We noticed you’re not on the correct regional site. Switch to our AMERICAS site for the best experience.
  • AS/NZS 2211.1:1997

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
    Add to Watchlist
    This Standard has been added successfully to your Watchlist
    Please visit My Watchlist to see all standards that you are watching.
    Please log in or to add this standard to your Watchlist.
    We could not add this standard to your Watchlist.
    Please retry or contact support for assistance.
    We could not add this standard to your Watchlist.
    Please retry or contact support for assistance.
    You have already added this standard to your Watchlist.
    Visit My Watchlist to view the full list.

    Laser safety Equipment classification, requirements and user’s guide

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-03-1997

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

    Add to Watchlist

    Add To Cart

    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 2211.1:1997 LASER SAFETY - EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION, REQUIREMENTS AND USER'S GUIDE
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    8 - FOREWORD - USER'S GUIDE-FLOW CHART
    9 - SECTION 1 GENERAL
    9 - 1 SCOPE AND OBJECT
    9 - 1.1 Scope
    10 - 1.2 Object
    10 - 1.2.1 Classification
    10 - 1.2.2 Precaution
    10 - 1.2.3 Warning
    10 - 1.2.4 Injury reduction
    10 - 1.2.5 Protection
    10 - 2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    11 - 3 DEFINITIONS
    11 - 3.1 Access panel
    11 - 3.2 Accessible emission limit (AEL)
    11 - 3.3 Administrative control
    11 - 3.4 Alignment laser product
    11 - 3.5 Alpha min.
    12 - 3.6 Angular subtense
    12 - 3.7 Aperture, aperture stop
    12 - 3.8 Apparent source
    12 - 3.9 Beam attenuator
    12 - 3.10 Beam diameter
    12 - 3.11 Beam divergence
    12 - 3.12 Beam expander
    12 - 3.13 Beam path component
    12 - 3.14 Beam stop
    12 - 3.15 Class 1 laser product
    12 - 3.16 Class 2 laser product
    13 - 3.17 Class 3A, Class 3B and Class 3B (Restricted) laser products
    13 - 3.17.1 Class 3A and Class 3B laser products
    13 - 3.17.2 Class 3B (Restricted) laser product
    13 - 3.18 Class 4 laser product
    13 - 3.19 Collateral radiation
    13 - 3.20 Collimated beam
    13 - 3.21 Continuous wave (CW)
    13 - 3.22 Defined beam path
    13 - 3.23 Demonstration laser product
    13 - 3.24 Diffuse reflection
    13 - 3.25 Embedded laser product
    13 - 3.26 Emission duration
    13 - 3.27 Errant laser radiation
    14 - 3.28 Exposure time
    14 - 3.29 Extended source viewing
    14 - 3.30 Failure to safety
    14 - 3.31 Failure to safety interlock
    14 - 3.32 Human access
    14 - 3.33 Integrated radiance
    14 - 3.34 Intrabeam viewing
    14 - 3.35 Irradiance
    14 - 3.36 Laser
    14 - 3.37 Laser controlled area
    15 - 3.38 Laser energy source
    15 - 3.39 Laser hazard area
    15 - 3.40 Laser fibre optic transmission system
    15 - 3.41 Laser product
    15 - 3.42 Laser radiation
    15 - 3.43 Laser safety officer
    15 - 3.44 Laser system
    15 - 3.45 Levelling laser product
    15 - 3.46 Light emitting diode (LED)
    15 - 3.47 Limiting aperture
    15 - 3.48 Maintenance
    15 - 3.49 Maximum angular subtense
    15 - 3.50 Maximum output
    15 - 3.51 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE)
    15 - 3.52 Medical laser product
    16 - 3.53 Minimum angular subtense
    16 - 3.54 Mode-locking
    16 - 3.55 Nominal ocular hazard area (NOHA)
    16 - 3.56 Nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD)
    16 - 3.57 Operation
    16 - 3.58 Protective enclosure
    16 - 3.59 Protective housing
    16 - 3.60 Pulse duration
    16 - 3.61 Pulsed laser
    16 - 3.62 Radiance
    16 - 3.63 Radiant energy
    17 - 3.64 Radiant exposure
    17 - 3.65 Radiant power; radiant flux
    17 - 3.66 Reflectance
    17 - 3.67 Remote interlock connector
    17 - 3.68 Safety interlock
    17 - 3.69 Scanning laser radiation
    17 - 3.70 Service
    17 - 3.71 Service connection
    17 - 3.72 Service panel
    17 - 3.73 Single element failure (single fault condition)
    17 - 3.74 Specular reflection
    17 - 3.75 Surveying laser product
    17 - 3.76 Tool
    17 - 3.77 Transmittance
    17 - 3.78 Transmittance (optical) density
    18 - 3.79 Visible radiation (light)
    18 - 3.80 Workpiece
    18 - 3.81 Accessible emission level
    18 - 3.82 Alpha max
    18 - 3.83 Attenuation
