• AS 4198-1994

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Precast concrete access chambers for sewerage applications

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  03-17-2022

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1994

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 4198:1994 PRECAST CONCRETE ACCESS CHAMBERS FOR SEWERAGE APPLICATIONS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 - SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    7 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.3.1 Access chamber
    8 - 1.3.2 Access cover
    8 - 1.3.3 Access cover clear opening
    8 - 1.3.4 Batch
    8 - 1.3.5 Conversion slab
    8 - 1.3.6 Frame
    8 - 1.3.7 Ladder
    8 - 1.3.8 Major top component
    8 - 1.3.9 Make-up ring
    8 - 1.3.10 Nominal size
    8 - 1.3.11 Precast base
    8 - 1.3.12 Shaft section
    8 - 1.3.13 Squat cone
    9 - 1.3.14 Step-down
    9 - 1.3.15 Step irons
    9 - 1.3.16 Step-up
    9 - 1.3.17 Straight-back taper
    9 - 1.4 MARKING
    10 - SECTION 2 - MATERIALS
    10 - 2.1 CONCRETE MATERIALS
    10 - 2.1.1 Cement
    10 - 2.1.2 Supplementary cementitious materials
    10 - 2.1.3 Aggregates
    10 - 2.1.4 Water
    10 - 2.1.5 Admixtures
    10 - 2.1.6 Restriction on chemical content
    10 - 2.2 REINFORCEMENT
    10 - 2.3 JOINT MATERIALS
    11 - SECTION 3 - DETAILS , WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
    11 - 3.1 DETAILS
    11 - 3.1.1 General
    11 - 3.1.2 Classification
    11 - 3.1.3 Access limitation
    11 - 3.2 DIMENSIONS
    11 - 3.2.1 General
    11 - 3.2.2 Internal diameter of shafts
    11 - 3.2.3 Access cover clear opening
    11 - 3.3 MEASUREMENT OF DIMENSIONS
    11 - 3.3.1 Internal diameter of shaft
    14 - 3.3.2 Wall thickness
    14 - 3.3.3 Effective height
    14 - 3.3.4 Access cover thickness
    14 - 3.4 TOLERANCES
    14 - 3.5 STRAIGHTNESS
    14 - 3.6 SQUARENESS OF ENDS
    15 - 3.7 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
    15 - 3.7.1 Joints
    15 - 3.7.2 Reinforcement
    15 - 3.7.2.1 General
    15 - 3.7.2.2 Fabrication
    15 - 3.7.2.3 Splicing
    15 - 3.7.3 Cover
    15 - 3.7.4 Unreinforced access chamber components
    15 - 3.7.5 Classification of defects
    15 - 3.7.5.1 Reinforced components
    16 - 3.7.5.2 Defect types
    16 - 3.7.5.3 Acceptability of defects
    16 - 3.7.5.4 Unreinforced components
    17 - 3.7.5.5 Finishing and repairs
    17 - 3.8 HANDLING AND STORAGE
    17 - 3.8.1 General
    17 - 3.8.2 Lifting elements
    18 - SECTION 4 - STEP IRONS AND LADDERS
    18 - 4.1 STEP IRONS
    18 - 4.2 FIXED LADDERS
    18 - 4.3 PERFORMANCE TESTING OF STEP IRONS AND LADDERS
    18 - 4.4 MATERIALS
    18 - 4.5 STEP-UP AND STEP-DOWN LIMITATIONS
    18 - 4.5.1 Step-up
    18 - 4.5.2 Step-down
    20 - SECTION 5 - ACCESS COVERS AND FRAMES
    20 - 5.1 GENERAL
    20 - 5.1.1 Classification
    20 - 5.1.2 Lifting keyholes
    20 - 5.2 SURFACE TOLERANCE AND CLEARANCE
    20 - 5.2.1 Surface tolerance
    20 - 5.2.2 Clearance gaps
    20 - 5.3 SURFACE FINISH
    22 - SECTION 6 - SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ACCESS CHAMBER COMPONENTS
    22 - 6.1 GENERAL
    22 - 6.1.1 Facilities for sampling and testing
    22 - 6.1.2 Testing procedures
    22 - 6.1.3 Required tests
    22 - 6.2 TYPE TESTING
    22 - 6.2.1 General
    22 - 6.2.2 Manufacture
    22 - 6.2.3 Test specimens
    22 - 6.2.4 Type test requirements
    22 - 6.2.4.1 Ultimate load
    22 - 6.2.4.2 Proof load
    24 - 6.2.4.3 Cover
    24 - 6.2.4.4 Water absorption
    24 - 6.2.4.5 Hydrostatic testing of shafts
    24 - 6.2.4.6 Hydrostatic testing of joints
    24 - 6.2.4.7 Dimensional accuracy
    24 - 6.2.4.8 Step iron and ladder requirements
    24 - 6.3 ROUTINE TESTING REQUIREMENTS
    24 - 6.3.1 General
    24 - 6.3.2 Sampling
    24 - 6.3.3 Testing
    25 - APPENDIX A - MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD
    25 - A1 SCOPE
