• ASTM D 6391 : 2011

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity Using Borehole Infiltration

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  05-15-2020

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-01-2011

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1 This test method covers field measurement of hydraulic conductivity (also referred to as coefficient of permeability) of porous materials using a cased borehole technique. When isotropic conditions can be assumed and a flush borehole is employed, the method yields the hydraulic conductivity of the porous material. When isotropic conditions cannot be assumed, the method yields limiting values of the hydraulic conductivity in the vertical direction (upper limit) if a single stage is conducted and the horizontal direction (lower limit) if a second stage is conducted. For anisotropic conditions, determination of the actual hydraulic conductivity requires further analysis by qualified personnel.

    1.2 This test method may be used for compacted fills or natural deposits, above or below the water table, that have a mean hydraulic conductivity less than or equal to 1×105 m/s (1×103 cm/s).

    1.3 Hydraulic conductivity greater than 1×105 m/s may be determined by ordinary borehole tests, for example, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 7310 (1) ; however, the resulting value is an apparent conductivity.

    1.4 For this test method, a distinction must be made between saturated (Ks) and field-saturated (Kfs) hydraulic conductivity. True saturated conditions seldom occur in the vadose zone except where impermeable layers result in the presence of perched water tables. During infiltration events or in the event of a leak from a lined pond, a field-saturated condition develops. True saturation does not occur due to entrapped air (2). The entrapped air prevents water from moving in air-filled pores, which may reduce the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field by as much as a factor of two compared with conditions when trapped air is not present (3). This test method develops the field-saturated condition.

    1.5 Experience with this test method has been predominantly in materials having a degree of saturation of 70 % or more, and where the stratification or plane of compaction is relatively horizontal. Its use in other situations should be considered experimental.

    1.6 As in the case of all tests for hydraulic conductivity, the results of this test pertain only to the volume of soil permeated. Extending the results to the surrounding area requires both multiple tests and the judgment of qualified personnel. The number of tests required depends on among other things: the size of the area, the uniformity of the material in that area, and the variation in data from multiple tests.

    1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard unless other units specifically are given. By tradition in U.S. practice, hydraulic conductivity is reported in cm/s although the common SI units for hydraulic conductivity are m/s.

    1.8 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.8.1 The procedures in this standard that are used to specify how data are collected, recorded, and calculated are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the objectives of the user. Increasing or reducing the significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations is common practice. Consideration of the significant digits to be used in analysis methods for engineering design is beyond the scope of this standard.

    1.9 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This test method does not purport to address environmental protection problems, as well.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 420 : 2018 Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 2937 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 1452 : 2009 Standard Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 5092 : 2002 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5084 : 2003 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 : REV A Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 : EDT 2 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5084 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2937 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2937 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5092 : 1990 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 1452 : 2007 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2937 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1452 : 1980 : R2000 Standard Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings
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