• AS 2832.1-2004

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    Cathodic protection of metals Pipes and cables

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  05-25-2023

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-03-2004

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2832.1-2004 CATHODIC PROTECTION OF METALS - PIPES AND CABLES
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    8 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    9 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    9 - 1.3.1 Anaerobic
    10 - 1.3.2 Anode (in general)
    10 - 1.3.3 Anode screen
    10 - 1.3.4 Anode shield
    10 - 1.3.5 Back e.m.f
    10 - 1.3.6 Bond (electrical)
    10 - 1.3.7 Bond (coating)
    10 - 1.3.8 Drainage Bond
    10 - 1.3.9 Cathode
    10 - 1.3.10 Cathodic disbonding
    10 - 1.3.11 Cathodic protection
    10 - 1.3.12 Cathodic protection unit
    10 - 1.3.13 Copper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4) reference electrode
    10 - 1.3.14 Corrosion
    10 - 1.3.15 Corrosion cell anode
    10 - 1.3.16 Corrosion current
    10 - 1.3.17 Coupon
    11 - 1.3.18 Current density (at anode)
    11 - 1.3.19 Current density (at cathode)
    11 - 1.3.20 Current density (at coated cathode)
    11 - 1.3.21 Earth (noun)
    11 - 1.3.22 Earth (verb)
    11 - 1.3.23 Electrode
    11 - 1.3.24 Electrode potential
    11 - 1.3.25 Electrolyte
    11 - 1.3.26 Extra low voltage (ELV)
    11 - 1.3.27 Ferrous metal structure
    11 - 1.3.28 Foreign (secondary) structure
    11 - 1.3.29 Galvanic action
    11 - 1.3.30 Galvanic anode
    11 - 1.3.31 Half-cell
    11 - 1.3.32 Impressed current
    11 - 1.3.33 Impressed current anode
    11 - 1.3.34 Instantaneous off-potential
    12 - 1.3.35 Insulating joint (isolating joint)
    12 - 1.3.36 Interference
    12 - 1.3.37 Interrupter
    12 - 1.3.38 IR drop
    12 - 1.3.39 Loop resistance
    12 - 1.3.40 Overprotection
    12 - 1.3.41 Polarization
    12 - 1.3.42 Polarization cell
    12 - 1.3.43 Polarized potential
    12 - 1.3.44 Primary structure
    12 - 1.3.45 Protective potential
    12 - 1.3.46 Protective current
    12 - 1.3.47 Reference electrode
    12 - 1.3.48 Resistance potential
    13 - 1.3.49 Resistance probe
    13 - 1.3.50 Silver/silver chloride reference electrode (Ag/AgCl)
    13 - 1.3.51 Stray current
    13 - 1.3.52 Structure
    13 - 1.3.53 Structure potential
    13 - 1.3.54 Structure potential shift
    13 - 1.3.55 Sulfate-reducing bacteria
    13 - 1.3.56 Telluric current
    13 - 1.3.57 Test point
    13 - 1.3.58 Transformer/rectifier
    13 - 1.4 COMPETENCE OF PERSONNEL
    14 - SECTION 2 CRITERIA FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION
    14 - 2.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    14 - 2.1.1 Scope
    14 - 2.1.2 General
    14 - 2.2 PROTECTION CRITERIA
    14 - 2.2.1 General
    14 - 2.2.2 Potential criteria
    16 - 2.2.3 100 mV polarization decay criterion
    16 - 2.2.4 Alternative criteria
    17 - 2.3 OVERPROTECTION
    18 - SECTION 3 MEASURING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT
    18 - 3.1 GENERAL
    18 - 3.2 POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT AND EQUIPMENT
    18 - 3.2.1 General
    18 - 3.2.2 Positioning of monitoring electrodes
    19 - 3.2.3 Off-potential measurements
    20 - SECTION 4 DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO ACCOMMODATE CATHODIC PROTECTION
    20 - 4.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    20 - 4.1.1 Scope
    20 - 4.1.2 General
    20 - 4.2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    20 - 4.3 COATED AND UNCOATED STRUCTURES
    21 - 4.4 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS AND DISTURBANCES
    22 - 4.5 TEST POINTS
    22 - 4.5.1 General
    22 - 4.5.2 Spacing
    22 - 4.5.3 Location
    23 - 4.5.4 In situ reference electrodes
    23 - 4.6 INSULATING JOINTS (ISOLATING JOINTS)
    24 - 4.7 ROAD AND RAIL CROSSINGS
    25 - 4.8 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
    25 - 4.9 ELECTRICAL CONTINUITY
    26 - SECTION 5 DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    26 - 5.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    26 - 5.1.1 Scope
    26 - 5.1.2 General
    26 - 5.2 SAFETY HAZARDS
    27 - 5.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    27 - 5.4 DESIGN DATA
    27 - 5.4.1 General
    27 - 5.4.2 Structure layout
    27 - 5.4.3 Cathodic protection current requirements
    28 - 5.4.4 Environment resistivity
    28 - 5.4.5 Anode characteristics
    28 - 5.5 MATERIALS
    28 - 5.5.1 General
    28 - 5.5.2 d.c. cables
    29 - 5.5.3 Test cables
    29 - 5.5.4 Anodes
    29 - 5.5.5 Reference electrodes
    29 - 5.5.6 Electrical isolation joints
    29 - 5.6 TEST POINTS
    29 - 5.7 REFERENCES
    29 - 5.8 ELECTRICAL EARTHING
