• ASTM D 6282/D6282M : 2014

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    Standard Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-01-2014

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.09, 2015 Covers direct push soil samplers, which also may be driven into the ground from the surface or through prebored holes.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This guide addresses direct push soil samplers, which may also be driven into the ground from the surface or through prebored holes. The samplers can be continuous or discrete interval units. Samplers are advanced by static push, or impacts from hammers, or vibratory methods, or a combination thereof, to the depth of interest. Both single tube and dual (double) tube systems may be advanced for soil sampling with direct push methods. Direct push methods are most often used to collect geo-environmental soil samples. These soil samples are used for soil classification (Practice D2488) and lithologic/hydrostratigraphic logging as well as being sub-sampled for contaminant and chemical analyses.

    1.2Other drilling and sampling methods may apply for samples needed for engineering and construction applications. This guide does not address single sampling events in the immediate base of the drill hole using rotary drilling equipment that employ cuttings removal as the sampler is advanced. Other sampling standards, such as Test Method D1586, Practices D1587 and D3550, and summarized in Guide D6169 apply to rotary drilling activities (Guide D6286). The guide does not cover open chambered samplers operated by hand such as augers, agricultural samplers operated at shallow depths, or side wall samplers.

    1.2.1While Sonic Drilling is considered a direct push method this standard may not apply to larger equipment addressed in Practice D6914.

    1.3Guidance on collection and handling of samples, are given in Practices D4220 and D6640. Samples for chemical analysis often must be subsampled and preserved for chemical analysis using special techniques such as Practice D4547, D6418, and D6640. Additional information on environmental sample preservation and transportation is available in other references (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)2. Samples for soil classification may be preserved using procedures given in Practice D4220 similar to Class A. In most cases, a direct push sample is considered as Class B in Practice D4220 but is protected, representative, and suitable for chemical analysis. The samples taken with this practice do not usually produce Class C and D (with exception of thin wall samples of standard size) samples for laboratory testing for engineering properties, such as shear strength and compressibility. If sampling is for chemical evaluation in the Vadose Zone, consult Guide D4700 for any special considerations.

    1.4Insertion methods described include static push, impact, percussion, other vibratory/sonic driving, and combinations of these methods using direct push equipment adapted to drilling rigs, cone penetrometer units, and specially designed percussion/direct push combination machines. Hammers providing the force for insertion include drop style, hydraulically activated, air activated and mechanical lift devices.

    1.5Direct push soil sampling is limited to soils and unconsolidated materials that can be penetrated with the available equipment. The ability to penetrate strata is based on hammer energy, carrying vehicle weight, compactness of soil, and consistency of soil. Penetration may be limited or damage to samplers and conveying devices can occur in certain subsurface conditions, some of which are discussed in 5.6. Successful sample recovery also may be limited by the ability to retrieve tools from the borehole. Sufficient retract force must be available when attempting difficult or deep investigations.

    1.6This guide does not address the installation of any temporary or permanent soil, groundwater, vapor monitoring, or remediation devices.

    1.7The practicing of direct push techniques may be controlled by local regulations governing subsurface penetration. Certification, or licensing requirements, or both, may need to be considered in establishing criteria for field activities.

    1.8The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.10This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a projects's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

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    Committee D 18
    Development Note Supersedes ASTM D 6282. (07/2014)
    Document Type Guide
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 6067/D6067M : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using the Electronic Piezocone Penetrometer Tests for Environmental Site Characterization and Estimation of Hydraulic Conductivity
    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5434 : 1997 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 4700 : 1991 : R2006 Standard Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 6418 : 2003 Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 3694 : 1996 : R2011 Standard Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
    ASTM D 3550 : 1984 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 6725 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 1452 : 2009 Standard Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 2002 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1586 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 1586 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 4547 : 2009 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3694 : 1996 Standard Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4220 : 1995 : R2007 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
    ASTM D 6001 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Water Sampling for Geoenvironmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6067 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Using the Electronic Cone Penetrometer for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 4700 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6724 : 2004 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 : REV A Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM D 5434 : 2012 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 6640 : 2021 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6001 : 1996 : R2002 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Water Sampling for Geoenvironmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6418 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 6169 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 6286 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 : REV A Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 1586 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 4547 : 2015 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 6418 : 2004 Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis
    ASTM D 6418 : 1999 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis
    ASTM D 4547 : 1998 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 3694 : 1996 : R2017 Standard Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
    ASTM D 6724 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 3694 : 1996 : R2004 Standard Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 5088 : 2020 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 5088 : 1990 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 7242 : 2006 Standard Practice for Field Pneumatic Slug (Instantaneous Change in Head) Tests to Determine Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers with Direct Push Groundwater Samplers
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2005 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 6418 : 2009 Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis (Withdrawn 2018)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2015 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6725 : 2004 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 6914 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4700 : 2015 Standard Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
    ASTM D 5434 : 2003 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 : R2007 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils (Withdrawn 2016)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6067 : 1996 : R2003 Standard Guide for Using the Electronic Cone Penetrometer for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 6724 : 2001 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 6286 : 1998 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 1990 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6286 : 2012 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2005 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 4547 : 2003 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6725 : 2001 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Ground Water Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 4700 : 1991 : R1998 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 : R2008 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 6286 : 2019 Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling and Direct Push Methods for Geotechnical and Environmental Subsurface Site Characterization
    ASTM D 5434 : 2009 Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
    ASTM D 6001 : 2005 : R2012 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6001 : 2005 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6640 : 2001 : R2010 Standard Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
    ASTM D 4547 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 6067 : 2010 Standard Practice for Using the Electronic Piezocone Penetrometer Tests for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 7648 : 2012 Standard Practice for Active Soil Gas Sampling for Direct Push or Manual-Driven Hand-Sampling Equipment
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4547 : 2006 Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3550 : 2001 Standard Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
    ASTM D 1452 : 1980 : R2000 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
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