• ASTM E 2060 : 2006 : R2014

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    Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  12-01-2014

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 11.05, 2015 Defines methods for selection and application of coal combustion products (CCPs) for use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This guide covers methods for selection and application of coal combustion products (CCPs) for use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but are not limited to, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Chemical stabilization may be accompanied by solidification of the waste treated. Solidification is not a requirement for the stabilization of many trace elements, but does offer advantages in waste handling and in reduced permeability of the stabilized waste.

    1.1.1Solidification is an important factor in treatment of wastes and especially wastewaters. Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) technology is often used to treat wastes containing free liquids. This guide addresses the use of CCPs as a stabilizing agent without the addition of other materials; however, stabilization or chemical fixation may also be achieved by using combinations of CCPs and other products such as lime, lime kiln dust, cement kiln dust, cement, and others. CCPs used alone or in combination with other reagents promote stabilization of many inorganic constituents through a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms include precipitation as carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and so forth; microencapsulation of the waste particles through pozzolanic reactions; formation of metal precipitates; and formation of hydrated phases (1-4).2 Long-term performance of the stabilized waste is an issue that must be addressed in considering any S/S technology. In this guide, several tests are recommended to aid in evaluating the long-term performance of the stabilized wastes.

    1.2The CCPs that are suited to this application include fly ash, spent dry scrubber sorbents, and certain advanced sulfur control by-products from processes such as duct injection and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC).

    1.3The wastes or wastewater, or both, containing the problematic inorganic species will likely be highly variable, so the chemical characteristics of the waste or wastewater to be treated must be determined and considered in the selection and application of any stabilizing agent, including CCPs. In any waste stabilization process, laboratory-scale tests for compatibility between the candidate waste or wastewater for stabilization with one or more selected CCPs and final waste stability are recommended prior to full-scale application of the stabilizing agent.

    1.4This guide does not intend to recommend full-scale processes or procedures for waste stabilization. Full-scale processes should be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals. It is recommended that stabilized materials generated at the full-scale stabilization site be subjected to testing to verify laboratory test results.

    1.5The utilization of CCPs under this guide is a component of a pollution prevention program; Guide E1609 describes pollution prevention activities in more detail. Utilization of CCPs in this manner conserves land, natural resources, and energy.

    1.6This guide applies only to CCPs produced primarily from the combustion of coal. It does not apply to ash or other combustion products derived from the burning of waste; municipal, industrial, or commercial garbage; sewage sludge or other refuse, or both; derived fuels; wood waste products; rice hulls; agricultural waste; or other noncoal fuels.

    1.7Regulations governing the use of CCPs vary by state. The user of this guide has the responsibility to determine and comply with applicable regulations.

    1.8It is recommended that work performed under this guide be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals.

    1.9This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee E 50
    Document Type Guide
    Product Note Reconfirmed 2014
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 75 : 2003 Standard Practice for Sampling Aggregates
    ASTM D 422 : 1963 : R2002 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
    ASTM D 3441 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests of Soil
    ASTM D 2937 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4972 : 1995 : REV A Standard Test Method for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 4842 : 1990 : R2001 Standard Test Method for Determining the Resistance of Solid Wastes to Freezing and Thawing (Withdrawn 2006)
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 4318 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 1556 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 1556 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 3441 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Testing of Soils
    ASTM D 1633 : 2000 : R2007 Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders (Withdrawn 2016)
    ASTM D 5084 : 2003 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 2166 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 1633 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders
    ASTM D 1635 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Soil-Cement Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading
    ASTM D 2922 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 5239 : 1998 Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
    ASTM D 4843 : 1988 : R2009 Standard Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3987 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
    ASTM D 5239 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 3441 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests of Soil (Withdrawn 2014)
    ASTM D 4318 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 2166 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 5239 : 2012 Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
    ASTM D 4972 : 2013 Standard Test Method for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 3877 : 2008 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures (Withdrawn 2017)
    ASTM D 3987 : 1985 : R1999 Standard Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
    ASTM D 2922 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 4843 : 1988 : R2016 Standard Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
    ASTM D 2166 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 2922 : 2001 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 : EDT 2 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4843 : 1988 : R2004 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 4972 : 2001 : R2007 Standard Test Method for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 5084 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 2937 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3877 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures
    ASTM D 2937 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 3987 : 2012 Standard Practice for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 3877 : 1996 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4318 : 2010 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM C 114 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
    ASTM E 1609 : 2001 Standard Guide for Development and Implementation of a Pollution Prevention Program (Withdrawn 2010)
    ASTM D 558 : 2011 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Moisture-Density (Unit Weight) Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures
    ASTM D 2922 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 5239 : 2004 Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
    ASTM D 4843 : 1988 : R2004 Standard Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
    ASTM D 4318 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 1635 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Soil-Cement Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading
    ASTM C 311 : 2011 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4972 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 1633 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders
    ASTM D 4842 : 1990 : R1996 Standard Test Method for Determining the Resistance of Solid Wastes to Freezing and Thawing
    ASTM D 4972 : 2001 Standard Test Method for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 3987 : 1985 : R2004 Standard Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
    ASTM D 4843 : 1988 : R1999 Standard Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
    ASTM D 4972 : 2018 Standard Test Methods for pH of Soils
    ASTM D 2937 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 3987 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
    ASTM C 400 : 1998 Standard Test Methods for Quicklime and Hydrated Lime for Neutralization of Waste Acid
    ASTM E 1609 : 1994 Standard Guide for Development and Implementation of a Pollution Prevention Program
    ASTM D 5084 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 3987 : 2012 : R2020 Standard Practice for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
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