    29 - 5.9 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS
    30 - SECTION 6 CATHODIC PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO STRAY DIRECT TRACTION CURRENT
    30 - 6.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    30 - 6.1.1 Scope
    30 - 6.1.2 General
    30 - 6.2 MINIMIZATION OF STRAY CURRENT EFFECTS
    30 - 6.2.1 General
    30 - 6.2.2 Minimization of track leakage current at its source
    31 - 6.2.3 Mitigation of stray current pick-up and discharge from the structure
    31 - 6.2.4 Mitigation of stray current discharge using traction current drainage
    33 - SECTION 7 INSTALLATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    33 - 7.1 SCOPE
    33 - 7.2 APPROVAL TO INSTALL
    33 - 7.3 INSTALLATION PRACTICE
    34 - 7.4 INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
    34 - 7.4.1 General
    34 - 7.4.2 Anodes
    34 - 7.4.3 Cables
    34 - 7.4.4 Transformer-rectifier equipment
    34 - 7.4.5 Prefabricated insulated joints
    35 - 7.5 INSTALLATION OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS
    35 - 7.5.1 Buried anodes
    35 - 7.5.2 Immersed anodes
    35 - 7.6 INSTALLATION OF IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE SYSTEMS
    35 - 7.6.1 Cabling
    35 - 7.6.2 Anodes and groundbed
    36 - 7.6.3 Transformer-rectifier (converter)
    36 - 7.7 INSTALLATION OF INSULATED FLANGES, JOINTS AND COUPLINGS
    37 - SECTION 8 CONTROL OF INTERFERENCE WITH FOREIGN STRUCTURES
    37 - 8.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    37 - 8.1.1 Scope
    37 - 8.1.2 General
    37 - 8.2 INTERFERENCE TESTING
    37 - 8.3 MINIMIZATION OF INTERFERENCE CURRENT
    37 - 8.3.1 Design of the system
    38 - 8.3.2 Methods of minimizing interference currents
    38 - 8.3.3 Detection of interference levels
    39 - 8.3.4 Control of interference
    41 - SECTION 9 COMMISSIONING OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    41 - 9.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    41 - 9.1.1 Scope
    41 - 9.1.2 General
    41 - 9.2 PRE-ENERGIZATION TESTING
    41 - 9.3 SYSTEM OPERATION AND ADJUSTMENT
    42 - 9.4 POST-ENERGIZATION TESTS
    42 - 9.5 RECORDS
    42 - 9.6 OPERATION MANUALS
    43 - SECTION 10 OPERATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    43 - 10.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    43 - 10.1.1 Scope
    43 - 10.1.2 General
    43 - 10.2 SYSTEM OPERATION CHECKS
    43 - 10.2.1 Impressed current systems
    43 - 10.2.2 Galvanic anode installations
    43 - 10.2.3 Current drainage systems
    44 - 10.3 STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
    44 - 10.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION POTENTIAL SURVEYS
    45 - 10.5 REPEAT INTERFERENCE TESTING
    45 - 10.6 RECORDS
    46 - SECTION 11 DOCUMENTATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    46 - 11.1 SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION
    46 - 11.2 COMMISSIONING DOCUMENTATION
    47 - APPENDIX A - GUIDANCE ON THE GENERAL USE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION
    47 - A1 SCOPE
    47 - A2 GENERAL COMPONENTS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION INSTALLATIONS
    47 - A3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CORROSION OF BURIED OR PARTIALLY BURIED METALLIC STRUCTURES
    49 - A4 TELLURIC EFFECTS
    51 - APPENDIX B - MEASUREMENT OF STRUCTURE POTENTIALS USING THE INSTANTANEOUS OFF-POTENTIAL METHOD
    51 - B1 GENERAL
    51 - B2 MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION POTENTIAL
    52 - B3 MEASUREMENT OF STRUCTURE POTENTIAL BY POLARIZED POTENTIAL TECHNIQUES
    53 - APPENDIX C - COUPONS AND RESISTANCE PROBES
    53 - C1 GENERAL
    53 - C2 COUPON
    53 - C3 RESISTANCE PROBE
    54 - C4 COUPON AND PROBE USE
    54 - C5 INSTALLATION
    55 - APPENDIX D - CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE OF REFERENCE ELECTRODES
    55 - D1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    55 - D1.1 Scope
    55 - D1.2 General
    55 - D2 CALIBRATION
    55 - D3 MAINTENANCE
    57 - APPENDIX E - INFORMATION FOR THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO ACCOMMODATE CATHODIC PROTECTION
    59 - APPENDIX F - COATINGS FOR USE WITH CATHODIC PROTECTION
    59 - F1 GENERAL
    59 - F2 COATING PROPERTIES
    60 - F3 COATING CHOICE
    60 - F4 COATING LIFE
    62 - APPENDIX G - MITIGATION OF A.C. EFFECTS FROM HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL POWERLINES
    62 - G1 GENERAL
    62 - G1.1 A.C. effects
    62 - G1.2 Mitigative measures
    63 - G2 NATURE OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
    63 - G2.1 General
    63 - G2.2 Physical damage to the structure or its coating
    63 - G2.3 Risk to personnel who may be in contact or close proximity to the structure.
