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  • AS 1170.4-1993

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  25-06-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1993

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1170.4-1993 MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS ON STRUCTURES - EARTHQUAKE LOADS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    10 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    10 - 1.1 SCOPE
    10 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    10 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    10 - 1.3.1 Acceleration coefficient
    10 - 1.3.2 Base
    11 - 1.3.3 Base shear
    11 - 1.3.4 Bearing wall system
    11 - 1.3.5 Braced frame
    11 - 1.3.6 Building frame system
    11 - 1.3.7 Concentric braced frame
    11 - 1.3.8 Diaphragm
    11 - 1.3.9 Dual system
    11 - 1.3.10 Ductility
    11 - 1.3.11 Drift
    11 - 1.3.12 Earthquake design category
    11 - 1.3.13 Earthquake resisting system
    11 - 1.3.14 Eccentric braced frame
    11 - 1.3.15 Hazardous facility
    11 - 1.3.16 Horizontal bracing system
    11 - 1.3.17 Intermediate moment resisting frame (IMRF)
    11 - 1.3.18 Loadbearing wall
    11 - 1.3.19 Moment resisting frame system
    11 - 1.3.20 Non-loadbearing wall
    11 - 1.3.21 Ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF)
    12 - 1.3.22 Orthogonal effect
    12 - 1.3.23 P-delta effect
    12 - 1.3.24 Shear wall
    12 - 1.3.25 Soft storey
    12 - 1.3.26 Space frame
    12 - 1.3.27 Special moment resisting frame (SMRF)
    12 - 1.3.28 Static eccentricity
    12 - 1.3.29 Storey
    12 - 1.3.30 Storey drift
    12 - 1.3.31 Storey drift ratio
    12 - 1.3.32 Storey height
    12 - 1.3.33 Storey shear
    12 - 1.3.34 Storey strength
    12 - 1.3.35 Structure
    12 - 1.3.36 Structural base
    12 - 1.3.37 Structure classification
    12 - 1.3.38 Vertical load-carrying frame
    12 - 1.3.39 Weak storey
    12 - 1.4 NOTATION
    14 - 1.5 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE LOADS
    14 - 1.6 EARTHQUAKE LOAD COMBINATIONS
    14 - 1.6.1 Limit states design
    14 - 1.6.2 Permissible stress design
    15 - SECTION 2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    15 - 2.1 GENERAL
    15 - 2.2 STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION
    15 - 2.2.1 General
    15 - 2.2.2 Domestic structures
    15 - 2.2.3 General structures
    15 - 2.3 ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT
    25 - 2.4 SITE FACTOR
    26 - 2.5 IMPORTANCE FACTOR
    26 - 2.6 EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORY
    26 - 2.7 REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
    26 - 2.7.1 General
    27 - 2.7.2 General structures of earthquake Design Category
    27 - 2.7.3 General structures of earthquake Design Category B
    27 - 2.7.4 General structures of earthquake Design Category C
    27 - 2.7.5 General structures of earthquake Design Category D
    28 - 2.7.6 General structures of earthquake Design Category E
    28 - 2.8 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF BUILDINGS
    29 - 2.9 CONFIGURATION
    29 - 2.9.1 General
    29 - 2.9.2 Plan configuration
    29 - 2.9.3 Vertical configuration
    30 - 2.10 DEFLECTION AND DRIFT LIMITS
    30 - 2.10.1 Portion of structures
    30 - 2.10.2 Adjacent structures
    31 - SECTION 3 DOMESTIC STRUCTURES
    31 - 3.1 GENERAL
    31 - 3.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORIES
    31 - 3.2.1 Earthquake Design Category H1
    31 - 3.2.2 Earthquake Design Category H2
    31 - 3.2.3 Earthquake Design Category H3
    31 - 3.3 STRUCTURAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR DOMESTIC STRUCTURES
    31 - 3.3.1 General
    31 - 3.3.2 Wall anchorage
    31 - 3.4 STATIC ANALYSIS FOR NON-DUCTILE DOMESTIC STRUCTURES OF EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORY H3
    31 - 3.4.1 Horizontal forces
    31 - 3.4.2 Earthquake base shear
    32 - 3.4.3 Vertical distribution of horizontal earthquake forces
    32 - 3.4.4 Torsional effects
    32 - 3.5 NON-STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
    33 - SECTION 4 STRUCTURAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
    33 - 4.1 GENERAL
    33 - 4.2 STRUCTURAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES OF EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORY A
    33 - 4.2.1 Ductile structures
    33 - 4.2.2 Non-ductile structures
    33 - 4.3 STRUCTURAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES OF EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORY B
