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  • AS/NZS 60479.1:2002

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Effects of current on human beings and livestock General aspects

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  03-10-2002

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 60479.1:2002 EFFECTS OF CURRENT ON HUMAN BEINGS AND LIVESTOCK - GENERAL ASPECTS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    6 - INTRODUCTION
    7 - 1 General
    7 - 1.1 Scope and object
    8 - 1.2 Normative reference
    8 - 1.3 Definitions
    8 - 1.3.1 Electrical impedance of the human body
    8 - 1.3.2 Effects of sinusoidal alternating current in the range 15 Hz to 100 Hz
    9 - 1.3.3 Effects of direct current
    9 - 2 Electrical impedance of the human body
    9 - 2.1 Internal impedance of the human body
    10 - 2.2 Impedance of the skin
    10 - 2.3 Total impedance of the human body
    10 - 2.4 Initial resistance of the human body
    10 - 2.5 Values of the total impedance of the human body
    10 - 2.5.1 Sinusoidal alternating current 50/60 Hz
    11 - 2.5.2 Sinusoidal alternating current with frequencies up to 20 kHz
    12 - 2.5.3 Direct current
    12 - 2.5.4 Effects of current on the skin
    13 - 2.6 Value of the initial resistance of the human body
    13 - 2.7 Dependence of body impedances on the surface area of contact for a.c. 50/60 Hz and for d.c.
    21 - 3 Effects of sinusoidal alternating current in the range of 15 Hz to 100 Hz
    21 - 3.1 Threshold of perception and threshold of reaction
    21 - 3.2 Threshold of let-go
    21 - 3.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation
    21 - 3.4 Other effects of current
    22 - 3.5 Description of the time/current zones (see figure 14)
    23 - 3.6 Application of heart-current factor (F)
    26 - 4 Effects of direct current
    26 - 4.1 Threshold of perception and threshold of reaction
    26 - 4.2 Threshold of let-go
    26 - 4.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation
    26 - 4.4 Other effects of current
    27 - 4.5 Description of the time/current zones (see figure 15)
    29 - Annexes
    29 - Introduction
    30 - Annex A - Measurements made on living and dead human beings and the statistical analysis of the results
    31 - Annex B - Influence of frequency on the total body impedance (Z T )
    32 - Annex C - Total body resistance (RT) for direct current
    33 - Annex D - Measurements of the dependence of the total impedance of the human body (ZT) on the surface area of contact
    34 - Annex E - Bibliography
    36 - Annex ZA - Physiology of electrocution
    36 - ZA1 Electrocution- Description
    36 - ZA2 Electrical activity of excitable cells
    36 - ZA3 Effect of frequency
    36 - ZA4 Effect of electricity on heart muscle cells

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Provides basic guidance on the general aspects of the effects of electrical currents on persons and livestock for the establishment of electrical safety requirements. This Standard has been reproduced from and is technically identical with IEC 60479-1:1994.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    For a given current path through the human body, the danger to persons depends mainly on the magnitude and duration of the current flow. However, the time/current zones specified in the following clauses are, in many cases, not directly applicable in practice for designing protection against electrical shock, the necessary criterion being the admissible limit of touch voltage (i.e. the product of the current through the body and the body impedance) as a function of time. The relationship between current and voltage is not linear because the impedance of the human body varies with the touch voltage, and data on this relationship is therefore required. The different parts of the human body - such as the skin, blood, muscles, other tissues and joints - present to the electric current a certain impedance composed of resistive and capacitive components.The values of these impedances depend on a number of factors and, in particular, on the current path, on the touch voltage, the duration of the current flow, the frequency, the degree of moisture of the skin, the surface area of contact, the pressure exerted and on the temperature.The impedance values indicated in this Technical Report result from a close examination of the experimental results available from measurements carried out principally on corpses and on some living persons.Clause 3 is primarily based on the findings related to the effects of current at frequencies of 50 Hz or 60 Hz which are the most common in electrical installations. The values given are, however, deemed applicable over the frequency range from 15 Hz to 100 Hz, threshold values at the limits of this range being higher than those at 50 Hz or 60 Hz. It is considered principally the risk of ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of fatal accidents in that range of frequencies.Accidents with direct current are much less frequent than would be expected from the number of d.c. applications, and fatal accidents occur only under very unfavourable conditions, for example, in mines. This is partly due to the fact that with direct current, the let-go of parts gripped is less difficult and that for shock durations longer than the period of the cardiac cycle, the threshold of ventricular fibrillation remains considerably higher than for alternating current.The main differences between the effects of a.c. and d.c. on the human body result from the fact that excitatory actions of the current (stimulation of nerves and muscles, induction of cardiac atrial or ventricular fibrillation) are linked to the changes of the current magnitude especially when making and breaking the current. To produce the same excitatory effects the magnitude of direct current flow of constant strength is two to four times greater than that of alternating current.

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    Committee EL-001
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as part of MP 30-1976.Revised and redesignated as AS 3859-1991.Jointly revised and redesignated in part as AS/NZS 60479.1:2002. First published as part of MP 30-1976. Revised and redesignated as AS 3859-1991. Jointly revised and redesignated in part as AS/NZS 60479.1:2002.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 60479.2:2002 Effects of current on human beings and livestock Special aspects

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 3835.2:2006 Earth potential rise - Protection of telecommunications network users, personnel and plant Application guide
    AS 1674.2-2007 Safety in welding and allied processes Electrical (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 3017:2007 Electrical installations - Verification guidelines
    AS 1418.10(INT)-2004 Cranes, hoists and winches Elevating work platforms
    AS/NZS 3000:2007 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
    AS 2067-2008 Substations and high voltage installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
    HB 242-2007 High voltage mining equipment for use underground (Reconfirmed 2019)
    AS 2067:2016 Substations and high voltage installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
    AS 2832.3-2005 Cathodic protection of metals Fixed immersed structures
    AS/NZS 60479.3:2002 Effects of current on human beings and livestock Effects of currents passing through the body of livestock (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2832.4-2006 Cathodic protection of metals Internal surfaces (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3835.1:2006 Earth potential rise - Protection of telecommunications network users, personnel and plant Code of practice
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