    63 - G2.4 Cathodic protection
    63 - G3 HAZARD MECHANISMS
    63 - G3.1 General
    64 - G3.2 Low frequency induction under operating conditions
    64 - G3.3 Low frequency induction under fault conditions
    64 - G3.4 Earth potential rise
    64 - G3.5 Capacitive coupling
    65 - G3.6 Conductive coupling
    65 - G3.7 Lightning
    65 - G4 ACCEPTABLE VOLTAGE LIMITS
    65 - G4.1 General
    66 - G4.2 Category A (see AS/NZS 4853)
    66 - G4.3 Category B (see AS/NZS 4853)
    66 - G4.4 Voltage limits during construction or maintenance activities.
    66 - G4.5 Voltage limits on buried sections of pipeline
    67 - G5 ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD
    67 - G6 PROTECTIVE MEASURES
    68 - G7 PERSONNEL SAFETY DURING PIPELINE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
    68 - G7.1 General
    68 - G7.2 Operational activities
    68 - G7.3 Pipe excavation
    69 - G7.4 Equipotential mats
    69 - G7.5 Protective equipment
    70 - APPENDIX H - INFORMATION FOR THE DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    70 - H1 SCOPE
    70 - H2 DETERMINATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION CURRENT
    70 - H2.1 General
    70 - H2.2 Prediction of current requirement from design parameters
    71 - H2.3 Determination of current requirement by field test on existing structures
    71 - H3 ANODE ARRANGEMENTS
    71 - H3.1 General
    72 - H3.2 Calculation of appropriate anode/structure separation
    73 - H3.3 Anode positioning
    73 - H3.4 Anode positioning details
    74 - H4 ANODE MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS
    74 - H5 GALVANIC ANODES
    75 - H6 CALCULATION OF ANODE OUTPUT CURRENT
    75 - H7 POWER SUPPLY CONSIDERATIONS
    76 - H8 BACKFILLS
    76 - H8.1 Electronic conduction backfills
    76 - H8.2 Electrolytic conduction backfills
    76 - H9 PROVISION FOR STRAY CURRENTS
    76 - H10 SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION
    79 - APPENDIX I - EXAMPLE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION FOR PIPELINES
    80 - APPENDIX J - GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS RELATING TO CATHODIC PROTECTION
    81 - APPENDIX K - CONTROL OF INTERFERENCE CURRENTS-LIST OF ELECTROLYSIS COMMITTEES
    82 - APPENDIX L - STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
    82 - L1 FACTORS AFFECTING THE REGULARITY OF STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
    82 - L2 LOCATION OF TEST POINTS
    83 - APPENDIX M - COMPARISON OF STRUCTURE/ELECTROLYTE POTENTIALS OBTAINED WHEN MEASURED WITH VARIOUS REFERENCE ELECTRODES

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the cathodic protection of buried or submerged metallic pipes and cables.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for the cathodic protection of buried or submerged metallic pipes and cables.The Standard specifically covers the following subjects which relate to cathodic protection:(a) Pertinent aspects of the design of structures requiring cathodic protection.(b) Coatings for use on submerged and buried structures.(c) Criteria for the cathodic protection of a structure.(d) Measuring techniques and equipment.(e) The design of cathodic protection systems. (f) The installation of cathodic protection systems.(g) The control of interference currents on foreign structures.(h) The cathodic protection of structures subject to stray direct current and telluric effects. (i) The operation and maintenance of cathodic protection systems. (j) Electrical hazards associated with the cathodic protection of buried structures. NOTE: Guidance on the general use and design of cathodic protection systems and factors affecting the corrosion of buried metallic structures are given in Appendix A. This Standard employs conventional (positive) current flow, for consistency with accepted practice, and uses the potential sign conventions specified in AS/NZS 1852 (all parts). In order to understand the various electrochemical reactions that occur at electrodes during cathodic protection, it should be recognized that electron flow occurs in the opposite direction to conventional current flow.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee MT-014
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 2832.1-1985.Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 2832.1:1998.Revised and designated as AS 2832.1-2004. First published as AS 2832.1-1985. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 2832.1:1998. Revised and designated as AS 2832.1-2004.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS CISPR 14.1:2003 Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus Emission
    AS 1627.4-2005 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces Abrasive blast cleaning of steel (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS/NZS 3000:2000 UNAMENDED Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
    AS 2374.2-1997 Power transformers Temperature rise
    AS 2239-2003 Galvanic (sacrificial) anodes for cathodic protection
    AS 2374.8-2000 Power transformers Application guide
    AS 2374.3.0-1982 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric tests - General requirements