    33 - 4.3.1 General
    33 - 4.3.2 Load paths, ties and continuity
    33 - 4.3.3 Wall anchorage
    33 - 4.4 STRUCTURAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES OF EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORIES C, D AND E
    33 - 4.4.1 General
    34 - 4.4.2 Ties and continuity
    34 - 4.4.3 Diaphragms
    34 - 4.4.4 Bearing walls
    34 - 4.4.5 Openings
    34 - 4.4.6 Footing ties
    35 - SECTION 5 REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-STRUCTURA L COMPONENTS
    35 - 5.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    35 - 5.1.1 General
    35 - 5.1.2 Forces on components
    35 - 5.1.3 Interrelationship of components
    35 - 5.1.4 Connections and attachments
    35 - 5.1.5 Earthquake coefficients
    37 - 5.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS
    37 - 5.2.1 Forces
    38 - 5.2.2 Exterior wall panel attachment
    38 - 5.2.3 Component deformation
    38 - 5.2.4 Out-of-plane bending
    38 - 5.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    38 - 5.3.1 Forces
    38 - 5.3.2 Ducts and piping distribution systems
    39 - 5.4 AMPLIFICATION FACTOR
    39 - 5.4.1 Attachment amplification factor
    39 - 5.4.2 Height amplification factor
    40 - SECTION 6 STATIC ANALYSIS
    40 - 6.1 GENERAL
    40 - 6.2 HORIZONTAL FORCES
    40 - 6.2.1 General
    40 - 6.2.2 Earthquake base shear
    40 - 6.2.3 Earthquake design coefficient
    40 - 6.2.4 Structure period
    41 - 6.2.5 Gravity load
    41 - 6.2.6 Structural response factor
    41 - 6.3 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL EARTHQUAKE FORCES
    44 - 6.4 HORIZONTAL SHEAR DISTRIBUTION
    44 - 6.5 TORSIONAL EFFECTS
    44 - 6.5.1 Introduction
    44 - 6.5.2 Static eccentricity
    44 - 6.5.3 Design eccentricities
    46 - 6.5.4 Horizontal torsional moments
    46 - 6.5.5 Design action effects resulting from torsional moments
    46 - 6.6 STABILITY EFFECTS
    46 - 6.7 DRIFT DETERMINATION AND P-DELTA EFFECTS
    46 - 6.7.1 General
    46 - 6.7.2 Storey drift determination
    47 - 6.7.3 P-delta effects
    47 - 6.8 VERTICAL COMPONENT OF GROUND MOTION
    48 - SECTION 7 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
    48 - 7.1 GENERAL
    48 - 7.2 EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS
    49 - 7.3 MATHEMATICAL MODEL
    49 - 7.4 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
    49 - 7.4.1 General
    49 - 7.4.2 Response spectrum analysis
    49 - 7.4.2.1 General
    49 - 7.4.2.2 Number of modes
    49 - 7.4.2.3 Combining modes
    49 - 7.4.2.4 Scaling of results
    49 - 7.4.2.5 Directional effects
    49 - 7.4.2.6 Torsion
    50 - 7.4.3 Time history analysis
    50 - 7.5 STABILITY EFFECTS
    50 - 7.6 DRIFT DETERMINATION AND P-DELTA EFFECTS
    51 - SECTION 8 STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS
    52 - APPENDIX A - STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION
    52 - A1 STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION
    53 - A2 CONFIGURATION
    53 - A2.1 General
    53 - A2.2 Plan configuration
    54 - A2.3 Vertical configuration
    57 - APPENDIX B - STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
    57 - B1 DUCTILITY
    57 - B2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
    58 - APPENDIX C - DOMESTIC STRUCTURES
    58 - C1 GENERAL
    58 - C2 TYPE OF STRUCTURES
    58 - C2.1 Ductile structures
    58 - C2.2 Non-ductile structures
    58 - C3 DETAILING GUIDES
    58 - C3.1 Foundation and subfloor framing
    59 - C3.2 Wall framing
    59 - C3.3 Roof bracing
    59 - C3.4 Tiled roofs
    59 - C3.5 Gable ends and parapets
    60 - APPENDIX D - TYPES OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
    60 - D1 EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS
    60 - D2 RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
    60 - D2.1 General
    60 - D2.2 Number of modes
    61 - D2.3 Combining modes
    61 - D3 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS
    62 - APPENDIX E - STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS
    62 - E1 INTRODUCTION
    62 - E2 DESIGN
