• AS 1228-1997

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Pressure equipment - Boilers

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  06-30-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1997

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1228-1997 PRESSURE EQUIPMENT - BOILERS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    7 - 1.2 APPLICATION
    7 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    7 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    7 - 1.4.1 Actual thickness
    7 - 1.4.2 Calculation pressure
    8 - 1.4.3 Design temperature
    8 - 1.4.4 Design lifetime
    8 - 1.4.5 Design pressure
    8 - 1.4.6 Design strength
    8 - 1.4.7 Drum
    8 - 1.4.8 Electrode boiler
    8 - 1.4.9 Element boiler
    8 - 1.4.10 Fire-tube boiler
    8 - 1.4.11 Forced or assisted circulation boiler
    8 - 1.4.12 Header
    8 - 1.4.13 Integral piping
    9 - 1.4.14 Miscellaneous boilers
    9 - 1.4.15 Natural circulation boiler
    9 - 1.4.16 Nominal thickness
    9 - 1.4.17 Once-through boiler
    9 - 1.4.18 Tube
    9 - 1.4.19 Water-tube boiler
    9 - 1.4.20 Organic fluid heater and vaporizer
    13 - 1.5 DESIGNATION
    13 - 1.6 VALVES, FITTINGS AND BOILER INSTALLATION
    13 - 1.7 RATING
    13 - 1.8 RESPONSIBILITIES
    14 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN STRENGTHS
    14 - 2.1 MATERIALS
    14 - 2.1.1 General
    14 - 2.1.2 Material identification
    14 - 2.1.3 Welding materials
    14 - 2.1.4 Prohibition of use of certain materials
    14 - 2.1.5 Alternative material specifications
    14 - 2.1.6 Use of structural or similar quality steels
    15 - 2.1.7 Specifically tested materials
    40 - 2.2 DESIGN STRENGTHS
    40 - 2.2.1 General
    40 - 2.2.2 Carbon and carbon-manganese steels
    40 - 2.2.3 Alloy steels
    40 - 2.2.4 Cast steels
    40 - 2.2.5 Design temperature for water-tube boilers
    42 - 2.2.6 Design temperature for tube and tube plates for fire-tube boilers
    45 - 2.3 DESIGN LIFETIME
    46 - SECTION 3 DESIGN
    46 - 3.1 DESIGN CRITERIA
    46 - 3.1.1 General
    46 - 3.2 CYLINDRICAL SHELLS, DRUMS AND HEADERS SUBJECT TO INTERNAL PRESSURE
    46 - 3.2.1 Shell thickness
    46 - 3.2.2 Minimum thickness
    47 - 3.2.3 Fire-tube and miscellaneous boilers
    47 - 3.2.4 Longitudinal ligament efficiency
    49 - 3.2.5 Equivalent longitudinal ligament efficiency for drilling on a diagonal line
    51 - 3.2.6 Circumferential ligaments
    51 - 3.2.7 Combined stresses in drum or header shells
    58 - 3.2.8 Drum stress due to supports
    58 - 3.2.9 Other drum stresses
    58 - 3.2.10 Openings in cylindrical shells
    60 - 3.2.11 Unreinforced openings
    61 - 3.2.12 Reinforcement of single openings in shells
    62 - 3.2.13 Limits of available reinforcement
    65 - 3.2.14 Strength of reinforcement
    65 - 3.2.15 Reinforcement of multiple openings
    66 - 3.2.16 Openings in furnaces of fire-tube boilers
    66 - 3.2.17 Fillet welds attaching parts, compensating plates and cylindrical shells of boilers
    67 - 3.3 DISHED ENDS SUBJECT TO INTERNAL PRESSURE
    67 - 3.3.1 General
    67 - 3.3.2 Required shape
    68 - 3.3.3 Thickness
    70 - 3.3.4 Openings in dished ends
    73 - 3.3.5 Dished and flanged crowns for vertical boilers
    75 - 3.4 RECTANGULAR SECTION HEADERS
    75 - 3.4.1 Straight rectangular headers
    78 - 3.4.2 Rectangular headers other than straight
    78 - 3.5 HEADER ENDS
    78 - 3.5.1 General
    78 - 3.5.2 Ends attached by welding
