• AS 1680.1-1990

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Interior lighting - General principles and recommendations

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  02-14-2020

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1990

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1680.1-1990 INTERIOR LIGHTING - GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    9 - FOREWORD
    10 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    10 - 1.1 SCOPE
    10 - 1.2 APPLICATION
    10 - 1.2.1 Date of application
    10 - 1.2.2 Information needed for application
    10 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    10 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    10 - 1.4.1 Average illuminance (within a room)
    10 - 1.4.2 Average illuminance (over a task area)
    11 - 1.4.3 Initial illuminance
    11 - 1.4.4 Maintenance illuminance
    11 - 1.4.5 Room index (K)
    11 - 1.4.6 Cut-off angle (of a luminaire)
    11 - 1.4.7 Task area
    11 - 1.4.8 Task illuminance
    11 - 1.4.9 Task surroundings
    11 - 1.4.10 Task detail
    11 - 1.4.11 (Visual) task
    11 - 1.4.12 Uniformity of illuminance
    11 - 1.4.13 Unwanted reflections
    11 - 1.4.14 Veiling reflections
    11 - 1.4.15 Working plane
    12 - SECTION 2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD LIGHTING
    12 - 2.1 OBJECTIVES OF A LIGHTING SYSTEM
    12 - 2.2 THE TASK
    12 - 2.3 THE ENVIRONMENT
    12 - 2.4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
    12 - 2.5 DAYLIGHT AND ELECTRIC LIGHT
    14 - SECTION 3 TASK VISIBILITY
    14 - 3.1 VISIBILITY AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE
    14 - 3.2 LUMINANCES IN THE VISUAL FIELD
    16 - 3.3 RECOMMENDED ILLUMINANCES
    16 - 3.3.1 General
    16 - 3.3.2 Influence of illuminance on task performance
    17 - 3.3.3 Illuminance preferences
    17 - 3.3.4 Provision of illuminances
    18 - 3.3.5 Need for maintenance
    20 - 3.4 UNIFORMITY OF ILLUMINANCE
    20 - 3.4.1 General considerations
    20 - 3.4.2 General lighting systems
    20 - 3.4.3 Task area lighting
    20 - 3.4.4 Combinations of general and local lighting
    20 - 3.4.5 Adjacent spaces
    20 - 3.5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR TASK CHARACTERISTICS
    20 - 3.5.1 Matt tasks
    21 - 3.5.2 Gloss tasks
    22 - 3.5.3 Surrounds
    23 - SECTION 4 DIRECTIONAL EFFECTS OF LIGHTING
    23 - 4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    23 - 4.2 MODELLING AND SHADOWS
    23 - 4.2.1 Diffuse and directional light
    23 - 4.2.2 Particular effects
    23 - 4.2.3 Vector/scalar ratio
    24 - 4.3 REVEALING TASK CHARACTERISTICS
    24 - 4.4 REVEALING THE ENVIRONMENT
    27 - SECTION 5 UNWANTED REFLECTIONS
    27 - 5.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    27 - 5.2 RELATIVE LOCATION OF TASKS AND LIGHT SOURCES
    28 - 5.3 USE OF LOCAL LIGHTING (INCREASING TASK ILLUMINANCE)
    28 - 5.4 LIMITATION OF SOURCE LUMINANCE
    28 - 5.5 AVOIDANCE OF GLOSSY SURFACES IN TASK SURROUNDS
    28 - 5.6 REFLECTIONS IN VDU SCREENS
    29 - 5.7 CONTRAST RENDERING FACTOR
    30 - SECTION 6 SURFACES
    30 - 6.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    30 - 6.2 SURFACE REFLECTANCES FOR GOOD SEEING CONDITIONS
    30 - 6.2.1 Importance of room surface reflectances
    30 - 6.2.2 Influence of ceiling reflectances
    30 - 6.2.3 Influence of wall reflectances
    30 - 6.2.4 Influence of floor reflectances
    30 - 6.3 SURFACE REFLECTANCES FOR EFFICIENT LIGHT DISTRIBUTION
    31 - 6.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEILINGS
    31 - 6.5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR WALLS
    31 - 6.6 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FLOORS
    31 - 6.7 REFLECTANCES OF FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT
    31 - 6.8 NATURE OF SURFACE FINISHES
    31 - 6.9 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING SURFACE COLOURS
    32 - 6.10 SUITABLE TYPES OF COLOUR
    32 - 6.11 SUITABLE COLOUR SCHEMES
