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  • BS 8002:1994

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    CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  30-03-2010

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1994

    Publisher:  British Standards Institution

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Foreword
    Section 1 - Introduction
    1.1 Scope
    1.2 References
    1.3 Definitions
    1.4 Major symbols
    1.5 Selection and types of structure
         1.5.1 General
         1.5.2 Selection of type
    Section 2 - Data for design
    2.1 Site and geotechnical data
         2.1.1 General
         2.1.2 Site investigations
         2.1.3 Ground water
         2.1.4 Floor tides and waves
         2.1.5 Climate
         2.1.6 Trees
    2.2 Soil properties
         2.2.1 General
         2.2.2 Selection and evaluation of soil parameter
                values
         2.2.3 Clay soils
         2.2.4 Cohesionless soils
         2.2.5 Silts
         2.2.6 Rock
         2.2.7 Fill
         2.2.8 Wall friction, base friction and undrained wall
                adhesion
    2.3 Externally applied loads
    Section 3 - Design philosophy, design method and earth
                pressures
    3.1 Design philosophy
         3.1.1 General
         3.1.2 Limit state design
         3.1.3 Ultimate limit states
         3.1.4 Serviceability limit states
         3.1.5 Limit states and compatibility of deformations
         3.1.6 Design values of parameters
         3.1.7 Applied loads
         3.1.8 Design soil strength
         3.1.9 Design earth pressures
    3.2 Design method
         3.2.1 Equilibrium calculations
         3.2.2 Design situations
         3.2.3 Calculations based on total and effective
                stress parameters
         3.2.4 Design using total stress parameters
         3.2.5 Design using effective stress parameters
         3.2.6 Design values of wall friction, base friction
                and undrained wall adhesion
         3.2.7 Design to structural codes
    3.3 Disturbing forces
         3.3.1 General
         3.3.2 At-rest earth pressures
         3.3.3 Active earth pressures
         3.3.4 Surcharge loads
         3.3.5 Water pressure
    3.4 Resistance to movement
         3.4.1 General
         3.4.2 Passive earth resistance
         3.4.3 Weak rocks
         3.4.4 Layered soils
         3.4.5 Water pressures and seepage forces
    Section 4 - Design of specific earth retaining structures
    4.1 Interrelation of section 3 and section 4
         4.1.1 General
         4.1.2 Design
    4.2 Gravity walls
         4.2.1 General
         4.2.2 Foundations
         4.2.3 Mass concrete retaining walls
         4.2.4 Unreinforced masonry retaining walls
         4.2.5 Reinforced soil
         4.2.6 Gabions
         4.2.7 Cribwork
    4.3 Reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry walls
         on spread foundations
         4.3.1 Reinforced concrete walls (other than basement
                walls)
         4.3.2 Basement walls, excavation, support and
                retention systems
         4.3.3 Reinforced and prestressed masonry retaining
                walls
    4.4 Embedded walls
         4.4.1 General
         4.4.2 Types of wall and applicability
         4.4.3 Design
         4.4.4 Steel sheet piling
         4.4.5 Timber sheet piles
         4.4.6 Reinforced and prestressed concrete sheet piles
         4.4.7 In situ concrete pile walls
         4.4.8 Diaphragm walls
         4.4.9 Soldier/king piles
    4.5 Strutted excavations and cofferdams
         4.5.1 General
         4.5.2 Struts, ties, walings and anchorages
         4.5.3 Cellular cofferdams
    4.6 Anchorages
         4.6.1 General
         4.6.2 Equilibrium
         4.6.3 Ground anchorages
         4.6.4 Tension piles
         4.6.5 Deadman anchorages
    4.7 Waterfront structures
         4.7.1 General
         4.7.2 Concrete and reinforcement
         4.7.3 Design
         4.7.4 Construction
    Annex A (normative) Graphs for K[a] and K[p]
    Annex B (informative) Traditional design methods for
            embedded walls
    Annex C (informative) Bibliography
    Index
    Figures
    Tables

