• ASTM D 8037/D8037M : 2016

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    Standard Practice for Direct Push Hydraulic Logging for Profiling Variations of Permeability in Soils

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-15-2016

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 04.09, 2016 Specifies a method for rapid delineation of variations in formation permeability in the subsurface using an injection logging tool.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This practice describes a method for rapid delineation of variations in formation permeability in the subsurface using an injection logging tool. Clean water is injected from a port on the side of the probe as it is advanced at approximately 2cm/s into virgin soils. Logging with the injection tool is typically performed with direct push equipment, however other drilling machines may be modified to run the logs by direct push methods (for example, addition of a suitable hammer and/or hydraulic ram systems). Injection logs exceeding 100 ft [30m] depth have been obtained. Direct push methods are not intended to penetrate consolidated rock and may encounter refusal in very dense formations or when cobbles or boulders are encountered in the subsurface. However, injection logging has been performed in some semi-consolidated or soft formations.

    1.2This standard practice describes how to obtain a real time vertical log of injection pressure and flow rate with depth. The data obtained is indicative of the variations of permeability in the subsurface and is typically used to infer formation lithology. The person(s) responsible for review, interpretation and application of the injection logging data should be familiar with the logging technique as well as the soils, geology and hydrogeology of the area under investigation.

    1.3The injection logging system may be operated with a built in electrical conductivity sensor to provide additional real time information on stratigraphy and is essential for targeting test zones. Other sensors, such as fluorescence detectors (Practice D6187), a membrane interface probe (Practice D7352) or a cone penetration tool (Test Method D5778) may be used in conjunction with injection logging to provide additional information. The use of the injection logging tool in concert with an electrical conductivity array or cone penetration tool is highly recommended (although not mandatory) to further define hydrostratigraphic conditions, such as migration pathways, low permeability zones (for example, aquitards) and to guide confirmation sampling. The EC log and injection pressure log may be compared in some settings to identify the presence of ionic contaminants or ionic injectates used for remediation.

    1.4The injection logging system does not provide quantitative permeability or hydraulic conductivity information. However, injection pressure and flow data may be used to provide a qualitative indication of formation permeability. Semi-quantitative values of permeability may be obtained by correlation of injection logging data with other methods (1-4).2 Also, a log of estimated hydraulic conductivity (5) may be calculated for the saturated zone using an empirical model included in some versions of the log viewing software. The data allows for estimates of hydraulic conductivity (K) at the inch-scale using the corrected injection pressure and flow rate.

    1.5This tool is to be used as a logging tool for the rapid delineation of variations in permeability, lithology and hydrostratigraphy in unconsolidated formations. Direct push soil sampling (Guide D6282) and slug testing (Practice D7242) by means of groundwater sampling devices (Guide D6001) or direct push monitoring wells (Guide D6724 and Practice D6725) may be used to validate injection log interpretation, permeability and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Other aquifer tests (Guide D4043) in larger wells can also be used to obtain additional information about permeability and hydraulic conductivity. However, correlation of results from long screened wells with the fine detail of the hydraulic injection log data may be difficult at best due to the effect of scale in measurements of transmissivity (6).

    1.6All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this standard.

    1.7The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.8This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “standard” in the title means that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Standard Practice
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 6067/D6067M : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using the Electronic Piezocone Penetrometer Tests for Environmental Site Characterization and Estimation of Hydraulic Conductivity
    ASTM D 5092/D5092M : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 6187 : 1997 Standard Practice for Cone Penetrometer Technology Characterization of Petroleum Contaminated Sites with Nitrogen Laser-Induced Fluorescence
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 6725 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 2002 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4043 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Selection of Aquifer-Test Method in Determining of Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 5778 : 1995 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 2434 : 2022 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Coarse-Grained Soils
    ASTM D 6282 : 1998 Standard Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
    ASTM D 4043 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6001 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Water Sampling for Geoenvironmental Investigations
    ASTM D 6067 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Using the Electronic Cone Penetrometer for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5778 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 5856 : 1995 : R2007 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5084 : 2003 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6724 : 2004 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 6187 : 1997 : R2003 Standard Practice for Cone Penetrometer Technology Characterization of Petroleum Contaminated Sites with Nitrogen Laser-Induced Fluorescence
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012-06 PRACTICE FOR MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGENCIES ENGAGED IN TESTING AND/OR INSPECTION OF SOIL AND ROCK AS USED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    ASTM D 5856 : 1995 : R2002 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 7352 : 2007 : R2012 Standard Practice for Direct Push Technology for Volatile Contaminant Logging with the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP)
    ASTM D 6001 : 1996 : R2002 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Water Sampling for Geoenvironmental Investigations
    ASTM D 5856 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 : REV A Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 6724 : 2004 : R2010 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Groundwater Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 7352 : 2018 Standard Practice for Volatile Contaminant Logging Using a Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) in Unconsolidated Formations with Direct Push Methods
    ASTM D 5856 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 5778 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 1587 : 2008 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 5088 : 2020 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2434 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 5092 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 5088 : 1990 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites
    ASTM D 7242 : 2006 Standard Practice for Field Pneumatic Slug (Instantaneous Change in Head) Tests to Determine Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers with Direct Push Groundwater Samplers
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2005 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 5856 : 1995 : R2002 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 5778 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 5084 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6725 : 2004 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6067 : 1996 : R2003 Standard Guide for Using the Electronic Cone Penetrometer for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6724 : 2001 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Ground Water Monitoring Wells
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 5092 : 1990 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers
    ASTM D 6187 : 1997 : R2010 Standard Practice for Cone Penetrometer Technology Characterization of Petroleum Contaminated Sites with Nitrogen Laser-Induced Fluorescence (Withdrawn 2019)
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 7352:2007 Standard Practice for Direct Push Technology for Volatile Contaminant Logging with the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP)
    ASTM D 5856 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM D 4043 : 1996 : R2010 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 : R2012 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Groundwater Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6725 : 2001 Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers
    ASTM D 5299 : 1999 Standard Guide for Decommissioning of Ground Water Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices, Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities
    ASTM D 5088 : 2015 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 5088 : 2002 : R2008 Standard Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
    ASTM D 6001 : 2005 : R2012 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (Withdrawn 2015)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2021 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits and Data Records in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6001 : 2005 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 4043 : 1996 : R2004 Standard Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
    ASTM D 2434 : 1968 : R2000 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
    ASTM D 1587 : 2000 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6067 : 2010 Standard Practice for Using the Electronic Piezocone Penetrometer Tests for Environmental Site Characterization
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4043 : 2017 Standard Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
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