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  • AWS D10.10/D10.10M : 1999 : R2009

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    RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR LOCAL HEATING OF WELDS IN PIPING AND TUBING

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    Published date:  01-01-2009

    Publisher:  American Welding Society

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Personnel(Reaffirmation)
    Personnel(Original)
    Foreword
    List of Tables
    List of Figures
    1. Scope
    2. Reference Documents
        2.1 Piping Fabrication Codes
        2.2 Repair Codes
        2.3 Recommended Practices Regarding Service
              Environment
    3. Introduction
    4. Purposes for Local Heating
        4.1 Bake-Out
        4.2 Preheating and Interpass Heating
        4.3 Postheating
        4.4 Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT)
    5. Terminology for Local Heating
        5.1 Soak Band (SB)
        5.2 Heated Band (HB)
        5.3 Gradient Control Band (GCB)
        5.4 Control Zone
    6. Local 360-Degree Band Heating
        6.1 Soak Band
        6.2 Heated Band
        6.3 Gradient Control Band
        6.4 Axial Temperature Gradient
        6.5 Summary of Recommendations for SB, HB, GCB, and
              Axial Temperature Gradient
        6.6 Recommended PWHT Practices
    7. Local Spot PWHT
        7.1 Requirements in Fabrication and Repair Codes
        7.2 Basis for Current Practices
        7.3 Experience or Analysis to Justify Use
    8. Measurement of Temperature
        8.1 Temperature-Indicating Crayons and Paints
        8.2 Selection of Thermocouples
        8.3 Installation of Thermocouples
        8.4 Location of Thermocouples
        8.5 Thermocouple Extension Wires
        8.6 Temperature Control and Recording Instruments
        8.7 Accuracy of Thermocouple Temperature Measurements
    9. Insulation
        9.1 Classification of Insulation
        9.2 Health and Safety Issues Regarding Fiber Respirability
        9.3 Types of Insulation
        9.4 Attachment of Insulation
    10. Other Considerations
        10.1 Structural Integrity
        10.2 Internal Liquids
        10.3 Internal Convection
        10.4 Thermal Expansion
    11. Thermal Cycle
        11.1 Temperature Uniformity
        11.2 Heating Rate
        11.3 Hold Temperature and Time
        11.4 Cooling Rate
    12. Response to Deviations
        12.1 Thermocouple Failure
        12.2 Heat Source Failure
        12.3 Interruption During Heating
        12.4 Interruption During Hold Period
        12.5 Interruption During Cooling
        12.6 Excessive Heating or Hold Times During PWHT
    13. Considerations Related to Service Environment
        13.1 Appropriateness of Furnace and Local PWHT
        13.2 Exemption from PWHT
        13.3 Tempering and Stress Relaxation Objectives
        13.4 Hardness Testing
        13.5 Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI)
    14. Quality Assurance System
        14.1 Quality System
        14.2 Process Control
        14.3 Response to In-Process Deviations
        14.4 Testing
        14.5 Documentation
        14.6 Control of Inspection, Measuring, and Test Equipment
        14.7 Training
        14.8 Servicing
    15. Induction Heating
        15.1 General
        15.2 Effect of Composition and Temperature
        15.3 Coil
        15.4 Ampere Turns
        15.5 Location of Turns of the Coil
        15.6 Suggestions for Setup
        15.7 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Induction
              Heating
    16. Electric Resistance Heating
        16.1 General
        16.2 Heaters
        16.3 Power Sources
        16.4 Suggestions for Setup
        16.5 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Resistance
              Heating
    17. Flame Heating
        17.1 General
        17.2 Heat Sources
        17.3 Torch Tip Sizes
        17.4 Heated Band
        17.5 Flame Adjustment
        17.6 Flame Attitude
        17.7 Protection from the Elements
        17.8 Holding
        17.9 Cooling
        17.10 Suggestions for Setup
        17.11 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Flame Heating
    18. Exothermic Heating
        18.1 General
        18.2 Nature of the Process
        18.3 Determination of Process Suitability
        18.4 Suggestions for Setup
        18.5 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Exothermic
              Heating
    19. Gas-Flame Generated Infrared Heating
        19.1 General
        19.2 Fundamentals
        19.3 Burner Arrangement
        19.4 Process Control
        19.5 Sheltering of Thermocouples
        19.6 Suggestions for Setup
        19.7 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Gas-Flame
              Generated Infrared Heating
    20. Radiant Heating by Quartz Lamps
        20.1 General
        20.2 Description of the Heating Method
        20.3 Heater
        20.4 Thermal Cycle Control
        20.5 Effect of Work Surface Condition
        20.6 Suggestions for Setup
        20.7 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Quartz Lamp
              Radiant Heating
    21. Comparison of Heating Processes
    22. Safety and Health
        22.1 Noise
        22.2 Electrical Hazards
        22.3 Fire and Explosion Protection
        22.4 Burn Protection
        22.5 Tripping and Falling
        22.6 Falling Objects
        22.7 Confined Spaces
        22.8 Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF)
        22.9 Lockout/Tagout
    Annex A (Informative) - Discussion of Issues and Recommendations
             Regarding the Heated Band
    Annex B (Informative) - Discussion of Stresses Induced During Local
             360-Degree Band PWHT
    Annex C (Informative) - Procedure for Thermocouple Attachment
             by Capacitor Discharge Welding
    Annex D (Informative) - Accuracy of Thermocouple Temperature
             Measurements
    Annex E (Informative) - Information on Types of Insulation
    Annex F (Informative) - Standard Procedure for Local Heating
    Annex G (Informative) - Standard Documentation Checklist for
             Local Heating
    Annex H (Informative) - Guidelines for the Preparation of
             Technical Inquiries
    List of AWS Documents on Piping and Tubing

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Explains several methods of applying controlled heat to weld joints and a limited volume of base metal adjacent to the joints, as opposed to heating the complete weldment in a furnace or oven.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D10
    Development Note Supersedes AWS D10.10 (06/2001)
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note Reconfirmed 2009
    Publisher American Welding Society
    Status Current

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FDBR 18 : 2010 PERFORMANCE OF POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT
    ASTM A 833 : 2008 Standard Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Testers
    ASME B31.1 : 2016 POWER PIPING
    ASME PV CODE 3 APP DIV 1 : 2017 BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE - RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FACILITY COMPONENTS - APPENDICES
    BS 5500(1997) : 1997 SPECIFICATION FOR UNFIRED FUSION WELDED PRESSURE VESSELS
    AS 1210-2010 Pressure vessels (Reconfirmed 2021)
    BS 2633(1987) : 1987 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 1 ARC WELDING OF FERRITIC STEEL PIPEWORK FOR CARRYING FLUIDS
    ANSI MC96.1 : 1982 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT THERMOCOUPLES
    ANSI/NCSL Z540 1 : 94(R2002) CALIBRATION - CALIBRATION LABORATORIES AND MEASURING AND TEST EQUIPMENT - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    NACE RP 04 72 : 2005 METHODS AND CONTROLS TO PREVENT IN-SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL WELDMENTS IN CORROSIVE PETROLEUM REFINING ENVIRONMENTS
    ASME B31.3:2016 PROCESS PIPING
    API 570 : 2016 PIPING INSPECTION CODE: IN-SERVICE INSPECTION, RATING, REPAIR, AND ALTERATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS
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