    79 - 3.5.3 Ends attached by bolting
    79 - 3.5.4 Reinforcement of openings in flat ends
    81 - 3.6 PRESSURE PARTS OF IRREGULAR SHAPE
    81 - 3.6.1 General
    81 - 3.6.2 Test pressure
    81 - 3.7 TUBES AND INTEGRAL PIPES
    81 - 3.7.1 Minimum thickness subjected to internal pressure
    82 - 3.7.2 Tubes subject to external pressure
    82 - 3.7.3 Bending of boiler, superheater, reheater, and economizer tubes
    82 - 3.7.4 Flexibility of piping systems
    84 - 3.8 STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENTS TO TUBES
    84 - 3.8.1 Welding of attachments
    84 - 3.8.2 Maximum thickness of attachment
    84 - 3.8.3 Intensity of radial loading
    85 - 3.8.4 Maximum force due to radial loading
    89 - 3.9 INSPECTION OPENINGS
    89 - 3.9.1 Access openings water-tube and fire-tube boilers
    89 - 3.9.2 Externally-fitted cover plates
    89 - 3.9.3 Internally fitted doors
    92 - 3.9.4 Openings in flat plates of fire-tube boilers
    93 - 3.9.5 Inspection and cleaning for fire-tube and miscellaneous boilers
    98 - 3.10 STAYS, STIFFENERS AND SUPPORTED SURFACES FOR FIRE-TUBE AND MISCELLANEOUS BOILERS
    98 - 3.10.1 End plates
    98 - 3.10.2 Breathing spaces
    111 - 3.10.3 Stayed flat surfaces
    112 - 3.10.4 Flat crown plates for vertical boilers
    113 - 3.10.5 Girders for fire box and reversal chamber crowns
    116 - 3.10.6 Stays for fire boxes, circular furnaces and reversal chambers
    126 - 3.10.7 Firebox crown stays and stiffeners for loco-type boilers
    126 - 3.10.8 Longitudinal bar stays
    126 - 3.10.9 Loads on stay tubes and bar stays
    126 - 3.10.10 Gusset and link stays (corner stays)
    130 - 3.11 TUBES AND TUBE PLATES FOR FIRE-TUBE AND MISCELLANEOUS BOILER
    130 - 3.11.1 Stay tubes and plain tubes
    130 - 3.11.2 Pitch of tubes
    133 - 3.11.3 Thickness of tube plates within tube nests
    133 - 3.11.4 Horizontal shelves of tube plates forming part of the shell
    133 - 3.11.5 Horizontal tube nests in vertical boilers
    134 - 3.12 FURNACES, REVERSAL CHAMBERS AND FIREBOXES OF CYLINDRICAL FORM SUBJECT TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
    134 - 3.12.1 Furnaces
    137 - 3.12.2 Circular reversal chambers
    137 - 3.12.3 Fireboxes and associated components
    147 - 3.13 BOILER SETTINGS
    147 - 3.14 BRANCHES AND STUDDED CONNECTIONS
    147 - 3.14.1 Thickness
    147 - 3.14.2 Forms of connections
    148 - 3.14.3 Seatings for mountings
    151 - 3.14.4 Integral piping branches
    171 - SECTION 4 MANUFACTURE AND WORKMANSHIP
    171 - 4.1 PRESSURE PARTS
    171 - 4.1.1 General
    171 - 4.1.2 Cylindrical shells and drums
    171 - 4.1.3 Welded construction
    172 - 4.1.4 Headers and similar pressure parts
    172 - 4.1.5 Plain tubes and stay tubes for fire-tube and miscellaneous boilers
    173 - 4.1.6 Attachment of tubes - General
    173 - 4.1.7 Furnaces for fire-tube and miscellaneous boilers
    173 - 4.1.8 Fireboxes for fire-tube and miscellaneous boilers
    178 - 4.1.9 Stays for fire tube and miscellaneous boilers
    179 - 4.2 WELDING
    179 - 4.2.1 General
    179 - 4.2.2 Welds of main joints
    179 - 4.2.3 Welding of pipes and tubes
    180 - SECTION 5 INSPECTION AND TESTING
    180 - 5.1 GENERAL
    180 - 5.2 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
    180 - 5.3 TEST PLATES AND MECHANICAL TESTS OF PRODUCTION WELDS
    180 - 5.3.1 Provision of test plates
    181 - 5.4 HYDROSTATIC TESTS
    181 - 5.4.1 General requirements
    181 - 5.4.2 Test pressure
    181 - 5.4.3 Component testing
