• ASTM D 5126 : 2016 : EDT 1

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    Standard Guide for Comparison of Field Methods for Determining Hydraulic Conductivity in Vadose Zone

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  07-01-2016

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.08, 2018 Provides a review of the test methods for determining hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soils and sediments.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This guide covers a review of the test methods for determining hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soils and sediments. Test methods for determining both field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are described.

    1.2Measurement of hydraulic conductivity in the field is used for estimating the rate of water movement through clay liners to determine if they are a barrier to water flux, for characterizing water movement below waste disposal sites to predict contaminant movement, and to measure infiltration and drainage in soils and sediment for a variety of applications. Test methods are needed for measuring hydraulic conductivity ranging from 1 × 10−2 to 1 × 10−8 cm/s, for both surface and subsurface layers, and for both field-saturated and unsaturated flow.

    1.3For these field test methods a distinction is made between “saturated” (Ks) and “field-saturated” (Kfs) hydraulic conductivity. True saturated conditions seldom occur in the vadose zone except where impermeable layers result in the presence of perched water tables. During infiltration events or in the event of a leak from a lined pond, a “field-saturated” condition develops. True saturation does not occur due to entrapped air (1).2 The entrapped air prevents water from moving in air-filled pores that, in turn, may reduce the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field by as much as a factor of two compared to conditions when trapped air is not present (2). Field test methods should simulate the “field-saturated” condition.

    1.4Field test methods commonly used to determine field-saturated hydraulic conductivity include various double-ring infiltrometer test methods, air-entry permeameter test methods, and borehole permeameter tests. Many empirical test methods are used for calculating hydraulic conductivity from data obtained with each test method. A general description of each test method and special characteristics affecting applicability is provided.

    1.5Field test methods used to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the field include direct measurement techniques and various estimation methods. Direct measurement techniques for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity include the instantaneous profile (IP) test method and the gypsum crust method. Estimation techniques have been developed using borehole permeameter data and using data obtained from desorption curves (a curve relating water content to matric potential).

    1.6The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.7All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.7.1The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in this standard is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or both. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.

    1.8This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.9This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Development Note Supersedes ASTM D 5126/D5126M. (02/2017)
    Document Type Guide
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AASHTO R 13 : 2012 PRACTICE FOR CONDUCTING GEOTECHNICAL SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATIONS
    ASCE 34 01 : 2001 STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF GROUND WATER
    ASTM F 1535 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Carrier Recombination Lifetime in Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Measurement of Photoconductivity Decay by Microwave Reflectance (Withdrawn 2003)
    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2434 : 2022 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Coarse-Grained Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4643 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3385 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer
    ASTM D 4643 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 3385 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer
    ASTM D 3385 : 2009-03 TEST METHOD FOR INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS IN FIELD USING DOUBLE-RING INFILTROMETER
    ASTM D 3385 : 1994 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer
    ASTM D 4643 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2434 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3385 : 2009 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (Withdrawn 2015)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2021 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits and Data Records in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4643 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Microwave Oven Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
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