• ASTM D 1586/D1586M : 2018

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    Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-04-2019

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This test method describes the procedure, generally known as the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), for driving a split-barrel sampler with a 140 lb [63.5 kg] hammer dropped 30 in.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This test method describes the procedure, generally known as the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), for driving a split-barrel sampler with a 140 lb [63.5 kg] hammer dropped 30 in. [750 mm] to obtain a soil sample for identification purposes, and measure the resistance of the soil to penetration of the standard 2 in. [50 mm] diameter sampler. The SPT “N” value is the number of hammer blows required to drive the sampler over the depth interval of 0.5 to 1.5 ft [0.15 to 0.45 m] of a 1.5 ft [0.45 m] drive interval.

    1.2Test Method D4633 is generally necessary to measure the drill rod energy of a given drop hammer system and using the measured drill rod energy, N values can be corrected to a standard energy level. Practice D6066 uses Test Methods D1586 and D4633 and has additional requirements for hammers, hammer energy, and drilling methods to determine energy corrected penetration resistance of loose sands for liquefaction evaluation.

    1.3Practice D3550/D3550M is a similar procedure using a larger diameter split barrel sampler driven with a hammer system that may allow for a different hammer mass. The penetration resistance values from Practice D3550/D3550M do not comply with this standard.

    1.4Test results and identification information are used in subsurface exploration for a wide range of applications such as geotechnical, geologic, geoenvironmental, or geohydrological explorations. When detailed lithology is required for geohydrological investigations, use of continuous sampling methods (D6282/D6282M, D6151/D6151M, D6914/D6914M) are recommended when the incremental SPT N value is not needed for design purposes (see 4.1.1).

    1.5Penetration resistance testing is typically performed at 5 ft [1.5 m] depth intervals or when a significant change of materials is observed during drilling, unless otherwise specified.

    1.6This test method is limited to use in nonlithified soils and soils whose maximum particle size is approximately less than one-half of the sampler diameter.

    1.7This test method involves use of rotary drilling equipment (Guide D5783, Practice D6151/D6151M). Other drilling and sampling procedures (Guides D6286 and D6169/D6169M) are available and may be more appropriate. Considerations for hand driving or shallow sampling without boreholes are not addressed. Subsurface investigations should be recorded in accordance with Practice D5434. Samples should be preserved and transported in accordance with Practice D4220/D4220M using Group B. Soil samples should be identified by group name and symbol in accordance with Practice D2488.

    1.8All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this test method.

    1.8.1The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering data.

    1.9Units—The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than inch-pound shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this practice. SI equivalent units shown herein are in general conformance with existing international standards.

    1.10Penetration resistance measurements often will involve safety planning, administration, and documentation. This test method does not purport to address all aspects of exploration and site safety.

    1.11Performance of the test usually involves use of a drill rig; therefore, safety requirements as outlined in applicable safety standards (for example, OSHA regulations,2 NDA Drilling Safety Guide,3 drilling safety manuals, and other applicable local agency regulations) must be observed.

    1.12This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.13This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4547 : 2020 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM C 12 : 2022 Standard Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2021 Standard Guide for Selection of Subsurface Soil and Rock Sampling Devices for Environmental and Geotechnical Investigations
    ASTM D 6009 : 2019 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste Piles
    ASTM D 6001/D6001M : 2020 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5434 : 1997 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 6914/D6914M : 2016 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 5783 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 5782 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 2002 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5778 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 5782 : 1995 : R2006 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6913/D6913M : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 4633 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6066 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5778 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 5783 : 1995 : R2006 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 5434 : 2012 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 : REV A Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 5783 : 1995 : R2012 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 5778 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 5782 : 2018 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 5088 : 2020 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 5088 : 1990 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2005 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6066 : 1996 : R2004 Standard Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 5434 : 2003 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 6066 : 2011 Standard Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2021 Standard Guide for Selection of Subsurface Soil and Rock Sampling Devices for Environmental and Geotechnical Investigations
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6286 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2013 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 5092 : 1990 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6286 : 2012 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 5783 : 2018 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5782 : 1995 : R2012 Standard Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Ground Water Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 : R2008 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 2487 : 2010 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 6286 : 2019 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling and Direct Push Methods for Geotechnical and Environmental Subsurface Site Characterization
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2487 : 2000 Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 5434 : 2009 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 4633 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 4633 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2021 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits and Data Records in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2487 : 2011 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 1969 : R1975 Standard Test Method for Classification Of Soils For Engineering Purposes
    ASTM D 4633 : 1986 Test Method For Stress Wave Energy Measurment For Dynamic Penetrometer Testing Systems (Withdrawn 1995)
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