matrix resins (for example, epoxies, cyanate esters, polyurethanes, phenolic resins, polyimides (including bismaleimides), polyamides) with continuous fiber reinforcement (for example, carbon, aramid, glass, or poly-(phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBO)).

    1.6This guide describes the application of established NDT procedures; namely, Acoustic Emission (AE, Section 7), Eddy Current Testing (ECT, Section 8), Laser Profilometry (LP, Section 9), Leak Testing (LT, Section 10), Penetrant Testing (PT, Section 11), and Radiologic Testing (RT, Section 12). These procedures can be used by cognizant engineering organizations for detecting and evaluating flaws, defects, and accumulated damage in metallic PVs, the bare metallic liner of COPVs before overwrapping, and the metallic liner of new and in-service COPVs.

    1.7Due to difficulties associated with inspecting thin-walled metallic COPV liners through composite overwraps, and the availability of the NDE methods listed in Section 1.6 to inspect COPV liners before overwrapping and metal PVs, ultrasonic testing (UT) is not addressed in this standard. UT may still be performed as agreed upon between the supplier and customer. Ultrasonic requirements may utilize Practice E2375 as applicable based upon the specific liner application and metal thickness. Alternate ultrasonic inspection methods such as Lamb wave, surface wave, shear wave, reflector plate, etc. may be established and documented per agreed upon contractual requirements. The test requirements should be developed in conjunction with the specific criteria defined by engineering analysis.

    1.8In general, AE and PT are performed on the PV or the bare metallic liner of a COPV before overwrapping (in the case of COPVs, AE is done before overwrapping to minimize interference from the composite overwrap). ET, LT, and RT are performed on the PV, bare metallic liner of a COPV before overwrapping, or on the as-manufactured COPV. LP is performed on the inner and outer surfaces of the PV, or on the inner surface of the COPV liner both before and after overwrapping. Furthermore, AE and RT are well suited for evaluating the weld integrity of welded PVs and COPV liners.

    1.9Wherever possible, the NDT procedures described shall be sensitive enough to detect critical flaw sizes of the order of 1.3 mm (0.050 in.) length with a 2:1 aspect ratio.

    Note 1:Liners often fail due to improper welding resulting in initiation and growth of multiple small discontinuities of the order of 0.050 mm (0.002 in.) length. These will form a macro-flaw of 1-mm (0.040-in.) length only at higher stress levels.

    1.10For NDT procedures that detect discontinuities in the composite overwrap of filament-wound pressure vessels (namely, AE, ET, shearography, thermography, UT and visual examination), consult E07’s forthcoming Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Composite Overwraps in Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels Used in Aerospace Applications.

    1.11In the case of COPVs which are impact damage sensitive and require implementation of a damage control plan, emphasis is placed on NDT procedures that are sensitive to detecting damage in the metallic liner caused by impacts at energy levels which may or may not leave any visible indication on the COPV composite surface.

    1.12This guide does not specify accept/reject criteria (Section 4.10) used in procurement or used as a means for approving PVs or COPVs for service. Any acceptance criteria provided herein are given mainly for purposes of refinement and further elaboration of the procedures described in the guide. Project or original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specific accept/reject criteria shall be used when available and take precedence over any acceptance criteria contained in this document.

    1.13This standard references established ASTM Test Methods that have a foundation of experience and that yield a numerical result, and newer procedures that have yet to be validated which are better categorized as qualitative guidelines and practices. The latter are included to promote research and later elaboration in this standard as methods of the former type.

    1.14To insure proper use of the referenced standard documents, there are recognized NDT specialists that are certified according to industry and company NDT specifications. It is recommended that an NDT specialist be a part of any thin-walled metallic component design, quality assurance, in-service maintenance, or damage examination.

    1.15The values stated in metric units are to be regarded as the standard. The English units given in parentheses are provided for information only.