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Deals with the design and construction of structures to retain soils and materials with similar engineering properties, at slopes steeper than those which they would naturally assume. Mainly applies to small and medium walls with a retained height of up to about 8 metres. Coverage includes ground water, trees, soil properties, clay soils, rock, design soil strength, design earth pressures, water pressure, passive earth resistance, gravity walls, steel sheet piling, cellular cofferdams, tension piles, and mass concrete retaining walls. Also gives definitions, tables, diagrams and annexes.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee B/526
    Development Note Supersedes 87/14383 DC, 99/107881 DC (09/2001)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher British Standards Institution
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    BS 5628-2(2000) : 2000 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 2: STRUCTURAL USE OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY
    05/30136143 DC : DRAFT JUL 2005 BS 5628-2 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 2: STRUCTURAL USE OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY
    05/30131954 DC : DRAFT APR 2005 BS 5628-3 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 3: MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS, DESIGN AND WORKMANSHIP
    07/30150912 DC : 0 BS 5975 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PROCEDURAL CONTROL OF TEMPORARY WORKS AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN OF FALSEWORK
    BS 8004(2015) : 2015 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR FOUNDATIONS
    BS 5628-1(1992) : 1992 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF MASONRY - STRUCTURAL USE OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY
    06/30116678 DC : DRAFT JUN 2006 UK NATIONAL ANNEX TO EUROCODE 7 - GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN - GENERAL RULES
    BS 5628-2(2005) : 2005 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 2: STRUCTURAL USE OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY
    09/30093258 DC : DRAFT JUNE 2009 BS 8006-1 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS AND OTHER FILLS
    BS 6349-3(1988) : 1988 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF DRY DOCKS, LOCKS, SLIPWAYS AND SHIPBUILDING BERTHS, SHIPLIFTS AND DOCK AND LOCK GATES
    BS 5950-1(2000) : 2000 STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDING - PART 1: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN - ROLLED AND WELDED SECTIONS
    04/30126043 DC : DRAFT DEC 2004 BS 5628-1 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 1: STRUCTURAL USE OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY
    BIP 2205 : 2011 CONCISE EUROCODES: GEOTECHNICS: BS EN 1997: EUROCODES 7
    BS PD6694-1(2011) : 2011 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO TRAFFIC LOADING TO BS EN 1997-1:2004
    BS 8006-2(2011) : 2011 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS - PART 2: SOIL NAIL DESIGN
    BS 8006(1995) : 1995 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS AND OTHER FILLS
    11/30161659 DC : DRAFT JULY 2011 BS 8006-2 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS - PART 2: SOIL NAILING
    BS 6349-2(1988) : 1988 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF QUAY WALLS, JETTIES AND DOLPHINS
    BS 5628-1(2005) : 2005 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF MASONRY - PART 1: STRUCTURAL USE OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY
    15/30302283 DC : 0 BS 8081 - GROUTED ANCHORS - CODE OF PRACTICE
    BS 5975(2008) : 2019 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TEMPORARY WORKS PROCEDURES AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN OF FALSEWORK
    BS 5975(2008) : 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TEMPORARY WORKS PROCEDURES AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN OF FALSEWORK
    BS 5975(2008) : 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TEMPORARY WORKS PROCEDURES AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN OF FALSEWORK
    BS 8004:2015 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR FOUNDATIONS
    BS 6349-2:1988 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF QUAY WALLS, JETTIES AND DOLPHINS
    BS 5975(2008) : 2019 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TEMPORARY WORKS PROCEDURES AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN OF FALSEWORK