    18 - 3.84 Infrared radiation
    18 - 3.85 Laser worker
    18 - 3.86 Manufacturer
    18 - 3.87 Mode field diameter (MFD)
    18 - 3.88 Optical fibre
    18 - 3.89 Optical fibre system
    18 - 3.90 Repetitively pulsed laser
    18 - 3.91 Scintillation
    18 - 3.92 Shall
    18 - 3.93 Should
    18 - 3.94 Ultraviolet radiation
    19 - SECTION 2 MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS
    19 - 4 ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS
    19 - 4.1 General remarks
    19 - 4.1.1 Modification
    19 - 4.2 Protective housing
    19 - 4.2.1 General
    19 - 4.2.2 Service
    19 - 4.2.3 Removable laser system
    19 - 4.3 Access panels and safety interlocks
    19 - 4.3.1 Safety interlocks
    20 - 4.3.2 Override mechanisms
    20 - 4.4 Remote interlock connector
    20 - 4.5 Key control
    20 - 4.6 Laser radiation emission warning
    20 - 4.6.1 Warning devices
    21 - 4.6.2 Warning device distances
    21 - 4.6.3 Aperture indication
    21 - 4.7 Beam stop or attenuator
    21 - 4.8 Controls
    21 - 4.9 Viewing optics
    21 - 4.10 Scanning safeguard
    21 - 4.11 Alignment aids
    21 - 4.12 ` Walk-in' access
    22 - 4.13 Environmental conditions
    22 - 4.14 Protection against other hazards
    22 - 4.14.1 Non-optical hazards
    22 - 4.14.2 Collateral radiation
    22 - 5 LABELLING
    22 - 5.1 General
    22 - 5.2 Class 1
    22 - 5.3 Class 2
    23 - 5.4 Class 3A
    23 - 5.5 Class 3B
    23 - 5.6 Class 4
    23 - 5.7 Aperture label
    23 - 5.8 Radiation output and Standards information
    26 - 5.9 Labels for access panels
    26 - 5.9.1 Labels for panels
    26 - 5.9.2 Labels for safety interlocked panels
    26 - 5.10 Warning for invisible laser radiation
    26 - 5.11 Warning for visible laser radiation
    26 - 5.12 Warning for LED radiation
    26 - 6 OTHER INFORMATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    26 - 6.1 Information for the user
    27 - 6.2 Purchasing and servicing information
    33 - 7 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC LASER PRODUCTS
    33 - 7.1 Medical laser products
    39 - 7.2 Laser fibre optic transmission system
    39 - 8 TESTS
    39 - 8.1 General
    39 - 8.2 Measurements of laser radiation for determining classification
    42 - 9 CLASSIFICATION
    42 - 9.1 Introduction
    42 - 9.2 Description of laser class
    42 - 9.3 Classification procedures
    43 - 9.4 Repetitively pulsed or modulated lasers
    44 - 9.5 Short emission durations
    45 - SECTION 3 USER' S GUIDE
    45 - 10 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
    45 - 10.1 Primary hazards
    45 - 10.2 Hazards incidental to laser operation
    45 - 10.2.1 General
    45 - 10.2.2 Atmospheric contamination
    45 - 10.2.3 Collateral radiation hazards
    46 - 10.3 Electrical hazards
    46 - 10.4 Cryogenic coolants
    46 - 10.5 Materials processing
    46 - 10.6 Other hazards
    46 - 10.7 Optical fibre systems
    46 - 10.8 Additional hazards from optical fibres
    47 - 11 HAZARD EVALUATION AND CONTROL MEASURES
    47 - 11.1 Risk assessment
    47 - 11.2 Hierarchy of control measures
    48 - 11.3 Personal protection
    48 - 11.4 Outdoor laser installations
    48 - 11.4.1 Class 2 laser products
    48 - 11.4.2 Class 3A laser products
    49 - 11.4.3 Class 3BR laser products
    49 - 11.4.4 Class 3B and Class 4 laser products
    49 - 11.4.5 Lasers for surveying, alignment, and levelling
    49 - 11.4.6 NOHD for Class 3B and Class 4 lasers used outdoors
    50 - 11.5 Laser demonstrations, displays andexhibitions
    50 - 11.6 Laboratory and workshop laser installations
    50 - 11.6.1 Class 2 and Class 3A laser products
    50 - 11.6.2 Class 3B laser products
    50 - 11.6.3 Class 4 laser products
    51 - 12 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
    51 - 12.1 General
    51 - 12.2 Use of remote interlock connector
    52 - 12.3 Key control
    52 - 12.4 Beam stop or attenuator
    52 - 12.5 Warning signs
    52 - 12.6 Beam paths
    52 - 12.7 Specular reflections
    52 - 12.8 Eye protection
    52 - 12.8.1 General
    53 - 12.8.2 Identification of eyewear
    53 - 12.8.3 Required optical density
    53 - 12.8.4 Protective eyewear
    53 - 12.9 Optical fibre systems-Inspection
    53 - 12.10 Optical fibre systems-Safe viewing procedures
    54 - 12.11 Optical fibre systems-Fibre preparation
    54 - 12.12 Protective clothing
    54 - 12.13 Training
    54 - 12.14 Medical surveillance
    54 - 12.14.1 General
