• ASTM D 4186/D4186M : 2012 : EDT 1

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-23-2020

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-26-2014

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This test method is for the determination of the magnitude and rate-of-consolidation of saturated cohesive soils using continuous controlled-strain axial compression. The specimen is restrained laterally and drained axially to one surface. The axial force and base excess pressure are measured during the deformation process. Controlled strain compression is typically referred to as constant rate-of-strain (CRS) testing.

    1.2This test method provides for the calculation of total and effective axial stresses, and axial strain from the measurement of axial force, axial deformation, chamber pressure, and base excess pressure. The effective stress is computed using steady state equations.

    1.3This test method provides for the calculation of the coefficient of consolidation and the hydraulic conductivity throughout the loading process. These values are also based on steady state equations.

    1.4This test method makes use of steady state equations resulting from a theory formulated under particular assumptions. Section 5.5 presents these assumptions.

    1.5The behavior of cohesive soils is strain rate dependent and hence the results of a CRS test are sensitive to the imposed rate of strain. This test method imposes limits on the strain rate to provide comparable results to the incremental consolidation test (Test Method D2435).

    1.6The determination of the rate and magnitude of consolidation of soil when it is subjected to incremental loading is covered by Test Method D2435.

    1.7This test method applies to intact (Group C and Group D of Practice D4220), remolded, or laboratory reconstituted samples.

    1.8This test method is most often used for materials of relatively low hydraulic conductivity that generate measurable excess base pressures. It may be used to measure the compression behavior of essentially free draining soils but will not provide a measure of the hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of consolidation.

    1.9All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this test method. The significant digits specified throughout this standard are based on the assumption that data will be collected over an axial stress range from 1% of the maximum stress to the maximum stress value.

    1.9.1The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.9.2Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in this standard shall not be regarded a non-conformance with this standard.

    1.10Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [given in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.10.1The gravitational system is used when working with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

    1.10.2It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as non-conformance with this standard.

    1.11This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 3550 : 1984 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 6519 : 2002 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 4753 : 2002 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 6027 : 1996 : R2004 Standard Test Method for Calibrating Linear Displacement Transducers for Geotechnical Purposes (Withdrawn 2013)
    ASTM D 4753 : 2015 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4318 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 4452 : 1985 Standard Methods for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2007 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2435 : 2002 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4318 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 2435 : 1996 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 4753 : 1995 Standard Specification for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Scales for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 4452 : 1985 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Methods for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3213 : 2013 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Intact Marine Soil
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3213 : 2019 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Intact Marine Soil
    ASTM D 6519 : 2015 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3213 : 2013 : EDT 1 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Intact Marine Soil
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 7015 : 2013 Standard Practices for Obtaining Intact Block (Cubical and Cylindrical) Samples of Soils
    ASTM D 6519 : 2008 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : R2009 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 : R2007 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils (Withdrawn 2016)
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4753 : 2007 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 3213 : 2008 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Intact Marine Soil
    ASTM D 7015 : 2007 Standard Practices for Obtaining Intact Block (Cubical and Cylindrical) Samples of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5720 : 1995 Standard Practice for Static Calibration of Electronic Transducer-Based Pressure Measurement Systems for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 7015 : 2004 Standard Practices for Obtaining Undisturbed Block (Cubical and Cylindrical) Samples of Soils
    ASTM D 6027 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Calibrating Linear Displacement Transducers for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 3213 : 2003 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Undisturbed Marine Soil
    ASTM D 4452 : 2006 Standard Practice for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
    ASTM D 2435 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 4452 : 2014 Standard Practice for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6519 : 2005 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 6519 : 2000 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5720 : 1995 : R2002 Standard Practice for Static Calibration of Electronic Transducer-Based Pressure Measurement Systems for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 2487 : 2010 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2487 : 2000 Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 3213 : 1991 : R1997 Standard Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Undisturbed Marine Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2487 : 2011 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 4452 : 1985 : R2002 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : R2009 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 5720 : 1995 : R2009 Standard Practice for Static Calibration of Electronic Transducer-Based Pressure Measurement Systems for Geotechnical Purposes (Withdrawn 2018)
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 1969 : R1975 Standard Test Method for Classification Of Soils For Engineering Purposes
    ASTM D 2435 : 2003 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
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