    32 - 6.11.1 General
    33 - 6.11.2 Unity and balance
    33 - 6.11.3 Warm and cool colours
    33 - 6.11.4 Minimizing distracting detail
    33 - 6.11.5 Object colours
    33 - 6.11.6 Task colour
    33 - 6.12 COLOUR FOR IDENTIFICATION AND SAFETY
    33 - 6.12.1 Basic principles
    35 - 6.12.2 Standard safety colours
    35 - 6.12.3 Colour for identification
    35 - 6.13 AVOIDING DISTRACTING PATTERNS
    36 - SECTION 7 LIGHT SOURCE COLOUR
    36 - 7.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    36 - 7.2 COLOUR APPEARANCE OF SOURCES
    36 - 7.3 COLOUR RENDERING
    37 - 7.4 NATURE OF THE TASK
    38 - 7.5 NATURE OF THE INTERIOR
    38 - 7.5.1 General considerations
    38 - 7.5.2 Interior colour schemes
    38 - 7.6 COMPATIBILITY WITH DAYLIGHT
    38 - 7.7 COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER LAMPS
    38 - 7.8 MAINTENANCE
    39 - SECTION 8 GLARE AND RELATED EFFECTS
    39 - 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    39 - 8.2 DISABILITY GLARE
    39 - 8.3 GLARE FROM WINDOWS
    39 - 8.4 DISCOMFORT GLARE FROM ELECTRIC LIGHTING
    39 - 8.4.1 Factors influencing discomfort glare
    39 - 8.4.2 Limitation of discomfort glare
    41 - 8.4.3 Luminance limiting system
    45 - 8.4.4 Cut-off angles
    45 - 8.5 GLOOM IN INTERIORS
    46 - 8.6 TRANSIENT ADAPTATION EFFECTS
    49 - SECTION 9 LIGHT SOURCES, LUMINAIRES AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
    49 - 9.1 SCOPE
    49 - 9.2 DAYLIGHT
    50 - 9.3 WINDOWS AND ROOFLIGHTS
    50 - 9.4 ELECTRIC LAMPS
    50 - 9.4.1 Types
    50 - 9.4.2 Lamp characteristics
    51 - 9.4.3 Control gear
    51 - 9.4.4 Flicker
    52 - 9.4.5 Stroboscopic effects
    52 - 9.4.6 Innovations and trends
    52 - 9.5 LUMINAIRES
    52 - 9.5.1 Luminaire Standards
    52 - 9.5.2 Luminaire characteristics
    60 - 9.6 CONTROL SYSTEMS (FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING)
    60 - 9.6.1 The function of control systems
    60 - 9.6.2 Switching
    60 - 9.6.3 Dimming
    61 - SECTION 10 LIGHTING SYSTEMS
    61 - 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    61 - 10.2 DAYLIGHTING SYSTEMS
    61 - 10.2.1 General considerations
    61 - 10.2.2 Windows
    62 - 10.2.3 The use of windows
    62 - 10.2.4 Rooflights
    63 - 10.2.5 Use of rooflights
    63 - 10.2.6 Glazing recommendations
    63 - 10.2.7 Control of sunlight penetration
    64 - 10.3 ELECTRIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS
    64 - 10.3.1 General comments
    64 - 10.3.2 General lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.3 Localized general lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.4 Local lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.5 Environmental lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.6 Emergency evacuation lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.7 Safety lighting systems
    64 - 10.3.8 Effect and atmosphere lighting systems
    64 - 10.4 METHODS WHICH CAN BE APPLIED IN LIGHTING SYSTEMS
    64 - 10.4.1 General comments
    65 - 10.4.2 Direct lighting
    65 - 10.4.3 Indirect lighting
    66 - 10.4.4 Direct-indirect lighting
    66 - 10.5 LOCATION OF LUMINAIRES
    66 - 10.5.1 General
    66 - 10.5.2 Illumination of ceilings
    66 - 10.5.3 Illumination of walls
    67 - 10.6 DAYLIGHT-ELECTRIC LIGHT INTEGRATION
    67 - 10.7 ENERGY-EFFECTIVE LIGHTING
    67 - 10.7.1 General comments
    67 - 10.7.2 General measures for energy saving
    68 - 10.7.3 Energy savings from reduction in electrical load
    68 - 10.7.4 Energy savings from reduction in time of use
    68 - 10.7.5 Energy calculations
    70 - SECTION 11 LIGHTING DESIGN PROCEDURE
    70 - 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    70 - 11.2 OBJECTIVES
    70 - 11.2.1 Introduction
    71 - 11.2.2 Safety
    71 - 11.2.3 Identifying visual tasks
    71 - 11.2.4 Creating appearance and atmosphere
    71 - 11.2.5 Priorities and constraints
    71 - 11.3 SPECIFICATION
