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  • BS 848-1(1980) : 1980

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    FANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES - METHODS OF TESTING PERFORMANCE

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  15-09-1997

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1980

    Publisher:  British Standards Institution

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Foreword; Cooperating organizations; Methods
    Section one. General
    1. Scope; 2. References; 3. Definitions
    4. Symbols and units
    4.1 Symbols; 4.2 Subscripts; 4.3 Multiples and sub-
    multiples
    5. Instrumentation for measurement of pressure
    5.1 Barometers; 5.2 Manometers; 5.3 Damping of
    manometers; 5.4 Checking of manometers
    6. Determination of average static pressure in an
          airway
    6.1 Use of wall tappings; 6.2 Use of wall tappings;
    6.4 Position and connections; 6.5 Checks for
    compliance; 6.6 Use of pitot-static tube
    7. Measurement of temperature
    7.1 Thermometers; 7.2 Thermometer location;
    7.3 Humidity; 7.4 Influence of air velocity
    8. Determination of density
    8.1 Density of the air in the test enclosure; 8.2
    Average density of the air in an airway section; 8.3
    Determination of vapour pressure
    9. Measurement of rotational speed
    9.1 Fan shaft speed; 9.2 Examples of acceptable
    methods
    10. Determination of power input
    10.1 Measurement accuracy; 10.2 Fan shaft power;
    10.3 Electrical instruments; 10.4 Impeller power;
    10.5 Transmission systems
    11. Measurement of dimensions and determination of
          areas
    11.1 Flow measurement devices; 11.2 Tolerance on
    dimensions; 11.3 Determination of cross-sectional area
    12. Determination of flow rate
    12.1 General; 12.2 In-line flowmeters (standard
    primary devices); 12.3 Traverse methods
    13. Calculation of the results of a test
    13.1 General; 13.2 Units; 13.3 Temperature; 13.4
    Dynamic pressure and fan dynamic pressure; 13.5 Fan
    static pressure and fan total pressure; 13.6 Inlet
    volume flow; 13.7 Fan efficiencies (compressible flow);
    13.8 Approximation for low pressure fans
    14. Conversion rules for spped, air conditions & size
    14.1 Direct and indirect tests; 14.2 Conversion of
    direct test; 14.3 Conversion of indirect tests; 14.4
    Change of size; 14.5 Requirements for conversion
    15. Fan characteristics
    15.1 General; 15.2 Methods of plotting; 15.3 Constant
    speed characteristic;15.4 Inherent speed characteristic
    15.5 Adjustable duty fan characteristic; 15.6 Complete
    fan characteristic; 15.7 Test for a specified duty
    16. Uncertainty of measurement
    16.1 Performance errors; 16.2 Uncertainty of measure-
    ment; 16.3 Specified uncertainties; 16.4 Uncertainty
    of fan performance determination; 16.5 Site tests; 16.6
    Precision tests
    Section two. Tests with standardized airways
    17. Selection of test method
    17.1 Classification; 17.2 Installation types; 17.3
    Reporting of test; 17.4 User's installations; 17.5
    Alternative methods; 17.6 Duct simulation
    18. Installation of fan and test airways
    18.1 Inlets and outlets; 18.2 Airways; 18.3 Test
    enclosure; 18.4 Matching fan and airway; 18.5 Outlet
    area
    19. Operation of test
    19.1 Working fluid; 19.2 Rotational speed; 19.3
    Steady operation; 19.4 Ambient conditions; 19.5
    Pressure readings; 19.6 Tests for a specified duty;
    19.7 Tests for a fan characteristic; 19.8 Operating
    range
    20. Determination of flow rate by venturi nozzle
    20.1 Geometric form; 20.2 Venturi nozzle in free inlet
    condition; 20.3 Nozzle performance; 20.4 Uncertainties
    21. Determination of flow rate by conical inlet
    21.1 Geometric form; 21.2 Screen loading; 21.3 Inlet
    zone; 21.4 Conical inlet performance; 21.5
    Uncertainties
    22. Determinatoin of flow rate by orifice plate
    22.1 Installation; 22.2 Orifice plate; 22.3 Ducts;
    22.4 Pressure tappings; 22.5 Calculation of mass flow;
    22.6 In-duct orifice with D and D/2 taps; 22.7 In-duct
    orifice with corner taps; 22.8 Outlet orifice with wall
    tappings; 22.9 Inlet orifice with corner taps; 22.10
    Expansibility factor; 22.11 Reynolds number
    23. Determination of flow rate by pitot-static tube
    traverse
    23.1 General; 23.2 Pitot-static tube; 23.3 Limits
    of air velocity; 23.4 Location of measuring points;
    23.5 Determination of flow rate; 23.6 Flow coefficient
    23.7 Uncertainty of measurement
    24. Common airway sections for ducted fan installations
    24.1 Common parts; 24.2 Common part at fan outlet;
    24.3 Common part at fan inlet; 24.4 Outlet duct
    simulation; 24.5 Inlet duct simulation; 24.6 Loss
    allowances for standardized airways
    25. Component parts of standardized airways
    25.1 Symbols; 25.2 Component parts; 25.3 Flow
    measurement devices; 25.4 Meaning of subscripts
