• ASTM D 4318 : 2017

    NA Status of Standard is Unknown
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    Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-01-2017

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and the plasticity index of soils as defined in Section 3 on Terminology.

    1.2Two procedures for preparing test specimens are provided as follows: Specimen Preparation Procedure 1 (Wet Preparation), as described in 11.1 and Specimen Preparation Procedure 2 (Dry Preparation), as described in 11.2. The specimen preparation procedure to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no specimen preparation procedure is specified, use the wet preparation procedure. (See Section 6, Interferences.)

    1.3Two methods for determining the liquid limit are provided as follows: Liquid Limit Method A (Multipoint Method), as described in Sections 12 and 13, and Liquid Limit Method B (One-Point Method), as described in Sections 14 and 15. The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no method is specified, use Method A. (See Section 6, Interferences.)

    1.4The plastic limit test, Method for Plastic Limit, is performed on material prepared for the liquid limit test. When determining the plastic limit, two procedures for rolling portions of the test specimen are provided as follows: Plastic Limit Rolling Procedure 1 (Hand Rolling), and Plastic Limit Rolling Procedure 2 (Using the Rolling Device).

    1.5The liquid limit and plastic limit of soils (along with the shrinkage limit) are often collectively referred to as the Atterberg limits. These limits distinguished the boundaries of the several consistency states of plastic soils.

    1.6The plasticity index, Method for Plasticity Index, is calculated using results from liquid limit and plastic limit testing.

    1.7The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-μm (No. 40) sieve. Therefore, the relative contribution of this portion of the soil to the properties of the sample as a whole must be considered when using these methods to evaluate the properties of a soil.

    1.8The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units, which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

    1.8.1The converted inch-pound units use the gravitational system of units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The converted slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

    1.8.2It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

    1.8.3The “alternative” sieve size designations listed in Specification E11 for the 425-µm and 2.00-mm sieves are given in parentheses following the “standard” designations, that is, 425-µm (No. 40) and 2.00-mm (No. 10).

    1.8.4The standard units for the resilience tester covered in Annex A1 are inch-pound, not SI. The SI values given in Fig. A1.1 are for information only.

    1.9All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.9.1For purposes of comparing a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.9.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.10This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.11This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status NA
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 3282 : 2015 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 2940/D2940M : 2015 Standard Specification for Graded Aggregate Material For Bases or Subbases for Highways or Airports
    ASTM D 7181 : 2011 Method for Consolidated Drained Triaxial Compression Test for Soils
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 242/D242M : 2019 Standard Specification for Mineral Filler for Asphalt Mixtures
    ASTM D 7277 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Articulating Concrete Block (ACB) Revetment Systems for Hydraulic Stability in Open Channel Flow
    ASTM D 2166/D2166M : 2016 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 6572 : 2013 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Determining Dispersive Characteristics of Clayey Soils by the Crumb Test
    ASTM D 4221 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
    ASTM D 1073 : 2016 Standard Specification for Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Paving Mixtures
    ASTM D 7928 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
    ASTM D 2850 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 5050 : 2008 : R2015 Standard Guide for Commercial Use of Lime Kiln Dusts and Portland Cement Kiln Dusts
    ASTM D 5101 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Filtration Compatibility of Soil-Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 6088 : 2006 : R2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Geocomposite Pavement Drains
    ASTM D 6460 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Determination of Rolled Erosion Control Product (RECP) Performance in Protecting Earthen Channels from Stormwater-Induced Erosion
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4223/D4223M : 2012 Standard Practice for Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt-Stabilized Soils
    ASTM D 3999/D3999M : 2011 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for the Determination of the Modulus and Damping Properties of Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial Apparatus (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 3080/D3080M : 2011 Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    ASTM D 4767 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 6528 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Direct Simple Shear Testing of Fine Grain Soils
    ASTM D 2435/D2435M : 2011 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 7608 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Measure Drained Fully Softened Shear Strength and Stress Dependent Strength Envelope of Fine-Grained Soils
    ASTM E 2060 : 2006 : R2014 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM E 1266 : 2012 Standard Practice for Processing Mixtures of Lime, Fly Ash, and Heavy Metal Wastes in Structural Fills and Other Construction Applications
    ASTM D 4943 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Cohesive Soils by the Water Submersion Method
    ASTM D 4554 : 2012 Standard Test Method for In Situ Determination of Direct Shear Strength of Rock Discontinuities (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 1883 : 2016 Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils
    ASTM D 6467 : 2013 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
    ASTM E 3163 : 2018 Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4186/D4186M : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
    ASTM D 1241 : 2015 Standard Specification for Materials for Soil-Aggregate Subbase, Base, and Surface Courses
    ASTM D 8151 : 2019 Standard Practice for Obtaining Rainfall Runoff from Unvegetated Rolled and Hydraulic Erosion Control Products (RECPs and HECPs) for Acute Ecotoxicity Testing
    ASTM D 6913/D6913M : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 4546 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils
    ASTM D 4647/D4647M : 2013 Standard Test Methods for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test
    ASTM D 5106 : 2015 Standard Specification for Steel Slag Aggregates for Bituminous Paving Mixtures
    ASTM D 4215 : 2007 : R2013 Standard Specification for Cold-Mixed, Cold-Laid Bituminous Paving Mixtures
    ASTM F 1962 : 2011 Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 5311/D5311M : 2013 Standard Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM D 7263 : 2009 : R2018 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens
    ASTM D 2321 : 2018 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications
    ASTM D 7664 : 2010 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils
    ASTM D 5567 : 1994 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Ratio (HCR) Testing of Soil/Geotextile Systems
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