    182 - 5.4.4 Requirements for once-through boilers
    182 - 5.4.5 Hydrostatic test procedure
    184 - SECTION 6 DOCUMENTATION AND MARKING
    184 - 6.1 DRAWINGS, DOCUMENTS, AND DATA SHEETS
    184 - 6.2 CERTIFICATES
    184 - 6.3 MARKING
    184 - 6.3.1 General
    184 - 6.3.2 Marking required
    185 - SECTION 7 MISCELLANEOUS BOILERS AND COIL-TYPE FORCED CIRCULATION BOILERS
    185 - 7.1 ELECTRIC BOILERS
    185 - 7.1.1 General
    185 - 7.1.2 Electricity supply
    185 - 7.1.3 Load adjustment
    185 - 7.1.4 Current balance
    185 - 7.1.5 Electrodes, elements and internal parts
    186 - 7.1.6 Pressure and temperature control
    186 - 7.1.7 Hydrostatic tests
    186 - 7.1.8 Access
    186 - 7.2 CAST IRON BOILERS
    186 - 7.2.1 General
    186 - 7.2.2 Maximum design pressure
    186 - 7.2.3 Maximum design temperature
    186 - 7.2.4 Materials
    186 - 7.2.5 Witnessing of bursting tests
    186 - 7.3 MINIATURE BOILERS
    186 - 7.3.1 General
    187 - 7.3.2 Designation
    187 - 7.3.3 Design and construction
    187 - 7.3.4 Materials
    187 - 7.3.5 Inspection openings
    187 - 7.3.6 Valves, gauges and other fittings
    187 - 7.4 COIL-TYPE FORCED CIRCULATION BOILERS
    187 - 7.4.1 General
    187 - 7.4.2 Limitations
    188 - 7.4.3 Requirements
    188 - 7.5 ORGANIC FLUID HEATERS AND VAPORIZERS
    188 - 7.5.1 General
    188 - 7.5.2 Materials
    188 - 7.5.3 Design
    188 - 7.5.4 Valves and fittings
    188 - 7.6 WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    189 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    192 - APPENDIX B - EXAMPLE OF PRINCIPAL INTEGRAL WATER-TUBE BOILER PIPEWORK COVERED BY THIS STANDARD
    193 - APPENDIX C - INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER AND THE MANUFACTURER
    193 - C1 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    194 - C2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER
    195 - APPENDIX D - DERIVATION OF MATERIAL DESIGN STRENGTH
    195 - D1 GENERAL
    195 - D2 NOTATION
    195 - D3 TIME-INDEPENDENT DESIGN STRENGTH
    195 - D3.1 General
    196 - D3.2 Carbon, carbon-manganese, and low alloy steels
    196 - D3.3 Austenitic steels
    197 - D4 TIME-DEPENDENT DESIGN STRENGTHS
    198 - APPENDIX E - CALCULATION OF TUBEPLATE TEMPERATURES
    198 - E1 GENERAL
    198 - E2 NOTATION
    199 - E3 CALCULATION METHOD
    199 - E3.1 Radiation coefficients
    200 - E3.2 Convection coefficients
    200 - E3.3 Weighted average gas-side heat transfer coefficient
    201 - E3.4 Tubeplate thermal conductance
    201 - E3.5 Water-side heat transfer
    201 - E3.6 Tubeplate temperatures
    201 - E4 EXAMPLE OF A CALCULATION
    201 - E4.1 Design data assumed
    202 - E4.2 Calculation of radiation coefficient
    202 - E4.3 Calculation of convection coefficients
    202 - E4.4 Calculation of weighted average gas-side heat transfer coefficient
    202 - E4.5 Calculation of tube plate thermal conductance
    203 - E4.6 Calculation of tube plate temperatures
    213 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
    214 - APPENDIX F - ANALYTICAL DESIGN METHOD FOR REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS ALTERNATIVE TO THE DESIGN METHOD SHOWN IN CLAUSE 3.2.10
    214 - F1 GENERAL
    216 - F2 LIMITS OF APPLICATION
    216 - F3 DESIGN METHOD FOR ISOLATED OPENINGS OR BRANCHES
    218 - F4 EXTENT OF REINFORCEMENT
    218 - F5 DESIGN METHOD FOR GROUPS OF OPENINGS OR BRANCHES
    224 - APPENDIX G - EXAMPLE OF MANUFACTURER'S REPORT