    25 - A2 STATISTICAL SAMPLING
    25 - A3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
    25 - A4 SUPPLIER’S QUALITY SYSTEM
    26 - A5 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT
    26 - A5.1 General
    26 - A5.2 Proof load testing
    26 - A5.3 Cover testing
    26 - A5.4 Water absorption testing
    26 - A5.5 Hydrostatic test of shaft
    26 - A5.6 Hydrostatic test of joint
    27 - A5.7 Dimensional accuracy
    27 - A5.8 Step irons and ladders
    28 - APPENDIX B - INFORMATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN MANUFACTURER AND PURCHASER
    28 - B1 GENERAL
    28 - B2 INFORMATIONTO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    28 - B3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER
    30 - APPENDIX C - METHODS FOR LOAD TESTING OF ACCESS CHAMBER COMPONENTS
    30 - C1 SCOPE
    30 - C2 APPLICATION
    30 - C3 APPARATUS
    30 - C3.1 Timber bearing blocks
    30 - C3.2 Standard feeler gauges
    30 - C3.3 Load testing equipment
    30 - C4 CONDITION OF TEST SPECIMENS
    30 - C5 POSITIONING OF TEST SPECIMENS
    30 - C5.1 General
    30 - C5.2 Access covers and frames
    30 - C5.3 Squat cones, straight- back tapers and conversion slabs
    30 - C5.4 Shaft sections and precast bases
    31 - C5.5 Positioning of bearer blocks
    31 - C6 PROCEDURE
    31 - C6.1 Application of test loads
    31 - C6.2 Proof load test
    31 - C6.3 Ultimate load test
    31 - C7 SELECTION AND MEASUREMENT OF CRACK WIDTH
    31 - C8 REPORT
    37 - APPENDIX D - METHOD FOR COVER TESTING OF REINFORCED PRECAST CONCRETE ACCESS CHAMBER COMPONENTS
    37 - D1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    37 - D2 PRINCIPLE
    37 - D3 APPARATUS
    37 - D3.1 Cutting tools
    37 - D3.2 Cover meter
    37 - D4 CONDITION OF SAMPLE COMPONENT
    37 - D5 TEST PROCEDURE
    37 - D5.1 Direct method
    37 - D5.1.1 Location of chases
    37 - D5.1.2 Procedure
    37 - D5.2 Indirect method
    37 - D5.2.1 Calibration of meter
    38 - D5.2.2 Procedure
    38 - D6 RECORDS
    38 - D6.1 General
    38 - D6.2 Records
    39 - APPENDIX E - METHOD FOR WATER ABSORPTION TESTING
    39 - E1 SCOPE
    39 - E2 PRINCIPLE
    39 - E3 APPARATUS
    39 - E3.1 Drying oven
    39 - E3.2 Balance
    39 - E3.3 Desiccator
    39 - E3.4 Urn
    39 - E3.5 Ancillary items
    39 - E4 CONDITION OF SAMPLE COMPONENTS
    39 - E5 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN
    39 - E6 TEST PROCEDURES
    39 - E6.1 General
    40 - E6.2 Procedures
    40 - E6.2.1 Determination of dry mass
    40 - E6.2.2 Immersion procedure
    40 - E6.2.3 Determination of saturated surface-dry mass
    40 - E7 CALCULATIONS
    40 - E8 RECORDS AND REPORTS
    40 - E8.1 General
    40 - E8.2 Records
    42 - APPENDIX F - METHOD FOR HYDROSTATIC TESTING OF A SHAFT SECTION
    42 - F1 SCOPE
    42 - F2 APPARATUS
    42 - F2.1 Pressurizing equipment
    42 - F2.2 End caps
    42 - F2.3 Pressure indicator
    42 - F3 SAMPLE PREPARATION
    42 - F3.1 General
    42 - F3.2 Positioning of shaft and end caps
    42 - F3.3 Preparations for testing
    42 - F4 TEST PROCEDURE
    42 - F4.1
    43 - F4.2 Failure of shaft section
    43 - F5 RECORDS
    45 - APPENDIX G - METHOD FOR HYDROSTATIC TESTING OF A JOINT ASSEMBLY
    45 - G1 SCOPE
    45 - G2 PRINCIPLE
    45 - G3 APPARATUS
    45 - G3.1 A hydrostatic steel test band
    45 - G3.2 Pressurizing equipment
    45 - G3.3 Pressure indicator
    45 - G4 ASSEMBLY
    45 - G5 PROCEDURE
    45 - G6 REPORT
    47 - APPENDIX H - METHOD FOR LOAD TESTING OF STEP IRONS AND LADDERS
    47 - H1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    47 - H2 PRINCIPLE
    47 - H3 APPARATUS
    47 - H4 PROCEDURE
    47 - H5 RECORDS FOR EACH TEST STEP
    48 - APPENDIX I - GUIDE TO CONCENTRATION LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SOME CONSTITUENTS OF THE BURIED ENVIRONMENT
    48 - I1 SCOPE
    48 - I2 CONCENTRATION GUIDE