    63 - E3 ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out data and procedures for determining minimum earthquake loads on structures and their components, and also minimum detailing requirements for structures. It does not consider related phenomena such as settlement, slides, subsidence, liquefaction or faulting in the immediate vicinity of a structure. It does not include nuclear reactors, dams, transmission towers, bridges, piers and wharves, which may require special consideration. The Standard is in limit states format. New earthquake maps are defined in terms of an acceleration coefficient instead of the zoning system used in the previous Standard AS 2121. Domestic structures are now included.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out data and procedures for determining minimum earthquake loads on structures and their components. It also sets out minimum detailing requirements for structures. It does not consider related phenomena such as settlement, slides, subsidence, liquefaction or faulting in the immediate vicinity of a structure.This Standard is intended to apply to structures, particularly buildings, non-building structures, fixings and non-structural components including building services and architectural elements.Special structures including nuclear reactors, dams, transmission towers, bridges, piers and wharves may require special considerations, and are not covered by this Standard.NOTE: The date of application of this Standard on a mandatory basis is a matter for the relevant regulatory authorities. With the publication of this Standard, AS 2121 - 1979 becomes an available superseded Standard and will be withdrawn following substantial regulatory implementation of this edition, or within two years of publication of this edition, whichever is the earlier.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee BD-006
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as part of AS 2121-1979.Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1170.4-1993. First published as part of AS 2121-1979. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1170.4-1993.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 3700-1988 Masonry in buildings (known as the SAA Masonry Code)
    AS 1726-1993 Geotechnical site investigations
    AS 1170.1-1981 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Dead and live loads
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS 1720.1-1988 Timber structures (known as the SAA Timber Structures Code) - Design methods
    AS 3600-1994 Concrete structures

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    AS 3892-2001 Pressure equipment - Installation (Reconfirmed 2016)
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    AS 4425-1996 Above ground burial structures
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    AS 2021-2000 Acoustics - Aircraft noise intrusion - Building siting and construction
    AS 3600-1994 Concrete structures
    AS/NZS 1664.2:1997 Aluminium structures Allowable stress design (Reconfirmed 2020)
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    AS 2885.1-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
    AS 1894-1997 The storage and handling of non-flammable cryogenic and refrigerated liquids (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS 1228-2006 Pressure equipment - Boilers
    HB 49.1-1993 Sporting Facilities Manual Sports lighting
    AS 3700-1998 Masonry structures
    AS 1684.2-2006 Residential timber-framed construction Non-cyclonic areas (SEE IMPORTANT NOTE)
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    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
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    AS/NZS 1418.9:1996 Cranes (including hoists and winches) Vehicle hoists
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    AS 3774-1996 Loads on bulk solids containers
    AS 1288-2006 Glass in buildings - Selection and installation
    AS 1210-1997 Pressure vessels
    AS/NZS 4505:1998 Domestic garage doors
    AS 3785.5-1998 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Headframes
    AS 5100.2-2004 Bridge design - Design loads
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    AS 4440-2004 Installation of nailplated timber roof trusses
    AS/NZS 2785:2000 Suspended ceilings - Design and installation
    AS 1684.3-2006 Residential timber-framed construction Cyclonic areas
    AS/NZS 4452:1997 The storage and handling of toxic substances
    AS 2327.1-1996 Composite structures - Simply supported beams
    AS 1684.4-2006 Residential timber-framed construction - Simplified - Non-cyclonic areas (SEE IMPORTANT NOTE)
    AS/NZS 1664.1:1997 Aluminium structures Limit state design (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 2187.1-1998 Explosives - Storage, transport and use Storage
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