• ASTM D 4253 : 2016

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-21-2019

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  03-01-2016

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    These test methods cover the determination of the maximum-index dry density/unit weight of cohesionless, free-draining soils using a vertically vibrating table.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1These test methods cover the determination of the maximum-index dry density/unit weight of cohesionless, free-draining soils using a vertically vibrating table. The adjective “dry before density or unit weight is omitted in the title and remaining portions of this standard to be consistent with the applicable definition given in Section 3 on Terminology.

    1.2Systems of Units:

    1.2.1The testing apparatus described in this standard has been developed and manufactured using values in the gravimetric or inch-pound system. Therefore, test apparatus dimensions and mass given in inch-pound units are regarded as the standard.

    1.2.2It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a unit of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This standard has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, balances or scales measure mass; and weight must be calculated. In the inch-pound system, it is common to assume that 1 lbf is equal to 1 lbm. While reporting density is not regarded as nonconformance with this standard, unit weights should be calculated and reported since the results may be used to determine force or stress.

    1.2.3The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit volume whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard density is given only in SI units. After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.

    1.3Four alternative methods are provided to determine the maximum index density/unit weight, as follows:

    1.3.1Method 1A—Using oven-dried soil and an electromagnetic, vertically vibrating table.

    1.3.2Method 1B—Using wet soil and an electromagnetic, vertically vibrating table.

    1.3.3Method 2A—Using oven-dried soil and an eccentric or cam-driven, vertically vibrating table.

    1.3.4Method 2B—Using wet soil and an eccentric or cam-driven vertically vibrating table.

    1.4The method to be used should be specified by the individual assigning the test.

    1.4.1The type of table to be used (Method 1 or 2) is likely to be decided based upon available equipment.

    Note 1:There is evidence to show that electromagnetic tables yield slightly higher values of maximum index density/unit weight than the eccentric or cam-driven tables.

    1.4.2It is recommended that both the dry and wet methods (Methods 1A and 1B or 2A and 2B) be performed when beginning a new job or encountering a change in soil types, as the wet method can yield significantly higher values of maximum index density/unit weight for some soils. Such a higher maximum index density, when considered along with the minimum index density/unit weight, Test Methods D4254, will be found to significantly affect the value of the relative density (3.2.8) calculated for a soil encountered in the field. While the dry method is often preferred because results can usually be obtained more quickly, as a general rule the wet method should be used if it is established that it produces maximum index densities/unit weights that would significantly affect the use/application of the value of relative density.

    1.5These test methods are applicable to soils that may contain up to 15 %, by dry mass, of soil particles passing a No. 200 (75-μm) sieve, provided they still have cohesionless, free-draining characteristics (nominal sieve dimensions are in accordance with Specification E11). Further, these test methods are applicable to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3-in. (75-mm) sieve.

    1.5.1Soils, for the purpose of these test methods, shall be regarded as naturally occurring cohesionless soils, processed particles, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed particles, provided they are free draining.

    1.6These test methods will typically produce a higher maximum dry density/unit weight for cohesionless, free-draining soils than that obtained by impact compaction in which a well-defined moisture-density relationship is not apparent. However, for some soils containing between 5 and 15 % fines, the use of impact compaction (Test Methods D698 or D1557) may be useful in evaluating what is an appropriate maximum index density/unit weight.

    1.7These test methods will typically produce a lower maximum dry density/unit weight than that obtained by vibrating hammer using Test Method D7382.

    1.8For many types of free-draining, cohesionless soils, these test methods cause a moderate amount of degradation (particle breakdown) of the soil. When degradation occurs, typically there is an increase in the maximum index density/unit weight obtained, and comparable test results may not be obtained when different size molds are used to test a given soil.

    1.9All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.9.1For purposes of comparing a measured or calculated value(s) to specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.9.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.10This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2434 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014(R2019) Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM C 361 : 2019 : REV A Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4874 : 1995 : R2014 Standard Test Method for Leaching Solid Material in a Column Apparatus (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 4718/D4718M : 2015 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6270 : 2017 Standard Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications
    ASTM D 1556/D1556M : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM D 7698 : 2011 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Estimation of Density and Water Content of Soil and Aggregate by Correlation with Complex Impedance Method
    ASTM F 1668 : 2016 Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried Plastic Pipe
    ASTM D 5030/D5030M : 2013 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    ASTM D 4914/D4914M : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2167 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
    ASTM D 8167/D8167M : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Bulk Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by a Low-Activity Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 5311/D5311M : 2013 Standard Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 : R2019 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4753 : 2002 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 1557 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4753 : 2015 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 : R2006 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 7382 : 2008 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer (Withdrawn 2017)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4254 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 4753 : 1995 Standard Specification for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Scales for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : R2009 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1557 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4753 : 2007 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 1557 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 7382 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 2010 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2487 : 2000 Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2487 : 2011 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 1557 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : R2009 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 1969 : R1975 Standard Test Method for Classification Of Soils For Engineering Purposes
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