• ASTM D 6913 : 2004 : EDT 2

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-11-2014

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  02-11-2005

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.09, 2015 Defines a method that is used to separate particles into size ranges and to determine quantitatively the mass of particles in each range.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1 Soils consist of particles with various shapes and sizes. This test method is used to separate particles into size ranges and to determine quantitatively the mass of particles in each range. These data are combined to determine the particle-size distribution (gradation). This test method uses a square opening sieve criterion in determining the gradation of soil between the 3-in. (75-mm) and No. 200 (75-µm) sieves.

    1.2 The terms, soils and material, are used interchangeably throughout the standard.

    1.3 In cases where the gradation of particles larger than 3 in. (75 mm) sieve is required, Test Method D 5519 may be used.

    1.4 In cases where the gradation of particles smaller than No. 200 (75-µm) sieve is required, Test Method D 422 may be used.

    1.5 Typically, if the maximum particle size is equal to or less than 4.75 mm (No. 4 sieve), then single-set sieving is applicable. Furthermore, if the maximum particle size is greater than 4.75 mm (No. 4 sieve) and equal to or less than 9.5 mm (3/8-in sieve), then either single-set sieving or composite sieving is applicable. Finally, if the maximum particle size is equal to or greater than 19.0 mm (¾-in sieve), composite sieving is applicable. For special conditions see 10.3.

    1.6 Two test methods are provided in this standard. The methods differ in the significant digits recorded and the size of the specimen (mass) required. The method to be used may be specified by the requesting authority; otherwise Method A shall be performed.

    1.6.1 Method AThe percentage (by mass) passing each sieve size is recorded to the nearest 1 %. This method must be used when performing composite sieving. For cases of disputes, Method A is the referee method.

    1.6.2 Method BThe percentage (by mass) passing each sieve size is recorded to the nearest 0.1 %. This method is only applicable for single sieve-set sieving and when the maximum particle size is equal to or less than the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.

    1.7 This test method does not cover, in any detail, procurement of the sample. It is assumed that the sample is obtained using appropriate methods and is representative.

    1.8 Sample ProcessingThree procedures (moist, air dry, and oven dry) are provided to process the sample to obtain a specimen. The procedure selected will depend on the type of sample, the maximum particle-size in the sample, the range of particle sizes, the initial conditions of the material, the plasticity of the material, the efficiency, and the need for other testing on the sample. The procedure may be specified by the requesting authority; otherwise the guidance given in Section 10 shall be followed.

    1.9 This test method typically requires two or three days to complete, depending on the type and size of the sample and soil type.

    1.10 This test method is not applicable for the following soils:

    1.10.1 Soils containing fibrous peat that will change in particle size during the drying, washing, or sieving procedure.

    1.10.2 Soils containing extraneous matter, such as organic solvents, oil, asphalt, wood fragments, or similar items. Such extraneous matter can affect the washing and sieving procedures.

    1.10.3 Materials that contain cementitious components, such as cement, fly ash, lime, or other stabilization admixtures.

    1.11 This test method may not produce consistent test results within and between laboratories for the following soils and the precision statement does not apply to them.

    1.11.1 Friable soils in which the sieving processes change the gradation of the soil. Typical examples of these soils are some residual soils, most weathered shales and some weakly cemented soils such as hardpan, caliche or coquina.

    1.11.2 Soils that will not readily disperse such as glauconitic clays or some dried plastic clays.

    1.11.3 To test these soils, this test method must be adapted, or altered, and these alterations documented. Depending on the design considerations, a specialized gradation-testing program could be performed. The alterations could require the washing and sieving procedures to be standardized such that each specimen would be processed in a similar manner.

    1.12 Some materials that are not soils, but are made up of particles may be tested using this method. However, the applicable sections above should be used in applying this standard.

    1.13 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026, unless superseded by this test method.

    1.13.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.14 UnitsThe dimensional values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard, such as 200-mm or 8-in. diameter sieve. Except, the sieve designations are typically identified using the alternative system in accordance with Practice E 11, such as 3 in. and No. 200, instead of the standard system of 75 mm and 75 µm, respectively. Only the SI units are used for mass determinations, calculations and reported results. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

    1.15 A summary of the symbols used in this test method is given in Annex A1.

    1.16 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 7928 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 698 : 2013-05 TEST METHODS FOR LABORATORY COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL USING STANDARD EFFORT (12400 FT-LBF/FT[3] (600 KN-M/M[3]))
    ASTM D 1140 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 2166/D2166M : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    BS EN ISO 19901-8:2015 Petroleum and natural gas industries. Specific requirements for offshore structures Marine soil investigations
    ASTM D 2850 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3282 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 4221 : 2018 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
    ASTM D 4554 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for In Situ Determination of Direct Shear Strength of Rock Discontinuities
    ASTM D 3282 : 2015 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2166/D2166M : 2016 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 4221 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
    ASTM D 7928 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
    ASTM D 2850 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 3276 : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Painting Inspectors (Metal Substrates)
    ASTM D 4546 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 7608 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Measure Drained Fully Softened Shear Strength and Stress Dependent Strength Envelope of Fine-Grained Soils
    ASTM D 4554 : 2012 Standard Test Method for In Situ Determination of Direct Shear Strength of Rock Discontinuities (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 4972 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4186/D4186M : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
    ASTM D 8249 : 2019 Standard Practice for Use of Rotary Kiln Produced Porous Ceramic as a Mineral Amendment in Topsoil Used for Landscaping and Related Purposes
    ASTM D 8151 : 2019 Standard Practice for Obtaining Rainfall Runoff from Unvegetated Rolled and Hydraulic Erosion Control Products (RECPs and HECPs) for Acute Ecotoxicity Testing
    ASTM D 1140 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ISO 19901-8:2014 Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for offshore structures Part 8: Marine soil investigations
    CSA ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    CSA ISO 19901-8:15 (R2020) Petroleum and natural gas industries — Specific requirements for offshore structures — Part 8: Marine soil investigations (Adopted ISO 19901-8:2014, first edition, 2014-12-01)
    EN ISO 19901-8 : 2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    13/30257183 DC : 0 BS EN ISO 19901-8 - PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
    ASTM D 8106 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Oil Sorption Capacity of Organophilic Clay
    I.S. EN ISO 19901-8:2015 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES - PART 8: MARINE SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (ISO 19901-8:2014)
    ASTM D 6528 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Direct Simple Shear Testing of Fine Grain Soils

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 422 : 1963 : R2002 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
    ASTM E 177 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
    ASTM D 1140 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM C 702 : 1998 Standard Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
    ASTM C 136 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
    ASTM E 11 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
    ASTM D 4753 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
    ASTM D 5519 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Particle Size Analysis of Natural and Man-Made Riprap Materials
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
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