• ASTM D 4700 : 2015

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    Standard Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  02-01-2015

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This guide covers procedures that may be used for obtaining soil samples from the vadose zone (unsaturated zone). Samples can be collected for a variety of reasons including the following:

    1.1.1Stratigraphic description,

    1.1.2Hydraulic conductivity testing,

    1.1.3Moisture content measurement,

    1.1.4Moisture release curve construction,

    1.1.5Geotechnical testing,

    1.1.6Soil gas analyses,

    1.1.7Microorganism extraction,

    1.1.8Pore liquid evaluation, or

    1.1.9Laboratory chemical analysis identifying contaminant types and concentrations within soils.

    1.2Guides D6169 on Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices and D6282 on Drilling methods for Environmental Site Characterization provide subsequent supplemental information to the contents of this standard.

    1.2.1Direct Push Soil Sampling (Guide D6282) and Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization (Practice D6914) are used extensively for environmental soil sampling in the Vadose zone.

    1.2.1.1Subsurface explorations are documented in accordance with D5434 on Logging of Subsurface Explorations.

    (1)Soil core may require processing using Practice D6640 on Collection and Handling of Soil Cores for Environmental Explorations.

    1.3This guide focuses on methods that provide soil samples for chemical analyses of the soil or contained liquids or contaminants. However, comments on how methods may be modified for other objectives are included.

    1.4This guide does not describe sampling methods for lithified deposits and rocks (for example, sandstone, shale, tuff, granite).

    1.5In general, it is prudent to perform all field work with at least two people present. This increases safety and facilitates efficient data collection.

    1.6The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.7This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.8This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Guide
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 6282/D6282M : 2014 Standard Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations (Withdrawn 2023)
    ASTM D 7100 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Compatibility Testing of Soils with Aqueous Solutions
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2015 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6914/D6914M : 2016 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 5680 : 2014 Standard Practice for Sampling Unconsolidated Solids in Drums or Similar Containers
    ASTM D 3282 : 2015 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2013 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6907 : 2005 : R2016 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 5679 : 2016 Standard Practice for Sampling Consolidated Solids in Drums or Similar Containers
    ASTM D 1241 : 2015 Standard Specification for Materials for Soil-Aggregate Subbase, Base, and Surface Courses
    ASTM D 4547 : 2015 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 6009 : 2012 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste Piles
    ASTM D 5658 : 2013 Standard Practice for Sampling Unconsolidated Waste From Trucks
    ASTM E 1943 : 1998 : R2015 Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites
    ASTM D 6044 : 1996 : R2015 Standard Guide for Representative Sampling for Management of Waste and Contaminated Media
    ASTM D 6232 : 2016 Standard Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities
    ASTM D 6146 : 1997 : R2018 Standard Guide for Monitoring Aqueous Nutrients in Watersheds
    ASTM D 6063 : 2011 : R2018 Standard Guide for Sampling of Drums and Similar Containers by Field Personnel
    ASTM D 7663 : 2012 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Active Soil Gas Sampling in the Vadose Zone for Vapor Intrusion Evaluations

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5434 : 1997 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 3550 : 1984 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 6519 : 2002 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 1452 : 2009 Standard Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1586 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 6151 : 2008 Standard Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
    ASTM D 6282 : 1998 Standard Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2007 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6907 : 2005 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 : REV A Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 5434 : 2012 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 6640 : 2021 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 6169 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1586 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2022 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6907 : 2022 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2015 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6151 : 1997 Standard Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
    ASTM D 6519 : 2015 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6519 : 2008 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 5434 : 2003 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 : R2007 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils (Withdrawn 2016)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6286 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 6907 : 2005 : R2010 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6907 : 2005 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 6286 : 2012 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2005 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6519 : 2005 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 6519 : 2000 Standard Practice for Sampling of Soil Using the Hydraulically Operated Stationary Piston Sampler
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6286 : 2019 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling and Direct Push Methods for Geotechnical and Environmental Subsurface Site Characterization
    ASTM D 6907 : 2005 : R2016 Standard Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
    ASTM D 5434 : 2009 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2010 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 1452 : 1980 : R2000 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
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