    1.16This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.17This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee E 07
    Document Type Guide
    Product Note ε1NOTE—The definition in3.5.3was updated editorially in April 2019
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 2533 : 2021 Standard Guide for Nondestructive Examination of Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Aerospace Applications
    ASTM E 2581 : 2014 : R2019 Standard Practice for Shearography of Polymer Matrix Composites and Sandwich Core Materials in Aerospace Applications
    ASTM E 2981 : 2021 Standard Guide for Nondestructive Examination of Composite Overwraps in Filament Wound Pressure Vessels Used in Aerospace Applications
    ASTM E 2981 : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Nondestructive Testing of the Composite Overwraps in Filament Wound Pressure Vessels Used in Aerospace Applications
    ASTM E 2581 : 2014 Standard Practice for Shearography of Polymer Matrix Composites and Sandwich Core Materials in Aerospace Applications

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 2104 : 2015 Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Advanced Aero and Turbine Materials and Components
    ASTM E 2338 : 2004 Standard Practice for Characterization of Coatings Using Conformable Eddy-Current Sensors without Coating Reference Standards
    ASTM E 1316 : 2015 : REV A Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2375 : 2004 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Wrought Products
    ASTM E 1316 : 2020 : REV A Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2698 : 2010 Standard Practice for Radiological Examination Using Digital Detector Arrays
    ASTM E 1255 : 1996 Standard Practice for Radioscopy
    ASTM E 1815 : 1996 Standard Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography
    ASTM E 1419 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Examination of Seamless, Gas- Filled, Pressure Vessels Using Acoustic Emission
    ASTM E 2261 : 2003 Standard Practice for Examination of Welds Using the Alternating Current Field Measurement Technique
    ASTM D 3878 : 2015 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM D 3878 : 2019 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 1032 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments
    ASTM E 1000 : 1998 Standard Guide for Radioscopy
    ASTM E 2698 : 2018 Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination Using Digital Detector Arrays
    ASTM E 1000 : 2016 Standard Guide for Radioscopy
    ASTM E 1316 : 2018 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2884 : 2013 Standard Guide for Eddy Current Testing of Electrically Conducting Materials Using Conformable Sensor Arrays
    ASTM E 1316 : 2015 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 1316 : 2019 : REV B Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 1316 : 2000 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2033 : 1999 Standard Practice for Computed Radiology (Photostimulable Luminescence Method)
    ASTM E 2104 : 2001 Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Advanced Aero and Turbine Materials and Components
    ASTM D 3878 : 2016 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 1309 : 2000 Standard Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
    ASTM E 1471 : 1992 : R1998 Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases
    ASTM E 1419 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Examination of Seamless, Gas- Filled, Pressure Vessels Using Acoustic Emission
    ASTM D 3878 : 2019 : REV A Standard Terminology for Composite Materials
    ASTM E 2736 : 2010 Standard Guide for Digital Detector Array Radiology
    ASTM D 3878 : 1998 Standard Terminology Composite Materials
    ASTM E 1316 : 2016 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 1416 : 2016 : REV A Standard Practice for Radioscopic Examination of Weldments
    ASTM E 2007 : 2000 Standard Guide for Computed Radiology (Photostimulable Luminescence (PSL) Method)
    ASTM E 1417 : 1999 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination
    ASTM E 1434 : 2000 Standard Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
    ASTM E 1316 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2884 : 2017 Standard Guide for Eddy Current Testing of Electrically Conducting Materials Using Conformable Sensor Arrays
    ASTM E 1066 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Ammonia Colorimetric Leak Testing
    ASTM E 2338 : 2017 Standard Practice for Characterization of Coatings Using Conformable Eddy Current Sensors without Coating Reference Standards
    ASTM E 1219 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Examination Using the Solvent-Removable Process
    ASTM E 1316 : 2017 : REV A Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 1416 : 1996 Standard Test Method for Radioscopic Examination of Weldments
    ASTM E 1316 : 2016 : REV A Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM D 1067 : 1988 Standard Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
    ASTM E 1316 : 2002 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 2007 : 2010 : R2016 Standard Guide for Computed Radiography
    ASTM E 1416 : 2016 Standard Practice for Radioscopic Examination of Weldments
    ASTM E 1210 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Examination Using the Hydrophilic Post-Emulsification Process
    ASTM E 1316 : 2021 Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
    ASTM E 1209 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Examination Using the Water-Washable Process
    ASTM D 3878 : 2001 Standard Terminology Composite Materials
    ASTM E 1255 : 2016 Standard Practice for Radioscopy
    ASTM D 1067 : 1992 : R1996 Standard Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
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