• ASTM D 2487 : 2010

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-11-2014

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-2010

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1 This practice describes a system for classifying mineral and organo-mineral soils for engineering purposes based on laboratory determination of particle-size characteristics, liquid limit, and plasticity index and shall be used when precise classification is required.

    Note 1—Use of this standard will result in a single classification group symbol and group name except when a soil contains 5 to 12 % fines or when the plot of the liquid limit and plasticity index values falls into the crosshatched area of the plasticity chart. In these two cases, a dual symbol is used, for example, GP-GM, CL-ML. When the laboratory test results indicate that the soil is close to another soil classification group, the borderline condition can be indicated with two symbols separated by a slash. The first symbol should be the one based on this standard, for example, CL/CH, GM/SM, SC/CL. Borderline symbols are particularly useful when the liquid limit value of clayey soils is close to 50. These soils can have expansive characteristics and the use of a borderline symbol (CL/CH, CH/CL) will alert the user of the assigned classifications of expansive potential.

    1.2 The group symbol portion of this system is based on laboratory tests performed on the portion of a soil sample passing the 3-in. (75-mm) sieve (see Specification E11).

    1.3 As a classification system, this standard is limited to naturally occurring soils.

    Note 2—The group names and symbols used in this test method may be used as a descriptive system applied to such materials as shale, claystone, shells, crushed rock, etc. See Appendix X2.

    1.4 This standard is for qualitative application only.

    Note 3—When quantitative information is required for detailed designs of important structures, this test method must be supplemented by laboratory tests or other quantitative data to determine performance characteristics under expected field conditions.

    1.5 This standard is the ASTM version of the Unified Soil Classification System. The basis for the classification scheme is the Airfield Classification System developed by A. Casagrande in the early 1940s. It became known as the Unified Soil Classification System when several U.S. Government Agencies adopted a modified version of the Airfield System in 1952.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

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    Committee D 18
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM A 807/A807M : 2017 Standard Practice for Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
    ASTM D 7277 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Articulating Concrete Block (ACB) Revetment Systems for Hydraulic Stability in Open Channel Flow
    ASTM D 4221 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
    ASTM D 5299/D5299M : 2018 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 2850 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 5101 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Filtration Compatibility of Soil-Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 3999/D3999M : 2011 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for the Determination of the Modulus and Damping Properties of Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial Apparatus (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 5321/D5321M : 2019 Standard Test Method for Determining the Shear Strength of Soil-Geosynthetic and Geosynthetic-Geosynthetic Interfaces by Direct Shear
    ASTM D 3080/D3080M : 2011 Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM C 1821/C1821M : 2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Underground Circular Precast Concrete Manhole Structures
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6243/D6243M : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determining the Internal and Interface Shear Strength of Geosynthetic Clay Liner by the Direct Shear Method
    ASTM F 1668 : 2016 Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried Plastic Pipe
    ASTM A 796/A796M : 2017 : REV A Standard Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Steel Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches for Storm and Sanitary Sewers and Other Buried Applications
    ASTM C 1479M : 2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Precast Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Using Standard Installations (Metric)
    ASTM D 2435/D2435M : 2011 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 7608 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Measure Drained Fully Softened Shear Strength and Stress Dependent Strength Envelope of Fine-Grained Soils
    ASTM A 746 : 2018 Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
    ASTM D 1883 : 2016 Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils
    ASTM E 3163 : 2018 Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action
    ASTM D 425 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Centrifuge Moisture Equivalent of Soils
    ASTM D 6913/D6913M : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM B 788/B788M : 2009 : R2014 Standard Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Aluminum Culverts and Storm Sewer Pipe
    ASTM D 4546 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils
    ASTM F 2787 : 2013 : R2018 Standard Practice for Structural Design of Thermoplastic Corrugated Wall Stormwater Collection Chambers
    ASTM C 1479 : 2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Precast Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Using Standard Installations
    ASTM A 798/A798M : 2017 Standard Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
    ASTM D 2774 : 2012 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping
    ASTM D 7181 : 2011 Method for Consolidated Drained Triaxial Compression Test for Soils
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 7758 : 2017 Standard Practice for Passive Soil Gas Sampling in the Vadose Zone for Source Identification, Spatial Variability Assessment, Monitoring, and Vapor Intrusion Evaluations
    ASTM D 7928 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
    ASTM D 5092/D5092M : 2016 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 6088 : 2006 : R2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Geocomposite Pavement Drains
    ASTM E 2993 : 2016 Standard Guide for Evaluating Potential Hazard as a Result of Methane in the Vadose Zone
    ASTM C 1675 : 2019 Standard Practice for Installation of Precast Reinforced Concrete Monolithic Box Sections for Culverts, Storm Drains, and Sewers
    ASTM C 12 : 2017 Standard Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines
    ASTM B 790/B790M : 2016 Standard Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Aluminum Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches for Culverts, Storm Sewers, and Other Buried Conduits
    ASTM B 789/B789M : 2016 Standard Practice for Installing Corrugated Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe for Culverts and Sewers
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM E 2392/E2392M : 2010 : R2016 Standard Guide for Design of Earthen Wall Building Systems
    ASTM D 4083 : 1989 : R2016 Standard Practice for Description of Frozen Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6528 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Direct Simple Shear Testing of Fine Grain Soils
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 1452/D1452M : 2016 Standard Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1586/D1586M : 2018 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 6066 : 2011 Standard Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 6467 : 2013 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 4972 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4186/D4186M : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
    ASTM D 8167/D8167M : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Bulk Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by a Low-Activity Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 1140 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ASTM E 2583 : 2007 : R2015 Standard Test Method for Measuring Deflections with a Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD)
    ASTM D 854 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 4647/D4647M : 2013 Standard Test Methods for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test
    ASTM D 8204 : 2018 Standard Practice for Burial and Retrieval of Samples in a Test Pad to Evaluate Installation Effects on Geosynthetic Clay Liners
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM F 3016/F3016M : 2014 Standard Test Method for Surrogate Testing of Vehicle Impact Protective Devices at Low Speeds
    ASTM D 3550/D3550M : 2017 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
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