    55 - 12.14.2 Eye examination of laser workers at commencement and termination of employment
    56 - 12.14.3 Examination for possible injurious exposure from lasers
    56 - 13 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURES
    56 - 13.1 General remarks
    57 - 13.2 Limiting apertures
    57 - 13.3 Repetitively pulsed or modulated lasers
    58 - 13.3.1 Short emission durations
    58 - 13.4 Measurement conditions
    58 - 13.4.1 General
    58 - 13.4.2 Minimum measurement distance
    58 - 13.4.3 Apparent sources
    58 - 13.5 Extended source lasers
    66 - APPENDIX A - EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS
    68 - A1 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - INTRODUCTION
    68 - A2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - INTRABEAM VIEWING
    72 - A3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURES (MPE) - DIFFUSE REFLECTIONS AND EXTENDED SOURCES
    74 - A4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - REPETITIVELY PULSED SYSTEMS
    76 - A5 NOMINAL OCULAR HAZARD DISTANCE (NOHD)
    86 - A6 ACCESSIBLE EMISSION LIMITS FOR DIVERGING BEAM, POINT-TYPE SOURCES
    92 - APPENDIX B - MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    92 - B1 ANATOMY OF THE EYE
    92 - B2 THE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON BIOLOGICAL TISSUE
    92 - B2.1 General
    96 - B2.2 Hazards to the eye
    99 - B2.3 Skin hazards
    101 - APPENDIX C - BIBLIOGRAPHY
    103 - APPENDIX D - SUMMARY TABLES
    108 - APPENDIX E - HIGH POWER LASER CONSIDERATIONS PARTICULARLY APPROPRIATE TO MATERIALS PROCESSING LASER PRODUCTS
    108 - E1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    108 - E2 ERRANT LASER RADIATION
    108 - E2.1 Fault conditions
    109 - E2.2 Engineering features
    109 - E2.3 Additional instructions
    109 - E3 DESIGN OF PROTECTIVE HOUSINGS
    109 - E3.1 Protective housing
    109 - E3.2 Passive guards
    110 - E3.3 Active guards
    110 - E4 BEAM STOP
    110 - E5 OTHER CONDITIONS
    110 - E5.1 Laser exposure of housing and components
    110 - E5.2 Associated hazards
    111 - APPENDIX F - EYE EXAMINATION AT COMMENCEMENT AND TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF LASER WORKERS USING CLASS 3B OR CLASS 4 LASERS
    113 - APPENDIX G - RELATED STANDARDS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements and procedures designed to protect persons from laser radiation. Intended for application both by users and manufacturers of laser products. It specifies safe working levels of optical radiation, classifies lasers according to their degree of hazard and sets out detailed protective and control measures appropriate to each class. A statement on the effect of laser radiation on biological tissues is given in an Appendix, and other appendices cover maximum permissible exposures, calculations, a medical surveillance chart, and the design of warning labels and signs. It is based on, but not equivalent to IEC 825-1:1993.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard is applicable to safety of laser products. For convenience it is divided into three separate sections: Section One (General) and the Appendices; Section Two (Manufacturing requirements); and Section Three (User's guide).A laser product may consist of a single laser with or without a separate power supply or may incorporate one or more lasers in a complex optical, electrical, or mechanical system. Typically, laser products are used for the demonstration of physical and optical phenomena; materials processing; data reading and storage; the transmission and display of information and such like. Such systems have found use in industry, business, entertainment, research, education and medicine. However, laser products which are sold to other manufacturers for use as components of any system for subsequent sale are not subject to this Standard, since the final product will itself be subject to it.Throughout this Standard, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are included whenever the word 'laser' is used.Any laser product or LED product is exempt from all further manufacturer requirements of this Standard if -(a) classification by the manufacturer according to Clauses 3, 8 and 9 shows that the emission level does not exceed the AEL of Class 1 under all conditions of operation, maintenance, service and failure; and(b) it does not contain an embedded laser or embedded LED.In addition to the hazards resulting from laser radiation, laser