• ASTM D 4254 : 2000 : R2006

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-11-2014

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-10-2000

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the minimum-index dry density/unit weight of cohesionless, free-draining soils. The adjective "dry" before density or unit weight is omitted in the title and remaining portions of this standards to be be consistent with the applicable definitions given in Section 3 on Terminology.

    1.2 System of units

    1.2.1 The testing apparatus described in this standard has been developed and manufactured using values in the gravimetric or inch-pound system. Therefore, test apparatus dimensions and mass given in inch-pound units are regarded as the standard.

    1.2.2 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a unit of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This test method has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, balances or scales measure mass; and weight must be calculated. In the inch-pound system, it is common to assume that 1 lbf is equal to 1 lbm. While reporting density is not regarded as nonconformance with this standard, unit weights should be calculated and reported since the results may be used to determine force or stress.

    1.2.3 The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit volume, whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard, density is given only in SI units. After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.

    1.3 Three alternative methods are provided to determine the minimum index density/unit weight, as follows:

    1.3.1 Method A-Using a funnel pouring device or a hand scoop to place material in mold.

    1.3.2 Method B-Depositing material into a mold by extracting a soil filled tube.

    1.3.3 Method C -Depositing material by inverting a graduated cylinder.

    1.4 The method to be used should be specified by the individual assigning the test. If no method is specified, the provisions of Method A shall govern. Test Method A is the preferred procedure for determining minimum index density/unit weight as used in conjunction with the procedures of Test Methods D 4253. Methods B and C are provided for guidance of testing used in conjunction with special studies, especially where there is not enough material available to use a 0.100 ft 3 (2 830 cm3) or 0.500 ft3 (14 200 cm 3) mold as required by Method A.

    1.5 These test methods are applicable to soils that may contain up to 15 %, by dry mass, of soil particles passing a No. 200 (75-m) sieve, provided they still have cohesionless, free-draining characteristics (nominal sieve dimensions are in accordance with Specification E 11).

    1.5.1 Method A is applicable to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3-in. (75-mm) sieve and which may contain up to 30 %, by dry mass, of soil particles retained on a 1-1/2-inch (37.5-mm) sieve.

    1.5.2 Method B is applicable to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3/4-inch (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.5.3 Method C is applicable only to fine and medium sands in which 100 %, by dry mass, of soil particles pass a 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve and which may contain up to 10 %, by dry mass, of soil particles retained on a No. 10 (2.00-mm) sieve.

    1.5.4 Soils, for the purposes of these test methods, shall be regarded as naturally occurring cohesionless soils, processed particles, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed particles, provided they are free-draining.

    This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Product Note Reconfirmed 2006
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4914/D4914M : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 8167/D8167M : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Bulk Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by a Low-Activity Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM F 1668 : 2016 Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried Plastic Pipe
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    ASTM D 1556/D1556M : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 5030/D5030M : 2013 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM D 5311/D5311M : 2013 Standard Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil (Withdrawn 2022)
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