• ASTM E 399 : 2020 : REV A

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    Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-26-2021

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc and optionally KIsi) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater2 subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the annexes. Two procedures are outlined for using the experimental data to calculate fracture toughness values:

    1.1.1The KIc test procedure is described in the main body of this test standard and is a mandatory part of the testing and results reporting procedure for this test method. The KIc test procedure is based on crack growth of up to 2 % percent of the specimen width. This can lead to a specimen size dependent rising fracture toughness resistance curve, with larger specimens producing higher fracture toughness results.

    1.1.2The KIsi test procedure is described in Appendix X1 and is an optional part of this test method. The KIsi test procedure is based on a fixed amount of crack extension of 0.5 mm, and as a result, KIsi is less sensitive to specimen size than KIc. This less size-sensitive fracture toughness, KIsi, is called size-insensitive throughout this test method. Appendix X1 contains an optional procedure for reinterpreting the force-displacement test record recorded as part of this test method to calculate the additional fracture toughness value, KIsi.

    Note 1:Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of materials thinner than 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1).3 There is no standard test method for such thin materials.

    1.2This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for testing and includes specific requirements for the KIc test procedure. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional annexes are provided that give specific procedures for beryllium and rapid-force testing, and the KIsi test procedure, which provides an optional additional analysis procedure for the test data collected as part of the KIc test procedure.

    1.3General information and requirements common to all specimen configurations:

    Section

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

     Stress-Intensity Factor

    3.1.1

     Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness

    3.1.2

     Crack Plane Orientation

    3.1.4

    Summary of Test Method

    4

    Significance and Use

    5

     Significance

    5.1

     Precautions

    5.1.1 – 5.1.5

     Practical Applications

    5.2

    Apparatus (see also 1.4)

    6

     Tension Machine

    6.1

     Fatigue Machine

    6.2

     Loading Fixtures

    6.3

     Displacement Gage, Measurement

    6.4

    Specimen Size, Configurations, and Preparation (see also 1.5)

    7

     Specimen Size Estimates

    7.1

     Standard and Alternative Specimen Configurations

    7.2

     Fatigue Crack Starter Notches

    7.3.1

     Fatigue Precracking (see also 1.6)

    7.3.2

     Crack Extension Beyond Starter Notch

    7.3.2.2

    General Procedure

    8

     Specimen Measurements

      Thickness

    8.2.1

      Width

    8.2.2

      Crack Size

    8.2.3

      Crack Plane Angle

    8.2.4

     Specimen Testing

      Loading Rate

    8.3

      Test Record

    8.4

    Calculation and Interpretation of Results

    9

     Test Record Analysis

    9.1

    Pmax/PQ Validity Requirement

    9.1.3

     Specimen Size Validity Requirements

    9.1.4

    Reporting

    10

    Precision and Bias

    11

    1.4Specific requirements related to test apparatus:

    Double-Cantilever Displacement Gage

    Annex A1

    Testing Fixtures

    Annex A2

    Bend Specimen Loading Fixture

    Annex A2.1

    Compact Specimen Loading Clevis

    Annex A2.2

    1.5Specific requirements related to individual specimen configurations:

    Bend Specimen SE(B)

    Annex A3

    Compact Specimen C(T)

    Annex A4

    Disk-Shaped Compact Specimen DC(T)

    Annex A5

    Arc-Shaped Tension Specimen A(T)

    Annex A6

    Arc-Shaped Bend Specimen A(B)

    Annex A7

    1.6Specific requirements related to special test procedures:

    Fatigue Precracking KIc and KIsi Specimens

    Annex A8

    Hot-Pressed Beryllium Testing

    Annex A9

    Rapid-Force Testing

    Annex A10

    Determination of KIsi

    Appendix X1

    1.7The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.8This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.9This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee E 08
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM F 3184 : 2016 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Stainless Steel Alloy (UNS S31603) with Powder Bed Fusion
    ASTM B 645 : 2021 Standard Practice for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys
    ASTM D 8044 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Cracking Resistance using the Semi-Circular Bend Test (SCB) at Intermediate Temperatures
    ASTM E 740/E740M : 2003 : R2016 Standard Practice for Fracture Testing with Surface-Crack Tension Specimens
    ASTM F 3302 : 2018 Standard for Additive Manufacturing – Finished Part Properties – Standard Specification for Titanium Alloys via Powder Bed Fusion
    ASTM B 909 : 2021 : REV A Standard Guide for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Non-Stress Relieved Aluminum Products
    ASTM E 561 : 2020 Standard Test Method for KR Curve Determination
    ASTM E 1221 : 2012 : REV A : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, KIa, of Ferritic Steels
    ASTM F 3122 : 2014 Standard Guide for Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Metal Materials Made via Additive Manufacturing Processes
    ASTM E 1304 : 1997 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Plane-Strain (Chevron-Notch) Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials
    ASTM F 3056 : 2014 : R2021 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N06625) with Powder Bed Fusion
    ASTM E 604 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Tear Testing of Metallic Materials
    ASTM B 646 : 2019 Standard Practice for Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys
    ASTM D 7779 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Graphite at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM E 1681 : 2003 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Determining Threshold Stress Intensity Factor for Environment-Assisted Cracking of Metallic Materials
    ASTM E 606/E606M : 2021 Standard Test Method for Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing
    ASTM E 2760 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Testing
    ASTM D 5045 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness and Strain Energy Release Rate of Plastic Materials
    ASTM E 2208 : 2002 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Evaluating Non-Contacting Optical Strain Measurement Systems
    ASTM E 1922 : 2004 : R2015 Standard Test Method for Translaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated and Pultruded Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
    ASTM G 58 : 1985 : R2015 Standard Practice for Preparation of Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens for Weldments
    ASTM B 771 : 2011 : R2021 Standard Test Method for Short Rod Fracture Toughness of Cemented Carbides
    ASTM A 504/A504M : 2018 Standard Specification for Wrought Carbon Steel Wheels
    ASTM D 8255 : 2019 Standard Guide for Work of Fracture Measurements on Small Nuclear Graphite Specimens
    ASTM F 1940 : 2007 : REV A : R2019 Standard Test Method for Process Control Verification to Prevent Hydrogen Embrittlement in Plated or Coated Fasteners
    ASTM E 2472 : 2012 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Resistance to Stable Crack Extension under Low-Constraint Conditions
    ASTM G 168 : 2017 Standard Practice for Making and Using Precracked Double Beam Stress Corrosion Specimens
    ASTM G 107 : 1995 : R2020 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Formats for Collection and Compilation of Corrosion Data for Metals for Computerized Database Input
    ASTM F 1624 : 2012 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique
    ASTM E 1820 : 2020 : REV B Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
    ASTM G 129 : 2021 Standard Practice for Slow Strain Rate Testing to Evaluate the Susceptibility of Metallic Materials to Environmentally Assisted Cracking
    ASTM A 788/A788M : 2019 : REV A Standard Specification for Steel Forgings, General Requirements
    ASTM D 3433 : 1999 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Fracture Strength in Cleavage of Adhesives in Bonded Metal Joints
    ASTM D 7313 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining Fracture Energy of Asphalt Mixtures Using the Disk-Shaped Compact Tension Geometry
    ASTM E 1457 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Creep Crack Growth Times in Metals
    ASTM F 3213 : 2017 Standard for Additive Manufacturing – Finished Part Properties – Standard Specification for Cobalt-28 Chromium-6 Molybdenum via Powder Bed Fusion
    ASTM F 3318 : 2018 Standard for Additive Manufacturing – Finished Part Properties – Specification for AlSi10Mg with Powder Bed Fusion – Laser Beam
    ASTM C 1576 : 2005 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Ambient Temperature
    ASTM D 6068 : 2010 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Determining J-R Curves of Plastic Materials
    ASTM C 1834 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Elevated Temperatures
    ASTM E 647 : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates
    ASTM E 636 : 2020 Standard Guide for Conducting Supplemental Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels
    ASTM E 2899 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Initiation Toughness in Surface Cracks Under Tension and Bending
    ASTM F 3055 : 2014 : REV A : R2021 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N07718) with Powder Bed Fusion
    ASTM F 2924 : 2014 : R2021 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM B 909 : 2017 Standard Guide for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Non-Stress Relieved Aluminum Products
    ASTM E 177 : 1990 : REV A : R1996 Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
    ASTM E 647 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates
    ASTM E 8/E8M : 2016 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
    ASTM E 1820 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
    ASTM E 456 : 2002 Standard Terminology for Relating to Quality and Statistics
    ASTM E 8/E8M : 2021 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
    ASTM E 456 : 2013 : REV A : R2022 Standard Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
    ASTM B 909 : 2021 : REV A Standard Guide for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Non-Stress Relieved Aluminum Products
    ASTM E 691 : 2020 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM E 456 : 2013 : REV A : R2017 : EDT 5 Standard Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
    ASTM E 1921 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T0, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
    ASTM E 691 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM E 1921 : 2019 : REV B Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, To, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
    ASTM E 1823 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
    ASTM B 645 : 2010 : R2015 Standard Practice for Linear-Elastic Plane–Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys
    ASTM E 691 : 2009 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM E 1820 : 2020 : REV B Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
    ASTM E 1921 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, To, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
    ASTM E 4 : 2021 Standard Practices for Force Calibration and Verification of Testing Machines
    ASTM E 691 : 2021 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM B 645 : 1998 Standard Practice for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys
    ASTM B 909 : 2021 Standard Guide for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Non-Stress Relieved Aluminum Products
    ASTM E 1921 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, To, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
    ASTM E 1921 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, To, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
    ASTM B 645 : 2021 Standard Practice for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys
    ASTM E 456 : 2013 : REV A : R2017 : EDT 4 Standard Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
    ASTM E 456 : 2013 : REV A : R2017 : EDT 6 Standard Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
    ASTM E 1823 : 2020 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
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