    26. Standardized inlet side test chambers
    26.1 Test chamber; 26.2 Fan under test; 26.3 Pressure
    tappings; 26.4 Flow uniformity; 26.5 Flow control;
    26.6 Leakage; 26.7 Fan powered exhaust ventilators
    27. Standardized test methods with inlet side test
          chambers: type A
    27.1 Methods for type A installations; 27.2
    Measurements taken during test; 27.3 Calculations;
    27.4 Fan performance; 27.5 Use of inlet side chambers
    with inlet and outlet duct simulation
    28. Standardized test methods with outlet side test
          ducts: type B
    28.1 Methods for type B installations; 28.1 Measure-
    ments taken during test; 28.3 Calculations; 28.4 Fan
    performance
    29. Standardized test methods with inlet side test
          ducts: type C
    29.1 Methods for type C installations; 29.2 Measure-
    ments taken during test; 29.3 Calculations; 29.4 Fan
    performance
    30. Standardized test methods with inlet and outlet
          test ducts: type D
    30.1 Methods for type D installations; 30.2 Measure-
    ments taken during test; 30.3 Calculations; 30.4 Fan
    performance
    Section three. Site tests
    31. Introduction; 32. Instructions for site testing
    32.1 General conditions; 32.2 Method of varying
    operating points
    33. Location of measurement planes
    33.1 Location of flow measurement plane; 33.2 Location
    of pressure measurement plane
    34. Measurement of air velocity on site
    34.1 Instruments for air velocity measurement; 34.2
    Pitot-static tube; 34.3 Anemometer; 34.4 Siting of
    measuring points
    35. Determination of flow rate on site
    35.1 Pitot-static tube; 35.2 Anemometer; 35.3 Deter-
    mination of cross-sectional area of airway on site;
    35.4 Uncertainty of measurement
    36. Determination of fan pressure on site
    36.1 General; 36.2 Measurement of static pressure on
    site; 36.3 Extract fans; 36.4 Blowing fans; 36.5
    Booster fans
    37. Determination of power input on site
    37.1 Power measurement; 37.2 Transmission systems;
    37.3 Other prime movers; 37.4 Special precautions for
    site tests
    Appendices
    A. Tolerances; B. Uncertainty calculations for fan
    performance; C. Conversion rules for compressible flow;
    D. Friction allowance for straight, smooth ducts; E.
    Conversion factors for SI units
    Tables
    1. Saturation vapour pressures; 2. Uncertainties of
    flow rate determination; 3. Ciruclar ducts: measure-
    ment positions for 6, 8 and 10 points per diameter by
    the log linear rule; 4. Rectangular sections: positions
    of measuring points and traverse lines by the log
    Tchebycheff rule
    Figures
    1. Construction of wall pressure tappings; 2. Tapping
    connections to obtain average static pressure; 3.
    Pressure loss and pressure difference of standard
    primary devices; 4. NPL modified ellipsoidal-nosed
    standard pitot-static tube; 5. Chart for the deter-
    mination of compressibility coefficient kp; 6. Dynamic
    viscosity of atmospheric air; 7. Example of a complete,
    constant-speed, fan characteristic; 8. Example of an
    adjustable-duty fan characteristic; 9. Example of test
    for a specified duty; 10. Uncertainty in fan total
    pressure from a standardized airway test; 11. Uncertain-
    ties in characteristic error and fan total efficiency
    from a standardized airway test; 12. Venturi nozzle
    geometry; 13. Flow metering installations; 14. Compound
    flow coefficients of venturi nozzles; 15. Conical inlet
    geometry; 16. Compound flow coefficient of conical
    inlets; 17. Orifice plates and assemblies; 18. Flow
    coefficients of in-duct orifices with D and D/2 taps;
    19. Flow coefficents of in-duct or outlet orifices with
    corner taps; 20. Compound flow coefficients of outlet
    orifices with wall taps; 21. Flow coefficients of inlet
    orifices with corner taps; 22. Expansibility factor
    epsilon for orifice plates in atmospheric air; 23.
    Location of positions for traverse measurements in
    standardized airways; 24. Friction allowance factors for
    standardized airways; 25. Inlet side test chamber; 26.
    Inlet-chamber methods for type A installations; 27.
    Standardized airways for free inlet, ducted outlet, type
    B installations; 28. Standardized airways for ducted
    inlet, free outlet, type C installations; 29. Standard-
    ized airways for ducted inlet, ducted outlet, type D
    installations; 30. Locations of flow measurement plane
    for site testing; 31. Location of pressure measurement
    planes for site testing; 32. Location of velocity
    measurements in rectangular sections on site; 33.
    Location of velocity measurements in a circular arched
    section on site; 34. Application of modified log
    Tchebycheff rule for traverse patterns in airway
    sections of other than circular and rectangular form;
    35. Error diagram; 36. Example of uncertainty in a fan
    characteristic; 37. Duct friction allowance

