• ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A

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    Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  08-15-2016

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1These test methods cover laboratory measurement of the hydraulic conductivity (also referred to as coefficient of permeability) of water-saturated porous materials with a flexible wall permeameter at temperatures between about 15 and 30°C (59 and 86°F). Temperatures outside this range may be used; however, the user would have to determine the specific gravity of mercury and RT (see 10.3) at those temperatures using data from Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. There are six alternate methods or hydraulic systems that may be used to measure the hydraulic conductivity. These hydraulic systems are as follows:

    1.1.1Method A—Constant Head

    1.1.2Method B—Falling Head, constant tailwater elevation

    1.1.3Method C—Falling Head, rising tailwater elevation

    1.1.4Method D—Constant Rate of Flow

    1.1.5Method E—Constant Volume–Constant Head (by mercury)

    1.1.6Method F—Constant Volume–Falling Head (by mercury), rising tailwater elevation

    1.2These test methods use water as the permeant liquid; see 4.3 and Section 6 on Reagents for water requirements.

    1.3These test methods may be utilized on all specimen types (intact, reconstituted, remolded, compacted, etc.) that have a hydraulic conductivity less than about 1 × 10−6 m/s (1 × 10−4 cm/s), providing the head loss requirements of 5.2.3 are met. For the constant-volume methods, the hydraulic conductivity typically has to be less than about 1 × 10−7 m/s.

    1.3.1If the hydraulic conductivity is greater than about 1 × 10−6 m/s, but not more than about 1 × 10−5 m/s; then the size of the hydraulic tubing needs to be increased along with the porosity of the porous end pieces. Other strategies, such as using higher viscosity fluid or properly decreasing the cross-sectional area of the test specimen, or both, may also be possible. The key criterion is that the requirements covered in Section 5 have to be met.

    1.3.2If the hydraulic conductivity is less than about 1 × 10−11 m/s, then standard hydraulic systems and temperature environments will typically not suffice. Strategies that may be possible when dealing with such impervious materials may include the following: (a) controlling the temperature more precisely, (b) adoption of unsteady state measurements by using high-accuracy equipment along with the rigorous analyses for determining the hydraulic parameters (this approach reduces testing duration according to Zhang et al. (1)2), and (c) shortening the length or enlarging the cross-sectional area, or both, of the test specimen (with consideration to specimen grain size (2)). Other approaches, such as use of higher hydraulic gradients, lower viscosity fluid, elimination of any possible chemical gradients and bacterial growth, and strict verification of leakage, may also be considered.

    1.4The hydraulic conductivity of materials with hydraulic conductivities greater than 1 × 10 −5 m/s may be determined by Test Method D2434.

    1.5All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.5.1The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded, and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.6This standard also contains a Hazards section (Section 7).

    1.7The time to perform this test depends on such items as the Method (A, B, C, D, E, or F) used, the initial degree of saturation of the test specimen and the hydraulic conductivity of the test specimen. The constant volume Methods (E and F) and Method D require the shortest period-of-time. Typically a test can be performed using Methods D, E, or F within two to three days. Methods A, B, and C take a longer period-of-time, from a few days to a few weeks depending on the hydraulic conductivity. Typically, about one week is required for hydraulic conductivities on the order of 1 × 10–9 m/s. The testing time is ultimately controlled by meeting the equilibrium criteria for each Method (see 9.5).

    1.8Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are mathematical conversions, which are provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard, unless specifically stated as standard, such as 0.5 mm or 0.01 in.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5567 : 1994 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Ratio (HCR) Testing of Soil/Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 7664 : 2010 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils
    ASTM D 5101 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Filtration Compatibility of Soil-Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 5856 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 7100 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Compatibility Testing of Soils with Aqueous Solutions
    ASTM E 2060 : 2006 : R2014 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM E 3163 : 2018 Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action
    ASTM D 6391 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity Using Borehole Infiltration
    ASTM D 6836 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Determination of the Soil Water Characteristic Curve for Desorption Using Hanging Column, Pressure Extractor, Chilled Mirror Hygrometer, or Centrifuge
    ASTM D 7243 : 2011 Standard Guide for Measuring the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Paper Industry Sludges
    ASTM D 7242/D7242M : 2006 : R2013 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Field Pneumatic Slug (Instantaneous Change in Head) Tests to Determine Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers with Direct Push Groundwater Samplers (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM F 1962 : 2011 Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 8037/D8037M : 2016 Standard Practice for Direct Push Hydraulic Logging for Profiling Variations of Permeability in Soils
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM D 6035/D6035M : 2013 Standard Test Method for Determining the Effect of Freeze-Thaw on Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted or Intact Soil Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6169/D6169M : 2013 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 7294 : 2013 Standard Guide for Collecting Treatment Process Design Data at a Contaminated Site—A Site Contaminated With Chemicals of Interest
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6539 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Measurement of the Permeability of Unsaturated Porous Materials by Flowing Air (Withdrawn 2022)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 1140 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ASTM D 5079 : 2002 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples
    ASTM D 4767 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 3550 : 1984 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 4753 : 2002 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 1557 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM E 177 : 1990 : REV A : R1996 Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
    ASTM D 4753 : 2015 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4318 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 698 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 2434 : 2022 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Coarse-Grained Soils
    ASTM D 6151 : 2008 Standard Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2007 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 1140 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ASTM D 4767 : 2011 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2113 : 2014 Standard Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Exploration
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : R2021 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 2435 : 2002 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM E 691 : 2020 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 4767 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 6169 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4318 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM E 691 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 2435 : 1996 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : R2021 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 4753 : 1995 Standard Specification for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Scales for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2434 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 5079 : 1990 : R1996 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 1140 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Methods for Amount of Material in Soils Finer than No. 200 (75-μm) Sieve
    ASTM E 691 : 2022 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6151 : 1997 Standard Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
    ASTM E 691 : 2009 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4767 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 5079 : 2002 : R2006 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 : R2007 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils (Withdrawn 2016)
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1557 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4753 : 2007 Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2113 : 2006 Standard Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
    ASTM D 2113 : 2008 Standard Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 1557 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM E 691 : 2021 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 2113 : 1999 Standard Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2435 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 1140 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Amount of Material in Soils Finer Than the No. 200 (75-um) Sieve
    ASTM D 5079 : 2008 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples (Withdrawn 2017)
    ASTM D 4767 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (Withdrawn 2015)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2021 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits and Data Records in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 1557 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2435 : 2003 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
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