    72 - 11.4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN
    72 - 11.4.1 Introduction
    72 - 11.4.2 Room surfaces
    72 - 11.4.3 Daylight
    73 - 11.4.4 Choice of electric lighting systems
    73 - 11.4.5 Choice of lamp and luminaire
    75 - 11.4.6 Lighting system management
    75 - 11.5 DETAILED DESIGN
    76 - 11.6 APPRAISAL
    77 - SECTION 12 MAINTENANCE OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
    77 - 12.1 NEED FOR MAINTENANCE
    78 - 12.2 LAMP LUMEN DEPRECIATION AND REPLACEMENT
    79 - 12.3 DEPRECIATION AND MAINTENANCE OF WINDOWS AND ROOFLIGHTS
    79 - 12.3.1 Causes of light loss
    79 - 12.3.2 Depreciation due to dirt
    79 - 12.3.3 Maintenance of windows and rooflights
    79 - 12.4 LUMINAIRE DEPRECIATION AND MAINTENANCE
    79 - 12.4.1 Luminaire depreciation
    80 - 12.4.2 Luminaire cleaning interval
    82 - 12.4.3 Access for maintenance
    82 - 12.5 MAINTENANCE OF ROOM SURFACES
    82 - 12.5.1 Deterioration of room surfaces
    83 - 12.5.2 Room surface cleaning interval
    83 - 12.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    84 - 12.7 LIGHT LOSS FACTOR
    84 - 12.7.1 Derivation
    84 - 12.7.2 Use of light loss factor in illuminance calculations
    84 - 12.7.3 Use of light loss factor to determine maintenance policies
    84 - 12.8 MAINTENANCE MANUALS
    85 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    87 - APPENDIX B - MEASUREMENT OF ILLUMINANCE
    87 - B1 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
    87 - B2 MEASURING CONDITIONS
    87 - B3 AVERAGE ILLUMINANCE AT A WORKSTATION
    87 - B4 AVERAGE ILLUMINANCE IN AN INTERIOR
    88 - B5 OTHER ILLUMINANCE MEASUREMENTS
    88 - B5.1 Scalar illuminance
    88 - B5.2 Illumination vector
    89 - APPENDIX C - NOTES ON THE USE OF UTILIZATION FACTOR TABLES BY THE LIGHTING DESIGNER
    89 - C1 SCOPE OF APPENDIX
    89 - C2 APPLICATION OF UTILIZATION FACTORS
    89 - C3 ASSUMPTIONS USED IN UF TABLES
    89 - C4 DEFINING THE MAIN ROOM SURFACES.
    90 - C5 ROOM INDEX
    90 - C6 THE AVERAGE REFLECTANCE OF A SURFACE
    90 - C7 REFLECTANCES OF PRACTICAL ROOMS
    91 - C8 MAXIMUM SPACING LIMITS FOR ACCEPTABLE UNIFORMITY
    93 - C9 PRACTICAL LAYOUTS OF LUMINAIRES
    94 - C10 USING A UTILIZATION FACTOR TABLE
    95 - APPENDIX D - NOTES ON CHANGES TO ILLUMINANCE RECOMMENDATIONS
    97 - APPENDIX E - BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out general principles and recommendations for the lighting of interiors of buildings. Applies primarily to interiors in which work is undertaken and takes into account both electric lighting and daylight. Object of recommendations is to produce a visual environment in which essential task details are made easy to see and adverse factors which may cause visual discomfort are either excluded or appropriately controlled. Does not deal with lighting for the purposes of decoration, display, entertainment, or sport.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out general principles and recommendations for the lighting of interiors of buildings. It applies primarily to interiors in which work is undertaken and takes into account both electric lighting and daylight. The recommendations have the object of producing a visual environment in which essential task details are made easy to see and adverse factors which may cause visual discomfort are either excluded or appropriately controlled.Recommendations for the lighting of particular interiors or activities are provided in the Standards which comprise AS 1680.2.The Standard does not deal with lighting for the purposes of decoration, display, entertainment or sport.NOTE: Attention is drawn to AS 2293.1 and AS 2293.2 which set out requirements for the lighting necessary to alleviate panic and to permit safe evacuation of the building occupants should this be required in the event of loss of the normal lighting.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee LG-001
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as part of AS (E) CA501-1942.