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies the requirements of precast concrete access chambers (PCAC), and the minimum requirements for the materials to be used in, and the manufacture of, controlled quality PCAC components and includes descriptions of methods of sampling and testing of components. The Standard applies to PCAC components manufactured from reinforced or unreinforced concrete that are intended for use with buried sewer pipes to a depth of 6 m and for pipes not greater than 300 mm in diameter. While the Standard is limited to sewerage applications, reference may be made for drainage applications. Recommended installation procedures are not covered by this Standard.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard describes the requirements of precast concrete access chambers and the minimum requirements for the materials to be used in, and the manufacture of, controlled quality precast concrete access chamber (PCAC) components. It also describes methods of sampling and testing of components manufactured in accordance with this Standard.This Standard applies to precast concrete access chamber components manufactured from steel reinforced or unreinforced concrete that are intended for use with buried sewerage systems to a depth of 6 m and for sewer pipes not greater than 300 mm diameter.NOTES:1 Advisory information on means for demonstrating compliance with this Standard is given in Appendix A.2 Guidance on the information to be supplied between purchaser and supplier at the time of enquiry or order is given in Appendix B.3 For sewer pipes greater than 300 mm diameter and shafts deeper than 6 m, agreement may be made between the manufacturer/regulatory authority/purchaser.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WS-006
    Development Note Under Revision by DR AS 4198:2021.
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 4198-1994.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1304-1991 Welded wire reinforcing fabric for concrete
    AS 1303-1991 Steel reinforcing wire for concrete
    AS 3735-1991 Concrete structures for retaining liquids
    AS 1646-1992 Elastomeric seals for waterworks purposes
    AS 3900.1-1987 Quality management and quality assurance Standards Guidelines for selection and use
    AS 1379-2007 Specification and supply of concrete (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS 3996-1992 Metal access covers, road grates and frames
    AS 3582.2-2001 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Slag - Ground granulated iron blast-furnace
    AS 1650-1989 Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on ferrous articles
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    HB 18.44-1991 Guidelines for third-party certification and accreditation - Guide 44: General rules for ISO or IEC international third-party certification schemes for products
    AS 1726-1993 Geotechnical site investigations
    AS 1399-1990 Guide to AS 1199 - Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    AS 1199-1988 Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
    AS 2758.1-1998 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Concrete aggregates
    AS/NZS 3582.3:2002 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Amorphous silica
    AS/NZS 3500.0:2003 Plumbing and drainage Glossary of terms
    AS 3500.0-1990 National Plumbing and Drainage Code - Glossary of terms
    AS 3904.1-1987 Quality management and quality system elements Guidelines
    AS 1657-1992 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation
    AS 1646-2007 Elastomeric seals for waterworks purposes (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1597.1-1974 Precast reinforced concrete box culverts Small culverts (not exceeding 1200 mm width and 900 mm depth)
    AS 3582.1-1998 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Fly ash
    AS 1302-1991 Steel reinforcing bars for concrete
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    AS 1478-1992 Chemical admixtures for concrete
    AS 3735-2001 Concrete structures for retaining liquids
    AS 3996-2006 Access covers and grates

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 3500.3:2003 Plumbing and drainage Stormwater drainage
    AS/NZS 3500.3:2018 Plumbing and drainage Stormwater drainage
    AS/NZS 3500.3:2015 Plumbing and drainage Stormwater drainage
    AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998 National plumbing and drainage Stormwater drainage - Acceptable solutions
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