    AS 2374.6-1994 Power transformers - Determination of transformer and reactor sound levels
    AS/NZS 1852.0:2000 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary Introduction and list of Parts of AS 1852 and IEC 60050
    AS 2374.1.2-2003 Power transformers Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) requirements for distribution transformers (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1627.4-2002 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces - Abrasive blast cleaning
    AS/NZS 4251.2:1999 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Generic emission standard Industrial environments
    AS 3006-1982 Adequate electrical installations in domestic premises
    AS 2885.1-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
    AS 2374.7-1997 Power transformers - Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers
    AS 4799-2000 Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway boundaries
    AS/NZS 5000.1:2003 Electric cables - Polymeric insulated For working voltages up to and including 0.6/1 (1.2) kV
    AS/NZS 1518:2002 External extruded high-density polyethylene coating system for pipes (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1697-1981 Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline Code)
    AS 4321-2001 Fusion-bonded medium-density polyethylene coating and lining for pipes and fittings (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS/NZS 3100:2002 Approval and test specification - General requirements for electrical equipment
    AS 1627.2-2002 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces Power tool cleaning (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS 2885.2-2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998 Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV - Typical Australian installation conditions
    AS 2885.1-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
    AS 2374.1-1997 Power transformers General
    AS/NZS 4352:1995 Tests for coating resistance to cathodic disbonding
    AS/NZS 3108:1994 Approval and test specification - Particular requirements for isolating transformers and safety isolating transformers
    AS 2430.1-1987 Classification of hazardous areas - Explosive gas atmospheres
    AS 4352-2005 Tests for coating resistance to cathodic disbonding
    AS/NZS 3008.1.2:1998 Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV - Typical New Zealand installation conditions
    AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
    AS 1100.401-1984 Technical drawing Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 2374.5-1982 Power Transformers Ability To Withstand Short-Circuit
    AS 2374.3.1-1992 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric test - External clearances in air
    AS/NZS 1020:1995 The control of undesirable static electricity
    AS/NZS 4853:2000 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
    AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS/NZS 5000.1:2005 Electric cables - Polymeric insulated For working voltages up to and including 0.6/1 (1.2) kV (Reconfirmed 2017)

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    AS 2885.3-2012 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Operation and maintenance
    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS/NZS 4645.2:2008 Gas distribution networks Steel pipe systems
    AS/NZS 1768:2007 Lightning protection
    AS 2885.0-2008 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - General requirements
    AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
    AS/NZS 61241.14:2005 Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust Selection and installation (IEC 61241-14, Ed.1.0(2004) MOD)
    AS 4997-2005 Guidelines for the design of maritime structures
    AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
    AS/NZS 3004.2:2008 Electrical installations - Marinas and recreational boats Recreational boats installations
    AS/NZS 4853:2012 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
    AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
    AS 2885.1-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
    AS/NZS 3004.1:2008 Electrical installations - Marinas and recreational boats Marinas
    AS/NZS 2381.1:2005 Electrical equipment for explosive gas atmospheres - Selection, installation and maintenance - General requirements
    AS 5092-2009 CNG refuelling stations
    AS/NZS 3004:2002 Electrical installations - Marinas and pleasure craft at low-voltage
    AS/NZS 1596:2008 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 5034-2005 Installation and use of inert gases for beverage dispensing
    AS 2832.2-2003 Cathodic protection of metals Compact buried structures
    AS 2832.5-2008 Cathodic protection of metals Steel in concrete structures
    AS/NZS 60079.14:2009 Explosive atmospheres Electrical installations design, selection and erection (IEC 60079-14, Ed. 4.0 (2007) MOD)
    AS 4897-2008 The design, installation and operation of underground petroleum storage systems
    AS 2885.1-2012 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Design and construction
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