• ASTM D 7698 : 2011 : REV A

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Method for In-Place Estimation of Density and Water Content of Soil and Aggregate by Correlation with Complex Impedance Method

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  06-25-2020

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-01-2011

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1 Purpose and Application

    1.1.1 This test method describes the procedure, equipment, and interpretation methods for estimating in-place soil dry density and water content using a Complex-Impedance Measuring Instrument (CIMI).

    1.1.2 CIMI measurements as described in this Standard Test Method are applicable to measurements of compacted soils intended for roads and foundations.

    1.1.3 This test method describes the procedure for estimating in-place density and water content of soils and soil-aggregates by use of a CIMI. The electrical properties of soil are measured using a radio frequency voltage applied to soil electrical probes driven into the soils and soil-aggregates to be tested, in a prescribed pattern and depth. Certain algorithms of these properties are related to wet density and water content. This correlation between electrical measurements, and density and water content is accomplished using a calibration methodology. In the calibration methodology, density and water content are determined by other ASTM Test Standards that measure soil density and water content, thereafter correlating the corresponding measured electrical properties to the soil physical properties.

    1.1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are mathematical conversions which are provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard.

    1.1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026 unless superseded by this standard.

    1.2 Generalized Theory

    1.2.1 Two key electrical properties of soil are conductivity and relative dielectric permittivity which are manifested as a value of complex-impedance that can be determined.

    1.2.2 The soil conductivity contributes primarily to the real component of the complex-impedance, and the soil relative dielectric permittivity contributes primarily to the imaginary component of the complex-impedance.

    1.2.3 The complex-impedance of soil can be determined by placing two electrodes in the soil to be tested at a known distance apart and a known depth. The application of a known frequency of alternating current to the electrodes enables a measurement of current through the soil, voltage across the electrodes, and the electrical phase difference between the voltage and current waves. Complex-impedance is calculated from these known and measured parameters.

    1.2.4 From the determined complex-impedance, an electrical network consisting of a resistor (R) and capacitor (C) connected in parallel are used to represent a model of the soil being tested.

    1.2.5 Relationships can be made between the soil wet density and the magnitude of the complex-impedance, and also between the soil water mass per unit measured, and the quotient of the values of C and R using a Soil Model process.

    1.2.6 The Soil Model process results in mathematical relationships between the physical and electrical characteristics of the soil which are used for soil-specific calibration of the CIMI.

    1.2.7 Refer to Appendix X1 for a more detailed explanation of complex-impedance measurement of in-place soil, and its use in field measurements for the estimation of dry density and water content.

    1.3 Precautions

    1.3.1 The radio frequencies and output power levels of the CIMI method are such that they are harmless according to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

    1.3.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4718/D4718M : 2015 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4253 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 1557 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1556 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1556 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 7382 : 2008 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer (Withdrawn 2017)
    ASTM D 4643 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4253 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 4944 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4253 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4643 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R2001 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1557 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1557 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4944 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 7382 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R1994 : EDT 2 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 1557 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4944 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester Method
    ASTM D 4643 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Microwave Oven Method
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4944 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R2007 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
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