    Revised and redesignated AS CA30-1957.
    Second edition 1965.
    Revised and redesignated AS 1680-1976.
    Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1680.1-1990. First published as part of AS (E) CA501-1942. Revised and redesignated AS CA30-1957. Second edition 1965. Revised and redesignated AS 1680-1976. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1680.1-1990.

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 4066:1992 Eye protectors for racquet sports
    AS 1680.3-1991 Interior lighting - Measurement, calculation and presentation of photometric data
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 3011.2-1992 Electrical installations - Secondary batteries installed in buildings Sealed cells
    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 4299-1995 Adaptable housing
    AS 3558.11-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of impact resistance of baths for ablutionary purposes
    AS/NZS 2604:1993 Sunscreen products - Evaluation and classification
    AS/NZS 2293.2:2019 Emergency lighting and exit signs for buildings Routine service and maintenance
    AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS 2834-1995 Computer accommodation
    AS/NZS 1680.2.4:1997 Interior lighting Industrial tasks and processes
    AS 2708-2001 Keyboarding speed tests (formerly known as - Typing speed tests)
    AS/NZS 1680.4:2001 Interior lighting - Maintenance of electric lighting systems
    AS 2676.2-1992 Guide to the installation, maintenance, testing and replacement of secondary batteries in buildings - Sealed cells
    AS 1680.2.1-1993 Interior lighting - Circulation spaces and other general areas
    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors - Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS 3558.17-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of impact resistance of shower bases and shower modules
    AS 1680.2.3-1994 Interior lighting - Educational and training facilities
    AS 3011.1-1992 Electrical installations - Secondary batteries installed in buildings - Vented cells Vented cells
    AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS 4465-2001 Construction of premises and hygienic production of poultry meat for human consumption
    AS 3558.7-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of impact resistance of laundry troughs (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 4004-1992 Lighting booths for visual assessment of colour and colour matching
    AS 3978-2003 Non-destructive testing - Visual inspection of metal products and components
    HB 213:2003 Guidelines for safe working in a confined space
    AS 4024.1-1996 Safeguarding of machinery General principles
    AS 1228-1997 Pressure equipment - Boilers
    AS 1228-1997 Pressure equipment - Boilers
    AS 1680.2.2-1994 Interior lighting - Office and screen-based tasks
    AS 4774.1-2003 Work in compressed air and hyperbaric facilities Work in tunnels, shafts and caissons
    AS/NZS 2865:2001 Safe working in a confined space
    AS/NZS 3827.1:1998 Lighting system performance - Accuracies and tolerances Overview and general recommendations
    AS/NZS 2293.2:1995 Emergency escape lighting and exit signs for buildings Inspection and maintenance
    AS/NZS 2982.1:1997 Laboratory design and construction - General requirements
    AS 4332-2004 The storage and handling of gases in cylinders
    AS 1428.2-1992 Design for access and mobility Enhanced and additional requirements - Buildings and facilities (Reconfirmed 2015)
    HB 59-1994 Ergonomics - The human factor, A practical approach to work systems design (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3558.15-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of impact resistance of washbasins
    AS 3961-1991 Liquefied natural gas - Storage and handling
    AS/NZS 2604:1997 Sunscreen products - Evaluation and classification
    AS/NZS 1680.2.5:1997 Interior lighting - Hospital and medical tasks
    AS/NZS 1337:1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS/NZS 2927:2001 The storage and handling of liquefied chlorine gas
    AS 3558.19-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of impact resistance of sinks (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3558.6-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Visual examination of surface finish for defects (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2676.1-1992 Guide to the installation, maintenance, testing and replacement of secondary batteries in buildings - Vented cells
    AS/NZS 2293.1:1995 Emergency evacuation lighting for buildings - System design, installation and operation
    AS/NZS 1336:1997 Recommended practices for occupational eye protection
    AS 3558.2-1999 Methods of testing plastics and composite materials sanitary plumbing fixtures Determination of chemical and stain resistance
    AS 2560.1-2002 Sports lighting General principles
    AS/NZS 2311:2000 Guide to the painting of buildings
    AS/NZS 2604:1998 Sunscreen products - Evaluation and classification
    AS/NZS 2293.1:1998 Emergency evacuation lighting for buildings - System design, installation and operation
    AS/NZS 1680.0:1998 Interior lighting - Safe movement
    AS/NZS 3827.2:1998 Lighting system performance - Accuracies and tolerances - Compliance requirements
    AS 3892-1995 Pressure equipment - Installation
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