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Describes the performance of fans except those designed solely for air circulation. Calculation for the flow rates, fan pressures and fan efficiencies are specified. Compressibility effects are covered up to a maximum pressure ratio of 1.3. Methods of test to determine standard performance are described. Volume flow rate and fan pressure under site conditions are given. Estimates are provided and rules for conversion for changes of speed and gas handled.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee MCE/17
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher British Standards Institution
    Status Superseded
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    BS 4773-1(1971) : 1971 METHODS FOR TESTING AND RATING AIR TERMINAL DEVICES FOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS - AERODYNAMIC TESTING
    BS 7346-2(1990) : 1990 COMPONENTS FOR SMOKE AND HEAT CONTROL SYSTEMS - SPECIFICATION FOR POWERED SMOKE AND HEAT EXHAUST VENTILATORS
    BS 4096(1967) : 1967 SPECIFICATION FOR NON-DOMESTIC SPACE HEATERS BURNING LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GASES
    BS 848-2(1985) : 1985 FANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES - METHODS OF NOISE TESTING
    ASHRAE 51 : 2016 LABORATORY METHODS OF TESTING FANS FOR CERTIFIED AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE RATING
    BS 848-1(1997) : 1997 FANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES - PERFORMANCE TESTING USING STANDARDIZED AIRWAYS
    BS 7258-1(1990) : 1990 LABORATORY FUME CUPBOARDS - SPECIFICATION FOR SAFETY AND PERFORMANCE
    BS 7258-2(1990) : 1990 LABORATORY FUME CUPBOARDS - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INSTALLATION
    BS 7258-1(1994) : 1994 LABORATORY FUME CUPBOARDS - SPECIFICATION FOR SAFETY AND PERFORMANCE
    BS 3986(1966) : 1966 METHODS OF TEST FOR AGRICULTURAL GRAIN DRIERS
    BS 4856-5(1979) : 1979 METHODS FOR TESTING AND RATING FAN COIL UNITS UNIT HEATERS AND UNIT COOLERS - ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE WITH DUCTING
    BS 848-6(1989) : 1989 FANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES - METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF FAN VIBRATION
    BS 6583(1985) : 1985 METHODS FOR VOLUMETRIC TESTING FOR RATING OF FAN SECTIONS IN CENTRAL STATION AIR HANDLING UNITS (INCLUDING GUIDANCE ON RATING)
    BS 4718(1971) : 1971 METHODS OF TEST FOR SILENCERS FOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
    ISO 9097:1991 Small craft Electric fans
    AMCA 210 : 2016 LABORATORY METHODS OF TESTING FANS FOR CERTIFIED AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE RATING
    UNE-EN ISO 9097:2017 Small craft - Electric fans (ISO 9097:1991)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    BS 1042-1.1(1981) : 1981 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS - SPECIFICATION FOR SQUARE-EDGED ORIFICE PLATES, NOZZLES AND VENTURI TUBES INSERTED IN CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION CONDUITS RUNNING FULL
    BS 1042-1.5(1987) : 1987 MEASUREMENTS OF FLUID FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS - GUIDE TO THE EFFECT OF DEPARTURE FROM THE STANDARD CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 1.1
    BS 1042-2.3(1984) : 1984 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS - VELOCITY AREA METHODS - METHODS OF FLOW MEASUREMENT IN SWIRLING OR ASYMMETRIC FLOW CONDITIONS IN CIRCULAR DUCTS BY MEANS OF CURRENT-METERS OR PITOT STATIC TUBES
    BS 848-2(1985) : 1985 FANS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES - METHODS OF NOISE TESTING
    BS 1042-2.2(1983) : 1983 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS - VELOCITY AREA METHODS - METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY AT ONE POINT OF A CONDUIT OF CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION
    BS 1042-2.1(1983) : 1983 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID IN CLOSED CONDUITS - VELOCITY AREA METHODS - METHODS USING PITOT STATIC TUBES
    BS 1042-1.2(1984) : LATEST SPEC. FOR SQUARE-EDGED ORIFICE PLATES, NOZZLES (WITH DRAIN HOLES, IN PIPES BELOW 50MM DIAMETER, AS INLET AND OUTLET DEVICES) AND OTHER ORIFICE PLATES AND BORDA INLETS
    ISO 3966:2008 Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits Velocity area method using Pitot static tubes
    BS 1042-1.4(1984) : 1984 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS - GUIDE TO THE USE OF DEVICES SPECIFIED IN SECTIONS 1.1 AND 1.2
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