equipment may also give rise to other hazards such as fire and electric shock.This Standard describes the minimum requirements.Where a laser system forms a part of equipment which is subject to another Australian/ New Zealand or IEC Standard for safety (e.g. for medical equipment (AS/NZS 3200.2.22), IT equipment (AS/NZS 3260), audio and video equipment (AS 3250) and equipment for use in hazardous atmospheres), this Standard will apply in accordance with the provisions of IEC Guide 104* for hazards resulting from laser radiation. However, if the laser system is operable when removed from the equipment, the requirements of this Standard will apply to the removed unit.The requirements for electrical safety are not covered in this Standard. Such requirements are detailed in AS 3100 and NZS 6200.If no product safety Standard is applicable, then IEC 1010-1 shall apply.The MPE (maximum permissible exposure) values of this Standard were developed for laser radiation rather than for collateral radiation.However, if a concern exists that accessible collateral radiation might be hazardous, the laser MPE values may be applied to conservatively evaluate this risk.The MPE values shall not be applicable to patient exposure to laser radiation for the purpose of medical treatment.NOTE: Appendices A to D have been included for purposes of general guidance and to illustrate many typical cases. However, the Appendices must not be regarded as definitive or exhaustive and reference should always be made to the appropriate clause(s) in Sections One to Three.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee SF-019
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Under Revision see DR 03081 CP First published as AS 2211-1978.
    Second edition 1981.
    Third edition 1991.
    Jointly revised and redesignated AS/NZS 2211.1:1997. First published as AS 2211-1978. Second edition 1981. Third edition 1991. Jointly revised and redesignated AS/NZS 2211.1:1997.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1046.1-1978 Letter symbols for use in electrotechnology General
    AS 1000-1979 The International System of Units (SI) and its application
    AS/NZS 3260:1993 Approval and test specification - Safety of information technology equipment including electrical business equipment
    AS 3100-1990 Approval and test specification - General requirements for electrical equipment
    AS/NZS 3250:1995 Approval and test specification - Mains operated electronic and related equipment for household and similar general use
    AS/NZS 2211.2:1997 Laser safety Safety of optical fibre communication systems
    AS 2397-1993 Safe use of lasers in the building and construction industry
    AS/NZS 4173:1994 Guide to the safe use of lasers in health care
    AS/NZS 3200.2.22:1997 Approval and test specification - Medical electrical equipment Particular requirements for safety - Diagnostic and therapeutic laser equipment

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 4802.3:1999 Information processing systems - Local area networks Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access method and physical layer specifications
    AS 1473.1-2000 Woodprocessing machinery - Primary timber milling machinery
    AS/NZS 1067:2003 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles
    AS 61010.1-2003 Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use - General requirements (IEC 61010-1:2001, MOD)
    AS/NZS 3200.2.40:1999 Medical electrical equipment Particular requirements for safety - Electromyographs and evoked response equipment
    AS/NZS 2211.2:1997 Laser safety Safety of optical fibre communication systems
    HB 29-1998 Telecommunications cabling handbook
    AS/NZS 2243.5:2004 Safety in laboratories Non-ionizing radiations - Electromagnetic, sound and ultrasound
    AS 4691.1-2003 Laser-based speed detection devices Definitions and device requirements
    AS/NZS 2211.1 SUPP 1-1999 Laser safety - Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide - Application guidelines and explanatory notes (Supplement to AS/NZS 2211.1:1997)
    HB 29-2000 Communications Cabling Manual, Module 2: Communications Cabling Handbook
    • Access your standards online with a subscription

      Features

      • Simple online access to standards, technical information and regulations
      • Critical updates of standards and customisable alerts and notifications
      • Multi - user online standards collection: secure, flexibile and cost effective