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    BS 5493(1977) : 1977 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PROTECTIVE COATING OF IRON AND STEEL STRUCTURES AGAINST CORROSION
    BS 5930:1981 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SITE INVESTIGATIONS
    BS 8004:1986 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR FOUNDATIONS
    BS 5628-1(1992) : 1992 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF MASONRY - STRUCTURAL USE OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY
    BS 1052(1980) : 1980 SPECIFICATION FOR MILD STEEL WIRE FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES
    BS 5589(1989) : 1989 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PRESERVATION OF TIMBER
    BS 5950-5(1987) : 1987 STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDING - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS
    BS 5390(1976) : 1976 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STONE MASONRY
    DD ENV 1992-1.1 : DRAFT MAY 1992 EUROCODE 2: DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES - GENERAL RULES FOR BUILDINGS (TOGETHER WITH UNITED KINGDOM NATIONAL APPLICATION DOCUMENT)
    BS 1377-7:1990 (published 1994-11) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Shear strength tests (total stress)
    BS 5268-2(1991) : 1991 STRUCTURAL USE OF TIMBER - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PERMISSIBLE STRESS DESIGN, MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP
    BS 1377-6:1990 (published 1994-11) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Consolidation and permeability tests in hydraulic cells and with pore pressure measurement
    BS 8081(1989) : 1989 AMD 7268 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR GROUND ANCHORAGES
    BS 187(1978) : 1978 SPECIFICATION FOR CALCIUM SILICATE (SANDLIME AND FLINTLIME) BRICKS
    BS 5268-5(1989) : 1989 STRUCTURAL USE OF TIMBER - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER
    BS 4360(1990) : 1990 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDABLE STRUCTURAL STEELS
    BS 5400-1(1988) : 1988 STEEL, CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE BRIDGES - GENERAL STATEMENT
    BS EN 10025 : 1993 HOT ROLLED PRODUCTS OF NON-ALLOY STRUCTURAL STEELS: TECHNICAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS
    BS 6031(1981) : 1981 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTHWORKS
    BS 882(1992) : 1992 SPECIFICATION FOR AGGREGATES FROM NATURAL SOURCES FOR CONCRETE
    BS 8110-2(1985) : 1985 STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE - PART 2: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
    BS 5400-8(1978) : 1978 STEEL CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE BRIDGES - PART 8: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND PRESTRESSING TENDONS
    BS 1377-9(1990) : 1990 METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING PURPOSES - PART 9: IN-SITU TESTS
    BS 1377-5:1990 (published 1994-11) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Compressibility, permeability and durability tests
    BS 8007(1987) : 1987 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES FOR RETAINING AQUEOUS LIQUIDS
    BS 6349-6:1989 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF INSHORE MOORINGS AND FLOATING STRUCTURES
    BS 5628-3(1985) : 1985 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF MASONRY - MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS DESIGN AND WORKMANSHIP
    BS 6349-3(1988) : 1988 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF DRY DOCKS, LOCKS, SLIPWAYS AND SHIPBUILDING BERTHS, SHIPLIFTS AND DOCK AND LOCK GATES
    BS 5328-1(1991) : 1991 CONCRETE - GUIDE TO SPECIFYING CONCRETE
    BS 6349-4(1985) : 1985 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF FENDERING AND MOORING SYSTEMS
    BS 443(1982) : 1982 SPECIFICATION FOR TESTING ZINC COATINGS ON STEEL WIRE AND FOR QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
    BS 6349-2(1988) : 1988 MARITIME STRUCTURES - DESIGN OF QUAY WALLS, JETTIES AND DOLPHINS
    BS 1377-3(1990) : 1990 METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING PURPOSES - PART 3: CHEMICAL AND ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TESTS
    BS 5400-2(1978) : 1978 STEEL CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE BRIDGES - SPECIFICATION FOR LOADS
    BS 729(1971) : 1971 SPECIFICATION FOR HOT DIP GALVANIZED COATINGS ON IRON AND STEEL ARTICLES
    BS 8110-1(1985) : 1985 STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    BS 1047(1983) : 1983 SPECIFICATION FOR AIR COOLED BLASTFURNACE SLAG AGGREGATE FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTION
    BS 5268-3(1985) : 1985 STRUCTURAL USE OF TIMBER - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TRUSSED RAFTER ROOFS
    BS 4102(1990) : 1990 SPECIFICATION FOR STEEL WIRE AND WIRE PRODUCTS FOR FENCES
    BS 5400-4(1990) : 1990 STEEL, CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE BRIDGES - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES
    BS 3921(1985) : 1985 SPECIFICATION FOR CLAY BRICKS
    BS 5328-2(1991) : 1991 CONCRETE - METHODS FOR SPECIFYING CONCRETE MIXTURES
    BS 6457(1984) : 1984 SPECIFICATION FOR RECONSTRUCTED STONE MASONRY UNITS
    BS 1377-4:1990 (published 2002-12) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Compaction-related tests
    BS 6349-7(1991) : 1991 MARITIME STRUCTURES - PART 7: GUIDE TO THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKWATERS
    BS 5950-1(1990) : 1990 STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDING - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN IN SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION; HOT ROLLED SECTIONS
    BS 6349-5:1991 MARITIME STRUCTURES - PART 5: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DREDGING AND LAND RECLAMATION
    BS 5642-2(1983) : 1983 SILLS, COPINGS AND CAPPINGS - PART 2: SPECIFICATION FOR COPINGS AND CAPPINGS OF PRECAST CONCRETE, CAST STONE, CLAYWARE, SLATE AND NATURAL STONE
    BS 4921(1988) : 1988 SPECIFICATION FOR SHERARDIZED COATINGS ON IRON OR STEEL
    BS 6349-1(1984) : 1984 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR MARITIME STRUCTURES - GENERAL CRITERIA
    BS 6073-1(1981) : 1981 PRECAST CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS - PART 1: SPECIFICATION FOR PRECAST CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    BS 743(1970) : 1970 SPECIFICATION FOR MATERIALS FOR DAMP-PROOF COURSES
    BS 6073-2(1981) : 1981 PRECAST CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS - METHOD FOR SPECIFYING PRECAST CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    BS 5628-2(1985) : 1985 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF MASONRY - STRUCTURAL USE OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY
    BS 5400-7(1978) : 1978 STEEL, CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE BRIDGES - PART 7: SPECIFICATION FOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP, CONCRETE, REINFORCEMENT AND PRESTRESSING TENDONS
    BS 1377-8(1990) : 1990 METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING PURPOSES - PART 8: SHEAR STRENGTH TESTS (EFFECTIVE STRESS)
    BS 1377-2:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Classification tests
    BS 5837(1991) : 1991 GUIDE FOR TREES IN RELATION TO CONSTRUCTION
    BS 4729(1990) : 1990 SPECIFICATION FOR DIMENSIONS OF BRICKS OF SPECIAL SHAPES AND SIZES
    BS 449-2(1969) : 1969 SPECIFICATION FOR THE USE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN BUILDING - PART 2: METRIC UNITS
    BS 6649(1985) : 1985 SPECIFICATION FOR CLAY AND CALCIUM SILICATE MODULAR BRICKS
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