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out requirements for materials, design, construction, inspection and testing of boilers as defined in AS/NZS 1200. Specifically applies to design and construction of boilers including superheaters, reheaters and economizers. Incorporates the existing AS 1228-1990, Boilers-Water-tube, and AS 1797-1986, Boilers-Fire-tube, shell and miscellaneous, into one document. This incorporation eliminates duplication and possible conflict when considering the core documents for the Pressure Equipment suite of Standards.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out requirements for materials, design, construction, inspection and testing of boilers as defined in AS/NZS 1200.NOTE: The Scope of this Standard covers requirements for cast iron in addition to welded boilers inclusive of vapour-generating and hot fluid units subject to internal vapour or liquid pressure. Other forms of construction should be by agreement between the parties concerned.This Standard specifically applies to design and construction of boilers including superheaters, reheaters and economizers. It also applies to all pressure parts containing fluid up to and including the valves separating the pressure parts from -(a) steam piping to and from other equipment; (b) water piping to and from other equipment; (c) drain piping; (d) the surrounding atmosphere, except that for safety valves, their vent piping to the atmosphere is also covered; and (e) for equipment such as reheaters which may not incorporate valves at their supply and return connection points, the Standard applies to the equipment included between the inlet to the inlet header and the outlet from the outlet header of such equipment.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee ME-001
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Amendment 1 to AS 1228-1997 see DR 98020 CP First published in Australia in part as AS B31-1931.AS CB1 first published 1932.Redated 1932.Redated 1939.Second edition 1942.Redated 1950.AS CB1.5 first published 1951.AS CB1-1950 redated 1952.AS B31-1931 incorporated into AS CB1-1952 as Amendment.AS CB1-1952 redated 1954.AS CB1.5-1951 redated 1954.AS CB1-1954 revised and redesignated in part as AS CB1.1-1962 and AS 1228-1972.AS CB1.5-1954 revised and redesignated in part as AS 1228-1972.AS CB1.1-1962 revised and redesignated as AS 1797-1975 and AS 1797-1978.Second edition AS 1228-1980.Third edition AS 1797-1981.Third edition AS 1228-1984.Fourth edition AS 1797-1986.Fourth edition AS 1228-1990.AS 1797-1986 and AS 1228-1990 revised, amagamated and designated AS 1228-1997. First published in Australia in part as AS B31-1931. AS CB1 first published 1932. Redated 1932. Redated 1939. Second edition 1942. Redated 1950. AS CB1.5 first published 1951. AS CB1-1950 redated 1952. AS B31-1931 incorporated into AS CB1-1952 as Amendment. AS CB1-1952 redated 1954. AS CB1.5-1951 redated 1954. AS CB1-1954 revised and redesignated in part as AS CB1.1-1962 and AS 1228-1972. AS CB1.5-1954 revised and redesignated in part as AS 1228-1972. AS CB1.1-1962 revised and redesignated as AS 1797-1975 and AS 1797-1978. Second edition AS 1228-1980. Third edition AS 1797-1981. Third edition AS 1228-1984. Fourth edition AS 1797-1986. Fourth edition AS 1228-1990. AS 1797-1986 and AS 1228-1990 revised, amagamated and designated AS 1228-1997.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1029.1-1985 Low voltage contactors - Electromechanical (up to and including 1000 V a.c. and 1200 V d.c.)
