• ASTM D 6066 : 2011

    Withdrawn A Withdrawn Standard is one, which is removed from sale, and its unique number can no longer be used. The Standard can be withdrawn and not replaced, or it can be withdrawn and replaced by a Standard with a different number.
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    Standard Practice for Determining the Normalized Penetration Resistance of Sands for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential (Withdrawn 2020)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Withdrawn date:  01-08-2020

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  12-01-2011

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1 This practice outlines a procedure to obtain a record of normalized resistance of sands to the penetration of a standard sampler driven by a standard energy for estimating soil liquefaction potential during earthquakes. The normalized penetration resistance determined in this practice may be useful for determination of other engineering properties of sands.

    1.2 This practice uses Test Method D1586 with additions and modifications to minimize disturbance of saturated loose cohesionless sands during drilling. This practice combines results of Test Method D1586 and interprets the data for normalization purposes.

    1.3 Due to inherent variability of the SPT, guidance is given on test configuration and energy adjustments. Penetration resistance is adjusted for energy delivered in the penetration test. Energy adjustments can be estimated or measured and reported.

    1.4 Standard practice for normalizing penetration resistance values is given. Penetration resistance data are normalized to a standard overburden stress level.

    1.5 The normalized penetration resistance data may be used to estimate liquefaction resistance of saturated sands from earthquake shaking. Evaluation of liquefaction resistance may be applied to natural ground conditions or foundations for either planned or existing structures.

    1.6 Using this practice representative disturbed samples of the soil can be collected for identification purposes.

    1.7 This practice is limited to use in cohesionless soils (see Test Method D2487 and classifications of SM, SW, SP, SP-SM, and SW-SM Practice D2488). In most cases, testing is performed in saturated deposits below the water table. In some cases, dry sands may be tested (see 5.4). This practice is not applicable to lithified materials or fine grained soils. Gravel can interfere with the test and result in elevated penetration resistance values. Normalization of penetration resistance values for gravelly soils is beyond the scope of this practice.

    1.8 Penetration resistance measurements often will involve safety planning, administration, and documentation. This practice does not purport to address all aspects of exploration and site safety. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Performance of the test usually involves use of a drill rig; therefore, safety requirements as outlined in applicable safety standards. For example, OSHA regulations, DCDMA safety manual, drilling safety manuals, and other applicable state and local regulations must be observed.

    1.9 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. Within the text, the SI units, are shown in parentheses. The values stated in each system are not equivalents, therefore, each system must be used independently of the other.

    1.9.1 In pressure correction calculations, common units are ton/ft2, kg/cm2, atm, and bars. Since these units are approximately equal (within a factor of 1.1), many engineers prefer the use of these units in stress correction calculations. For those using kPa or kN/m2, 100 kPa is approximately equal to one ton/ft2. The stress exponent, n, (see 3.3.1) is approximately equal for these units.

    1.10 This practice may not be applicable in some countries, states, or localities, where rules or standards may differ for applying penetration resistance to liquefaction estimates. Other practices exist for estimating soil instability from penetration resistance data. Procedures may change with advances in geotechnical engineering. It is dependent on the user in consultation with experienced engineers to select appropriate methods and correction to data. In earthquake engineering studies, many phenomena can affect soil instability. The practice reflects only one current exploration technique and method for normalizing penetration resistance data to a common level for comparisons to case history information.

    1.11 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

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    Committee D 18
    Document Type Standard Practice
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Withdrawn
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 3550/D3550M : 2017 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 4633 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 1586/D1586M : 2018 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5434 : 1997 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1586 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 5778 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4633 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 5778 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5434 : 2012 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1586 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 5778 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 5434 : 2003 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 2010 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2487 : 2000 Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 5434 : 2009 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 4633 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 4633 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 2487 : 2011 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 1969 : R1975 Standard Test Method for Classification Of Soils For Engineering Purposes
    ASTM D 4633 : 1986 Test Method For Stress Wave Energy Measurment For Dynamic Penetrometer Testing Systems (Withdrawn 1995)
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