• ASTM D 7743 : 2012

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    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Free Flowing Powders

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-01-2012

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.09, 2015 Specifies the apparatus and procedure needed for determining the minimum fluidization velocity of Geldart Group A powders and the minimum fluidization or complete fluidization velocity of Geldart Group B powders.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This test method describes the apparatus and procedure needed for determining the minimum fluidization velocity of Geldart Group A powders and the minimum fluidization or complete fluidization velocity of Geldart Group B powders.

    1.1.1This test method is for powders that are readily or easily fluidizable and fall into the category of Group A and B of the “Geldart” classification. The fluidization of Geldart Group C powders will be addressed in another standard. This test method could apply to Geldart Group D particles but the focus of this document is towards Group and A and B materials.

    1.1.2Geldart classification of powders is often defined by comparing the Sauter mean particle size with the difference between the particle density and the density of the fluidizing gas, as illustrated in Fig. 1 (1).2

    Geldart Classification of Particles
    FIG. 1Geldart Classification of Particles

    1.1.2.1Group A powders are easily fluidized but there is a difference between the gas velocity where the bed is initially fluidized and the velocity where bubbles are first observed. For Group A powders, bed expansion can be considerable before any bubbles are observed. Group B powders are also easily fluidized; but there is no difference between the velocity where the bed is fluidized and the velocity at the onset of bubbling. The minimum gas velocity, where all of the particles are fully supported by the gas for Group B powders, is often referred to as the “complete fluidization velocity” instead of minimum fluidization velocity. Group C powders are cohesive and can be difficult to fluidize.

    1.1.2.2Group A powders can be distinguished from Group B powders by the response to deaeration. Group A powders deaerate relatively slowly whereas Group B powders deaerate almost instantaneously in fluidized beds.

    1.1.2.3Group A Powders that lie near or on the Group A/C boundary may be tested by this method. However, if the powders do not fluidize freely, test results should be considered invalid.

    1.1.2.4Temperature, moisture (water) content, particle size distribution, particle shape and sometimes other variables influence the Geldart classification of a powder. Deaeration testing specified in 1.1.2.2 is a more definitive test than simply using particle size and density differences as described in 1.1.2.

    Note 1A Standard Practice for deaeration testing is under development.

    1.2This test method should be performed in a laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity.

    1.3All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.3.1The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variations, the purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.4The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3195 : 1990 : R2004 Standard Practice for Rotameter Calibration
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3195 : 1990 : R1998 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Rotameter Calibration
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