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1271-1997 Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges, and other fittings for boilers and unfired pressure vessels
    AS 1680.1-1990 Interior lighting - General principles and recommendations
    AS 2074-1982 Steel castings
    AS 3992-1992 Boilers and pressure vessels - Welding and brazing qualification
    AS 3873-1995 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS 2528-1982 Bolts, studbolts and nuts for flanges and other high and low temperature applications
    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS/NZS 3679.1:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1722.1-1975 Pipe threads of Whitworth form Sealing pipe threads (metric units)
    AS 4041-1998 Pressure piping
    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS 4458-1997 Pressure equipment - Manufacture (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3653-1993 Boilers - Safety, management, combustion and other ancillary equipment
    AS 1000-1979 The International System of Units (SI) and its application
    AS/NZS 1110:1995 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts and screws
    AS 2129-1994 Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings
    AS 1710-1986 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of carbon and low alloy steel plate - Test methods and quality classification
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 1237-1973 Flat metal washers - For general engineering purposes (metric series)
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules) (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 3920.1-1993 Assurance of product quality - Pressure equipment manufacture
    AS 3892-1995 Pressure equipment - Installation
    AS 1074-1989 Steel tubes and tubulars for ordinary service (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 1112:1996 ISO metric hexagon nuts, including thin nuts, slotted nuts and castle nuts
    AS/NZS 1200:1994 Pressure equipment
    AS 1548-1995 Steel plates for pressure equipment
    AS 2291-1979 Methods for tensile testing of metals at elevated temperatures
    AS 4037-1999 Pressure equipment - Examination and testing (Reconfirmed 2016)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 3873-1995 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 2593-2004 Boilers - Safety management and supervision systems (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3653-1993 Boilers - Safety, management, combustion and other ancillary equipment
    AS 2780-1999 Refractories and refractory materials - Glossary of terms
    AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS 1796-2001 Certification of welders and welding supervisors (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1200:2000 Pressure equipment
    AS 4037-1992 Boilers and pressure vessels - Examination and testing
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 2593-1995 Boilers - Unattended and limited attendance
    AS 4041-2006 Pressure piping
    HB 213:2003 Guidelines for safe working in a confined space
    AS 3992-1992 Boilers and pressure vessels - Welding and brazing qualification
    AS/NZS 1200:1994 Pressure equipment
    MP 52-1997 Manual of authorization procedures for plumbing and drainage products
    AS/NZS 3788:1996 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 4041-1992 Pressure piping
    AS 4037-1999 Pressure equipment - Examination and testing (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
    AS/NZS 2865:2001 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 3533.2-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Operation and maintenance
    AS 3873-2001 Pressure equipment - Operation and maintenance
    AS 3920.1-1993 Assurance of product quality - Pressure equipment manufacture
    ATS 5200.105-2005 Technical Specification for plumbing and drainage products - Appliances - Beverage dispensers and icemakers
    AS/NZS 3788:2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 3857-1999 Heat exchangers - Tubeplates - Method of design
    AS 2593-2001 Boilers - Unattended and limited attendance
    AS 1210-1997 Pressure vessels
    AS 3961-1991 Liquefied natural gas - Storage and handling
    MP 52-2001 Manual of authorization procedures for plumbing and drainage products
    AS 2780-2003 Refractories and refractory materials - Glossary of terms (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS 4458-1997 Pressure equipment - Manufacture (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3788:2001 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection
    AS 3892-1995 Pressure equipment - Installation
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